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IHRM: Cross Cultural Gender Issues IBUS618

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IHRM: Cross Cultural Gender Issues IBUS618 By Felix Castuera Greta Van Everen Fan Yang Suguru Nakamura Omar Brodrick Focus Areas Felix- Women Expatriates vs ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: IHRM: Cross Cultural Gender Issues IBUS618


1
IHRM Cross Cultural Gender
Issues IBUS618
  • By
  • Felix Castuera
  • Greta Van Everen
  • Fan Yang
  • Suguru Nakamura
  • Omar Brodrick

2
Focus Areas
  • Felix- Women Expatriates vs.
    Men Expatriates
  • Greta- The Netherlands
  • Fan Yang and
    Suguru Nakamura- Japan
  • Omar- Women Expatriates
    A Roadmap to Success

3
Advantages of Women Expatriates
  • Accustomed to operating in a system in which the
    majority of power is held by men
  • Personal characters that enabled them to function
    in an unfamiliar environment
  • Open minded, outgoing, flexible and adaptable,
    positive outlook on life, consensus-building,
    relationship orientation, and greater sensitivity
    to non verbal cues

4
Demographic Characteristics of Women
Expatriates Source International Journal of
Human Resource Management
5
Position, Industry Characteristics, and Problems
Encountered by Women Expatriate Source
International Journal of Human Resource
6
Stereotypes of Woman Expatriates Source
Runzheimer Intl Report
  • Overseas local males will treat females very much
    like they treat local females?
  • Local males do not mentally classify a foreign
    woman in the same way as they classify local
    women
  • Expatriate professional females have an advantage
    in being at first outside the local normal
    classification system
  • Newly arrived female expatriates looks, acts, and
    think in unique ways, thus, local male co-workers
    cant or wont fit her into their usual mental
    classification of local female co-workers

7
Continue
  • So, woman expatriate is free to build a unique
    classification for herself in the mind of local
    people
  • Local male co-workers might create performance
    barriers for the female expatriates?
  • Many women who encounter significant barriers are
    more likely to complain about their fellow
    expatriate male co-workers
  • American men erect the highest barriers because
    of their mentality remains grounded in the U.S.

8
Advantages of American Female Expatriates
  • Accustomed to operating in male dominated
    environment
  • Learned to attain their goals through
  • Influence
  • Collaboration
  • Sensitivity to the points of view of others

9
Liabilities for American Woman Expatriates
  • Being Single
  • both local people and fellow expatriates often
    dont know how to comfortably fit a single person
    into their social lives especially women
  • Being Young
  • Tradition and wisdom associated with age is more
    valued in non-western cultures
  • American companies have the tendency to send
    young managers abroad
  • It makes other cultures uncomfortable and
    resistant
  • Expect seniority in rank is closely linked to
    with seniority in age
  • Being Americans
  • U.S. business culture
  • Task orientation, time oriented, competitiveness,
    and directness

10
Tips for Women Expatriates
  • Go for it
  • Be assertive, persistent, proactive
  • Ask for what you need and want
  • Find a female mentor
  • Use your resources
  • Negotiate carefully before accepting anything
  • Assess the workload before hand
  • Do your own research
  • Learn the local language
  • Be yourself and
  • Enjoy!

11
JAPAN ??
  • Suguru Nakamura
  • Fan Yang

12
Geography
  • Location Eastern Asia, island chain between the
    North Pacific Ocean and the Sea of Japan, east of
    the Korean Peninsula
  • Main islands Honshu, Hokkaido, Kyushu, and
    Shikoku.
  • Capital Tokyo

(http//www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/geos
/ja.html)
13
Government
  • Type Constitutional monarchy with parliamentary
    government
  • Prime minister Junichiro Koizumi since 2001
  • Legal system modeled after European civil law
    system with English-American influence

(http//www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/geos
/ja.html)
14
People
  • Total population
  • 127,417,244
  • Age structure
  • 0-4 years 14.3
  • 15-64 years 66.7
  • 65 years and over 19
  • Major religion
  • Shinto and Buddhist 84
  • Other 16
  • Ethnic group
  • Japanese 99
  • Other 1

(http//www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/geos
/ja.html)
15
Economy
  • Monetary unit Yen
  • GDP 3.582 trillion
  • GDP real growth rate is 2.7
  • Unemployment rate 5.3
  • labor force 66.66 million people
  • (occupation agriculture 5, industry 25, and
    services 70)

(http//www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/geos
/ja.html)
16
Social Background
  • High Masculinity Society
  • full-time housewife increases household
    stability.
  • Aging Society
  • 25 of population are over 60
  • Traditionally, female are expected
  • to be responsible for children and elders.

(Kimoto, K. Labor Conditions for Women in
Contemporary Japan)
17
Working conditions
  • Average monthly salaries 300,000 to 500,000 JPY
    (2,560 to 4,270 USD)
  • Japan also has a bonus system, which is a major
    part of the salary structure.
  • Japanese companies are required to register all
    employees on a group medical plan with the
    Japanese health care system.

18
Female Economic Condition
  • Labor force participation Rate
  • Japan - 46
  • U.S. - 60
  • U.K. - 55
  • 40.2 are part-time employees
  • Female earnings is only 64.9 of males
  • Below the standards of developed nations

19
Female Labor Force Population Ratio
20
Corporate Background
  • Two Careers Tracks
  • Employment Duration Differences

21
Labor Force Participation Rate
  • Percentage of working-age
  • population
  • employed (15 years or over)

(ILO Key Indicators of the Labor Market 2003)
22
Corporate Background
Managerial Track
Wage Increase
Lifetime Employment
Promotions
Male
23
Corporate Background
Assistant
Clerical Works
Expected to Leave before 30
No Promotion
Female
24
of Female Manager
25
Regulation Background
  • Ineffective EEOL (1985)
  • Promoted equality, yet did not forbid
    discrimination.
  • Tax Deduction
  • Income Tax Residential Tax deduction, if
    spouses salary is limited.

26
Part-Time Workers
  • Part-time employment as a percent of
    total employment

(ILO Key Indicators of the Labor Market 2003)
27
of Female Part-time Employment by nation
UN Statistics Division. http//unstats.un.org/unsd
/default.htm
28
Changing Situation
  • Reduction in life time employment
  • Increasing job mobility.
  • EEOL Amendment in 1997
  • Aggressively Prohibit gender discrimination.
  • Decreasing Full-time housewife population
  • Full-time housewife is now minority.

29
Female Labor Force Population Ratio
30
The Netherlands
  • Greta Van Everen

31
The Netherlands General Overview
  • Capital Amsterdam
  • Government type constitutional monarchy
  • PM Jan Peter Balkenende
  • Queen Beatrix
  • Language Dutch, Frisian
  • Currency EURO
  • 1 1.28
  • Population 16,318,199
  • (July 2004 est.)

http//www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/geos/
nl.html http//www.koninklijkhuis.nl/UK/royal_hou
se/members.html?koningin.html
32
Population Characteristics
  • Amsterdam (735,328), Capital
  • Rotterdam (593,321), the leading seaport
  • The Hague (440,900), the seat of government
  • Utrecht (234,323), a transport and services hub.

Encarta http//encarta.msn.com/text_761572410___0
/Netherlands.html
33
Labor Force
  • 7.5 million employed workers
  • 73 percent work in trade and services
  • 21 percent are employed in industry, including
    manufacturing and mining
  • and 3 percent work in agriculture, forestry, and
    fishing1.
  • Total percentage of women in the workforce is
    442.
  • Approximately one-third of Dutch workers belong
    to labor organizations.

1 Encarta http//encarta.msn.com/text_761572410__
_0/Netherlands.html 2 UN Statistics Division.
http//unstats.un.org/unsd/default.htm
34
Working in the Netherlands Salaries and Vacations
  • The Average salary is from 25,000 to 30,000.
  • Salaries are usually paid at the end of each
    month.
  • Twice a year employees will receive an extra
    payment
  • The Average employee is entitled to 20 days of
    paid vacation per year.
  • European Foundation for the Improvement of Living
    and Working Conditions

35
Industrial Relations Climate
  • Treated in Collective Agreements which cover
    around 75 of workforce
  • Childcare Arrangements
  • No very well developed yet
  • Parental Leave
  • Provision to switch to part-time
  • Paid Maternity Leave 16 weeks (4-6 to be taken
    prior to the delivery)
  • Sexual Harassment
  • Consist of complaints procedures and prevention
    policies
  • Legal protection from discrimination
  • European Foundation for the Improvement of Living
    and Working Conditions
  • Federation of European Employershttp//www.fedee.
    com/condits.htmlThe20Netherlands

36
Doing Business in the Netherlands Cultural
Aspects
  • Achievement Society/Egalitarian Society
  • Status and respect are gained through education
    and personal skills
  • Consensus
  • Decision-making process are complex everybody
    needs to be heard (meeting are held for hours)
  • Directness
  • Politeness is considered a waste of time, as
    unpleasant messages may be hidden
  • Power Distance Specific Culture
  • Professional and private lives are strictly
    separate. Clear separation between public and
    private lives.
  • Intercultural Communication
  • Comparative Management

37
Index Scores PDI38, IDV80, MAS14, UAI53,
LTO44
Hofstedes Dimension
  • This relatively low MAS Index value may be
    indicative of a low level of differentiation and
    discrimination between genders.
  • In this culture, females are treated more
    equally to males in all aspects of society. This
    low Masculinity ranking may also be displayed as
    a more openly nurturing society

Data Obtained (http//www.geert-hofstede.com/hofs
tede_netherlands.shtml)
38
Question for the Audience?
  • Based on what we have seen so far, do you think
    that the gender pay gap in the Netherlands is
    lower than the average in the rest of the E.U.?

39
The Gender Pay Gap in Europe
Commission of the European Communities (2005).
40
The Netherlands A Dominant Male Corporate
Culture
  • 70 of Dutch Women work Part-time1
  • Number of Women on Dutch Boards 72
  • 60 of which are foreigners, primarily from UK or
    USA.
  • Less than 5 of Professors in Dutch Academic
    Institutions are women2.
  • 1 Gunn, Natasha. Where do all women go?
  • 2 van der Boon Mary. Glass Ceiling in the
    Netherlands.

41
Key Barriers to Women on Domestic Labor Market
  • Dutch culture feels that parents should take care
    of their children1.
  • Mothers typically choose to stay home or to work
    part time2
  • Even when children are older Dutch women would
    rather take painting lessons3
  • 1 Sloan Work and Family Research Network.
  • 2 Sloan Work and Family Research Network.
  • 3 van Der Boon Mary . Glass ceiling in the
    Netherlands.

42
Share of part-time employees among women and men
employees, in EU Member States - 2004
Commission of the European Communities (2005).
43
Key Barriers to Women on International Assignments
  • Lack of experience in managerial positions.
  • Assumption that women do not want to be
    International Managers
  • Refusal of some companies to send women abroad
  • Belief that foreigners prejudices might have a
    negative impact on women performance.
  • Van Der Boon Forget the Myths

44
Current Issues for Dutch Expatriates
  • The vast majority of Dutch Expatriates are men.
  • The majority of trailing spouses are women
  • 50 of which have a career in the home country.
  • It is hard for these women to obtain working
    permit in host countries
  • The Permits Foundation based in the Hauge is
    currently lobbying to make it easier for women to
    obtain these permits.

Hamm Jennifer. Expatica
45
KIT Intercultural Communication
  • Provides Consultancy services that helps
    expatriates to work effectively in an
    international context.
  • Clients Management and Senior Staff Members of
    Public and Private organizations.
  • ING Bank NV
  • KLM
  • Philips
  • Shell
  • Unilever
  • http//www.kit.nl/frameset.asp?/about_kit/default.
    aspfrnr1

46
KIT Training Programs
  • Group Target We inform and coach anyone who is
    going to work abroad, long term or short term
  • businessmen/women
  • expatriates in general
  • their partners and children.
  • Objective
  • Participants get to know culture and
    communication patterns of new country.
  • Focuses on cultural differences between home
    country and host country
  • Methods
  • awareness of one's own intercultural
    competencies
  • interactive training modules in how to do
    business in the new culture
  • workshops and lectures on the political and
    economical background of the new culture
  • workshops on norms and values in day to day life
  • partner workshops and partner career workshops
  • re-entry workshops.
  • http//www.kit.nl/frameset.asp?/about_kit/default.
    aspfrnr1

47
Women Expatriates A Roadmap to Success
Omar Brodrick
48
A Road Less Traveled
  • Expatriate selection from middle to senior
    management
  • Generally male, middle-aged, and married with
    children
  • Women equal only a small proportion
  • Women are under-represented in expatriate
    positions
  • 3 in 1980s
  • 5 in 1990s
  • 15 in 2000
  • (Women in Management Review, 2004)

49
A Road Less Traveled
  • Japan- 5 1
  • Europe- 161
  • Netherlands
  • US- 132

1Cendent International Assignment Survey,
2001 2Catalyst Women in Business Study, 2000
50
Global market requires MNCs to Optimize Talent
Pool
  • Women equal near 50 of total world population
  • Number of skilled, educated workers declining as
    demand increases
  • Particularly in Developed countries
  • Need to recruit and retain the most qualified
    managers to effectively compete on a global scale
  • Can no longer limit or exclude talent pool based
    on gender or other personal characteristics
  • (Sloan Management
    Review, 1992)

51
Roadblocks for Women Expatriates
  • Unfavorable bias in selection process
  • Unfair belief that host countries cultural norms
    will restrict women
  • Headquarters hold women to lower expectations in
    overseas assignments

(Woman in Management Review, 2002)
52
Bias in Selection Process
  • Men make most selection decisions (US)
  • Hold traditional views and stereotypes towards
    women in leadership roles 3
  • Women do not fit the criteria for effective
    international managers (European)
  • Emphasis on interpersonal, co-operative, and
    intuitive styles of management 4
  • Influence of other critical selection systems
  • Use of closed/informal system seen to create
    gender bias in recruitment 4

3International Journal of Management,
1999 4Thunderbird International Business Review,
2002
53
MNCs Must Develop Selection Process
  • Study and Conduct Research on Women (US)
  • Substantial facts over stereotypes and myths 5
  • Women more conceptual fit for model- ???binding
    the roots of the trees
  • Convert to open/formal systems (European)
  • Consistency in expatriate selection with formal
    criteria to reduce discrimination of women 4

5Journal on Managerial Psychology,
2003 4Thunderbird International Business Review,
2002
54
Cultural Norms will Restrict Women
  • Women not Internationally mobile(US)
  • Clients outside the US are more comfortable
    working with men 6
  • Female expatriates face prejudice from foreigners
    4
  • Excluded from business interactions and minimal
    participation

6American Compensation Association,
2001 4Thunderbird International Business Review,
2002
55
MNCs Must Develop a Geocentric Mindset
  • Based on gender, career,and cultureas a
    framework (US/Netherlands in Asia)
  • Over time career emerges and leads to a
    re-composition of perception 6
  • Viewed as foreigners , not just women (US in
    Japan)
  • Not subject to same cultural constraints as local
    women 7

6Leadership and Organization Development Model,
2003 7International Studies of Management and
Organization, 1994
56
Lower Expectations in Overseas Assignments
  • Biggest obstacle faced is home country managers
    (US)
  • Low performance expectation held by headquarters
    8
  • World of business dominated by men
  • Skeptical on success 9
  • Implicit prejudice through all stages of
    expatriation 9

8The Journal of World Business, 2000 9The Journal
of Management Development, 1994
57
MNCs Must Develop Support Mechanisms
  • Give female expatriate every opportunity to
    succeed
  • Accord full status at outset, not temporary or
    experimental
  • 97 from survey reported success in expatriation
    experience (US/Europe in Asia)
  • Recognize differences and begin steps towards
    equity

(The Journal of Management Development, 1994)
58
An IHRM Roadmap to Success for Women Expatriates
  • Develop Expatriate Selection process
  • Develop a Geocentric Mindset
  • Develop Support Mechanisms

59
any questions? ?????????
zijn er vragen?
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