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Leading from within education by legitimating students’ voices


Leading from within education by legitimating students voices Russell Bishop Mere Berryman Lani Teddy Tom Cavanagh Te Kotahitanga Research Project – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Leading from within education by legitimating students’ voices

Leading from within education by legitimating
students voices
  • Russell Bishop
  • Mere Berryman
  • Lani Teddy
  • Tom Cavanagh
  • Te Kotahitanga Research Project
  • University of Waikato/Poutama Pounamu
  • Research Centre
  • 10-11 October 2007

Te Kotahitanga
  • Creating a culturally responsive pedagogy of
    relations by
  • Listening to the voices of indigenous children
    talking about their education
  • Implementing a professional development
    initiative to incorporate a culturally responsive
    pedagogy of relations in classrooms
  • Using research outcomes to legitimate the voices
    of these Maori students

Our project partnership
  • Maori Education Research, School of Education,
    University of Waikato,
  • Poutama Pounamu Research and Development Centre,
    Group Special Education, Ministry of Education,
  • The Te Kotahitanga schools and their communities.

This project is funded and supported by
  • Ministry of Education
  • The students, parents, teachers and principals of
    the Te Kotahitanga schools
  • School Support Services
  • Resource Teachers of Learning and Behaviour
  • CWA New Media Ltd
  • Nga Pae o Te Maramatanga

  • A major problem that faces us as educators today
    is the continuing disparities of outcome
    throughout our education system.

Overall Performance - New Zealands High
Average and Large Variance
Source OECD (2001) Knowledge and skills for
life, Appendix B1, Table 2.3a, p.253, Table 2.4,
  • Those countries with high quality and high equity
    tend to be monocultural.
  • Those countries with high quality systems but
    with low equity outcomes have significant
    cultural minorities .
  • The problem of achieving equity in our system is
    far greater than our achieving excellence.
  • What does this look like for Maori?

School leavers 2005
School leavers highest attainment
Exemptions of 15 year olds (2005)
Stand-down rates 2005
Suspension rates 2005
  • We also know that Maori students in mainstream
    classrooms receive less attention and feedback
    than do others.
  • We know that they receive more negative feedback
    than others and are punished at a greater rate.
  • Maori students are often set behavioural goals
    rather then learning goals, thus being left out
    of the conversation that is learning.

Maori students in our schools
  • 21.4 of all students in the compulsory sector
    are Maori
  • - 85 are in English medium
  • - 14 are in Maori medium.
  • 17 of Maori school-leavers enrol in tertiary
  • Maori students are being taught by a teacher
    population that is 90 non-Maori.

Creating a Culturally Responsive Pedagogy of

Kaupapa Maori Theory
  • To inform our practice, we drew from Kaupapa
    Maori Theory (G. Smith, 1997 L. Smith, 1999)
  • and experiences in Kura Kaupapa Maori (G. Smith
    1992, 1997).

Fundamental to Kura Kaupapa Maori
  • Rangatiratanga Self determination
  • Taonga Tuku iho Cultural aspirations
  • Ako Reciprocal learning
  • Kia piki ake Mediation of home and
  • Whanau Extended family relations
  • Kaupapa A common vision or philosophy

Listening to the Voices of Indigenous Children
Talking About Their Education
The Narratives of Experience
  • Students
  • Whanau
  • Principals
  • Teachers

(Schooling outside the classroom)
(Within the classroom)
(Outside the school)
What the narratives said
  • Discourses Explaining Maori Achievement
    Students, Whanau, Principals and Teachers

Deficit theorising
Agentic agent of change
The Ideal Teacher
  • Help me get my work right. Mark it regularly
    with us.
  • Let us have some say in how we do things in the
  • We like stickers in our books.
  • Dont tell us were dumb, and dont know how to
    do this, or do that. Use different ways to help
    us understand if we seem dumb.
  • Appreciate our ideas.
  • Make sure that everyone gets to know how to do
    the lesson, instead of just writing it there and
    making them learn it themselves.
  • Explain it in a way that we understand.
  • Make allowances for slow and fast workers without
    making them feel stink or punishing them by
    giving extra work because they are fast.

The Ideal Teacher
  • Dont yell at kids.
  • Dont start thinking about what you are going to
    teach us when we walk in the room. Get prepared.
  • Have a smile on your face. Look pleased to see
    us. Treat us respectfully. Look like you want
    to be here. Say hi to us as we come in.
  • Have a joke with us. Dont bawl us out. If you
    dont like something were doing, tell us
  • Talk to us about where we sit. Give us a chance
    to sit with our mates. If we muck up then warn
    us, and if we are too thick to listen then move
  • Dont have us writing all the time and being
    quiet. Let us talk quietly to each other about
    what were doing. We know we have to be quiet
    sometimes like tests.
  • Dont put us in classes from dumbest to
    brainiest. Brainiest classes get the best
    teachers, ones that will help students. Be more
    fair so everyone gets teachers of all kinds
  • Dont tell us off when we come back after tangi
    or Waitangi day late. Respect the cultural things
    of the students. Dont make us ashamed to be

The Effective Teaching Profile
  • Culturally appropriate and responsive teachers
    demonstrate the following understandings
  • They positively reject deficit theorising
  • They are committed to and know how to bring about
    change in educational achievement
  • in the following observable ways

  • Manaakitanga they care for Maori students as
    culturally- located human beings
  • Mana Motuhake they care for the performance of
    Maori students
  • Whakapiringatanga they create a secure,
    well-managed learning environment
  • Wananga they can engage in effective teaching
  • Ako they can use strategies to promote change
  • Kotahitanga they promote and monitor outcomes

Implementing a Professional Development
Initiative to Incorporate a Culturally Responsive
Pedagogy of Relations in Classrooms
  • The research base of Te Kotahitanga identifies
    interactions within the classroom as a powerful
    factor in Maori student achievement in the
  • The professional development intervention focuses
    on classroom interactions and teacher/ student

Hui whakarewa
Goal To improve Maori students educational
Experiences of Maori students in education must
be examined and inform this process
Positioning of teachers, from deficit to agentic
discourses is critical
Relationships that exist in classrooms need to be
examined and may well need to change
Interactions Current ways of interacting in
classrooms may also need to change
Strategies that are conducive to different ways
of interacting must be introduced
Plan We need to plan for all this to happen
New strategies can be introduced
Which develops new interactions
Which develops new relationships a pedagogy of
Which continues to challenge teachers deficit
positioning and promote more agentic positioning
Which creates new experiences for Maori students
of being affirmed, valued and academically
Cycle of in-class observations, feedback,
co-construction meetings and shadow-coaching
Individual feedback meeting
In-class observation
  • In-school Professional Development cycle

Group co-construction meeting
Using Research Outcomes to legitimate the Voices
of These Maori Students
What does this look sound like to Maori
Hes not a good teacher Hes not exciting Hes
boring, just the way he teaches us is boring
Oh, shes always nice to us with our marks and
our reports, she says Im going to be strict this
report. Get our reports Excellence, Excellence,
Excellence. So do you think youve earned that
excellence? I think Id get a Non Achieved and
shes given me a Merit, its like, I didnt
deserve this.
Who said he is a good teacher? Hes just good at
teaching. Yeah he is all about teaching and not
about actually connecting with the students.

Shes dedicated to what we do in our class I
think its just her passion, that she likes
seeing kids achieving instead of failing Feels
cool, that weve got someone whos gonna help us
get through school.
The importance of relationships
  • Theres nothing bad to say about him. I think if
    he wasnt one of my teachers I dont think I
    would want to go to school. (School 9 Group 1,
  • We need a teacher that we get along with cause we
    dont learn anything if we dont get along with
    the teacher (School 7 Group 1, 2005)
  • The relationship, because we connect. (School 1
    Group 2, 2004)
  • He cares about us and our learning (School 5
    Group 2, 2004)
  • Yeah she learnt to know us well, she found out
    how we learnt and how we are. (School 10 Group
    3, 2005)

  • Yeah its like whanaungatanga, we know each other
    better, we help one another. Were just, it feels
    like a real family. Yeah were like brothers and
    sisters. Everybody looking after everybody.
    (School 10 Group 3, 2004)

Mana motuhake
Nga whakapiringatanga
Manaakitanga-care for the student
  • She wont call us dumb, shell say you guys can
    do it, I believe in you, the rest just call us
    dumb, yeah, youre not a very bright class but
    we can do this. Miss is like, youre the
    brightest class. (School 3 Group 3, 2005)

Mana Motuhake- care for performance
  • She thinks that we must be that brainy that we
    can do 5th form work. She pushes us. I think
    she believes in us. (School 2 Group 3, 2005)

Nga whakapiringatanga- secure, well managed
  • She says to treat people with consideration. That
    is our rule in our class. And we are not allowed
    to use foul language. Yeah like swearing and
    stuff. (School 6 Group 2, 2004)

Wananga- interactions
  • She treats us all the same. Just the way she
    talks. Shes not racist. She says like kia ora,
    koutou katoa. And she says yeah, Im from the
    Nga Puhi tribe. Shes really positive towards
    Maori students. But she treats us all the same.
    Shes not, I like you but I dont like you. If
    were doing something naughty, her warning is
    like, this look. (School 3 Group 3, 2005)

Ako - strategies
  • But what she does is she puts us all in groups
    and we help them out, she teaches us to teach the
    other people. She puts us in groups and then we
    learn this and we go on to our group and teach
    them that and then that group will teach the rest
    of the group. Yeah, its better that way. (School
    10 Group 3, 2004)

Kotahitanga - outcomes
  • Ive got goals that I can achieve, that I can do,
    Im one of the top in my class and not at the
    bottom and I can help people instead of them
    helping me Ive never helped anyone at
    intermediate before, its always been me getting
    helped but its been a change that Im helping my
    new mates this year. (School 3 Group 1, 2005)

What did we learn from students?
  • Maori students in the classrooms of high
    implementers believed they were valued and held
    in positive regard
  • Students described the positive nature of their
    relationships with high implementers
  • She cares. She really does care for us, shes
    like our second mother. Shes like a sister kind
    of thing. Other teachers would just give up on
    us straight away, shes just up in there. (School
    3 Group 2, 2005)
  • We learned that the positive experiences students
    were describing were sometimes isolated instances
  • Yeah, its probably the only classroom that we
    feel comfortable in. Shes one of my favourite
    teachers. (School 2 Group 3, 2005)
  • Yeah true, thats the one, cos its dumb just
    passing in one class and failing in all the
    others. (School 4 Group 2, 2005)

  • We learned that students were experiencing
    positive improvements in their achievement and
    attributed this to their teachers
  • I was down in the Ns. I was a Not Achieved, but
    now I havent got a Not Achieved in Maths, its
    a Merit. Ive gotten two Excellences and a Merit
    since Ive been in Mrs Hs class. It feels good.
    (School 4 Group 2, 2005)
  • I think we dont pass and we fail because of the
    way they teach you, I just dont like it (School
    10 Group 3, 2005)
  • We learned that the solutions offered by students
    in 2001 were affirmed by students in 2004/5
  • We learned that as Maori students became more
    secure with their teachers the conversations
    become less about being Maori and how problematic
    that was to conversations about learning and

Anjalis Story
Student Shifts
(No Transcript)
Literacy Achievement 2005
asTTle Numeracy Pretest and Posttest Results
  • Mean Differences for Year 9 10 Maori Students
    in 2005

Improvement Over Time

Maori Student Numeracy Achievement (asTTle)
Improvement Over Time
Group Interactions
Improvement Over Time
Teacher ETP Implementation Rating
Improvement Over Time
Maori Student Literacy Achievement
Improvement Over Time
Cognitive Level of Lesson
Improvement Over Time
Teacher-Student Relationships
Improvement Over Time
Student Work Completion
Improvement Over Time
Student Engagement
  • A common question asked by practitioners is
    Isnt what you described just good teaching?
    And, while I do not deny that it is good
    teaching, I pose a counter question why does so
    little of it seem to occur in classrooms
    populated by African-American students?
    (Ladson-Billings, 1995, p.484)
  • Even if on the surface the quality of teaching
    appears to be high, when it is not assisting
    students to learn the teaching has failed.
    (Alton-Lee, 2003, p. 8)

Reflections DVD
The last speaker The voice of self-determination.
  • When I grow up I want to be something like a
    lawyer or a doctor.
  • I want to go to university
  • I want to do something in my life
  • I dont want to be a nobody
  • I want to be a somebody.
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