Gender Related Issues in the US: Exploring Gender equality and equity in the Teaching and Learning of Mathematics and Science - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Gender Related Issues in the US: Exploring Gender equality and equity in the Teaching and Learning of Mathematics and Science

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Gender Related Issues in the US: Exploring Gender equality and equity in the Teaching and Learning of Mathematics and Science By Professor Irene Osisioma – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Gender Related Issues in the US: Exploring Gender equality and equity in the Teaching and Learning of Mathematics and Science


1
Gender Related Issues in the US Exploring Gender
equality and equity in the Teaching and Learning
of Mathematics and Science
  • By
  • Professor Irene Osisioma
  • iosisioma_at_csudh.edu

2
The objectives
  • To Explore gender related issues in teaching,
    learning, research and ICT in the US.
  • To present evidence of existence of gender
    inequity in the US
  • To determine what is responsible for gender
    inequality and inequity
  • To determine where females stand in terms of
    mathematics and science
  • To find out what the US has done so far to reduce
    or perpetuate gender inequality and inequity
  • Explore the situation in African countries
  • To highlight lessons for UEMOA

3
The premise
  • There can be no sustainable development as long
    as discrimination of one of the two sexes/genders
    exists. The injustice created by inequalities
    based on gender/sex discrimination threatens in
    the long run not only the discriminated gender
    but the entire society.
  • -UNESCO-Beijin, 1995
  • In order to ensure sustainable development, it
    has become imperative to recognize the importance
    of the two sexes (male and female) as
    complementary biological entities and moreover,
    to respectful equity and equality of each of the
    two genders, i.e., of the social roles that men
    and women assume in their lives.
  • All citizens should have equal opportunity to
    participate in the development of their nations
    economy. STEM is the tool for developing and
    sustaining every nations economy

4
GENDER EQUALITY AND EQUITY DEFINED
  • Gender equality implies equality between men
    and women based on the concept that all human
    beings, both men and women, are free to develop
    their personal abilities and make choices without
    the limitations set by stereotypes, rigid gender
    roles and prejudices.
  • Gender equity means fairness of treatment for
    women and men, according to their respective
    needs. This may include equal treatment or
    treatment that is different but which is
    considered equivalent in terms of rights,
    benefits, obligations and opportunities.

5
Gender related ISSUES IN THE US
  • Even though gender gap has narrowed considerably,
    the plague is still in existence in America. The
    gender related issues in the US include
  • Gender bias in student/teacher interactions
  • The participation and achievement of girls in
    mathematics and science
  • Students enrolling in and completing vocational
    education courses historically non-traditional to
    their gender
  • Gender bias in standardized tests
  • Gender differences in learning styles
  • Teen pregnancy and parenting
  • Sexual harassment of students by their peers and
  • Gender differences in academic achievement.

6
EVIDENCE OF GENDER INEQUITY
  • Male students are known to receive greater
    attention from their teachers by way of
    acceptance, praise, criticism, and remediation
    than do their female
  • Student-teacher interactions in science and Math
    classes are biased toward males.
  • Males are more likely to be assigned to high
    ability groups in group activities and are asked
    more higher order questions than do females
  • Women constitute half of the United States
    workforce, but only twenty six percent of the
    science and engineering workforce
  • On average, females get better grades than males
    at all levels of schooling but score lower than
    males on Math and science standardized tests
    administered to 11th and 12th graders
  • Significant differences in learning style
    preferences between males and female.

7
Situation in the us
  • Marked difference in academic achievement between
    males and females of all ages in the United
    States of America.
  • Achievement gap increases with age for students
    going through to post-secondary education and has
    occurred for over 50 years.
  • Little or no differences at younger age, gap
    continues to widen with age
  • In the 1970s and 1980s, data showed that female
    students were trailing behind males in a variety
    of academic performance measures, specifically in
    math and science.
  • In the last twenty years, female students have
    been shown to outperform male students
  • that females are receiving higher grades in the
    classroom.

8
Situation in the us
  • US Department of Education report
  • National Reading Assessment
  • 2004 Slight difference in 4th grade, but at 12th
    grade males fell 14 points behind females
  • 2008 females continued to have higher average
    reading scores than male students at all ages and
    the gap between male and female was 7 points for
    4th graders and 11-points for 12th graders,
  • National Assessment of Writing Skills
  • females scored on the average 17 points higher
    than males in 4th grade. The average gap
    increased to 21 points by 8th grade and widened
    to 24 points by senior year in high school

9
Situation in the us
  • In 2007 female students continued to score higher
    than male students, though margins closed
    slightly from previous assessments.
  • The average score for female 8th-graders was 20
    points higher than males, who went down 1 point
    from the 2002 score.
  • For 12th-graders, females outscored males by 18
    points as opposed to 21 points in 2002
  • National Report Card Transcript Study
  • Females have higher Grade Point Average (GPA)
    than males since 1990.
  • In 2005, the average GPA of a high school female
    was 3.09, while that of a male was 2.86
  • This gap has widened since 1990. Female graduates
    have higher GPAs than males in every core
    subject.

10
Situation in the us
  • Mathematics and Science
  • Females have been reported to typically have
    better grades in mathematics classes, but tend to
    score lower on standardized mathematics tests
  • NAEP report shows that these differences are
    non-existent at young ages (i.e. elementary
    school), but increase greatly with age
  • These differences doubled in favour of males for
    9-year olds to 17-year olds
  • SAT and AP Males do better in the mathematics
    and science portion of SAT with scores ranging
    from 33 points in biology to 59 points in physics
    and the AP calculus examinations
  • More females participate in AP science and
    mathematics courses yet are not performing as
    well.

11
Situation in the us
  • Female students are more likely to take less of
    mathematics and science courses required for
    college,
  • While males are more likely to take advanced
    courses beyond the basic requirements.
  • Females express more negative attitudes toward
    both mathematics and science than do males.
  • The average proficiency for males in science was
    10.2 points higher than those for females at age
    17.
  • In mathematics, the average proficiency for males
    was 3.4 points higher than those for females at
    the same age.

12
Situation in the us
  • In 1991 AP Exams, males reported higher mean
    scores than females in mathematics/calculus AB
    and BC, biology, chemistry, physics, and computer
    science
  • For College Board Achievement tests, males
    consistently average higher scores in all
    mathematics and science related subject areas,
    and typically score four percent higher than
    females on calculus and 6 percent higher on
    science
  • In 2006 Scholastic Aptitude Test for new freshmen
    male students outperformed females by 41 points
    on the mathematics section and by 6.7 points on
    the verbal section respectively, a consistent
    pattern over the last 20 years.

13
The situation in africa
  • Dearth of disaggregated data for gender related
    issues in almost all higher education
    institutions in Africa
  • When these reports abound, they are usually on
    issues not related to academic achievement.
  • Evidence of large gender disparities between
    females and males in higher education
    institutions.
  • Schools have yet to become major engines of
    gender transformation in these nations.
  • Sexual violence in schools is endemic and that,
    females were being attacked by their teachers,
    peers, and family members
  • Sexual harassment of females by males is regarded
    as part of growing up

14
The situation in africa
15
Gender Equitable Educational Practices
  • Enactment of Title IX of The Education
    Amendment(gender equity policy)
  • Institutional Strategies
  • Making resources available to schools, teachers
    and students
  • Providing regular professional development
    training for teachers
  • Providing necessary support for administrators
    and teachers
  • Classroom Strategies
  • Using strategies and language that discourage
    bias
  • Planning and implementing research-based
    effective gender-inclusive instructional
    strategies
  • Planning gender inclusive curriculum
  • Creating a culture of discussion and interaction
    in the classroom

16
Gender Equitable Educational Practices
  • Encouraging students to be involved in
    decision-making
  • Encouraging students engagement in
    extracurricular activities
  • Using experiential strategies in the classroom
  • Using learning materials equitably
  • Engaging parents in their childrens education
  • Getting unobtrusively involved in students
    personal lives
  • Using strategies that discourage stereotyping
  • Increasing female students participation through
    technology integration.
  • Intentionally discussing the issues of equity in
    class from time to time

17
Institute of Education Sciences practice guide
for teachers
  • Academic abilities are expandable and improvable.
  • Provide prescriptive, informational feedback
  • Expose girls to female role models who have
    succeeded in mathematics and science.
  • Create a classroom environment that sparks
    initial curiosity and fosters long-term interest
    in mathematics and science.
  • Provide spatial skills training.
  • Increase the self-Esteem of females and promote
    their development of positive attitude.

18
Lessons for uemoa and other African nations
  • Policy, School and Classroom Practice, and
    Support
  • Enacting policies that will promote gender equity
    and equality across all levels of schooling
  • Plan gender inclusive curricula
  • Teachers should use gender inclusive,
    research-based pedagogical strategies
  • Measuring and monitoring student achievement
    especially in mathematics and science subjects
  • Offering after-school programmes that assist
    females to improve their performance

19
Lessons for uemoa and other African nations
  • Developing extra coaching and mentoring programs
    for female students in mathematics and science
  • Providing teachers with resources and training to
    strengthen gender-inclusive curricula
  • Increasing resources that support technology
    transfer, e.g. computers and internet access
  • Form alliances/partnerships with elementary and
    secondary education stakeholders to begin to
    address gender inequity issues.

20
Lessons for uemoa and other African nations
  • Improving school security to disallow potential
    sexual harassment and abuse
  • Designing out-of-school activities in safe
    environments to promote mathematics and science
    education and
  • Mainstreaming the school curriculum in such a way
    that gender equality and equity are upheld, while
    access to mathematics and science education for
    females are sustained.
  • Teacher Education and Professional Development
  • Teacher training institutions should train
    teachers and administrators on gender inclusive
    pedagogical practices including curricula
    implementation
  • On going professional development should be
    mandated for teachers

21
Lessons for uemoa and other African nations
  • Further Research
  • Preponderance of USA based gender research
  • Dearth of African-based gender research
    especially on teaching and learning of math,
    science and ICT
  • There is an urgent need for gender-based research
    especially in the teaching and learning of math,
    science and ICT at all levels of education.

22
  • THANK YOU
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