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Major Energy Resources


Major Energy Resources Non Renewable Resources Fossil Fuels Coal, Petroleum, Natural gas, Biofuels, Biogas, wood Renewable Resource Nuclear – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Major Energy Resources

  • Major Energy Resources
  • Non Renewable Resources Fossil Fuels Coal,
    Petroleum, Natural gas, Biofuels, Biogas, wood
  • Renewable Resource
  • Nuclear
  • Solar
  • Hydropower
  • Wind Power
  • Tidal and Ocean Thermal
  • Geothermal

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Observations of Climate Change Global
Warming  Temperature, Evaporation rainfall are
increasing    More of the rainfall is occurring
in downpours    Corals are bleaching   
Glaciers are retreating    Sea ice is shrinking
   Sea level is rising    Wildfires are
increasing    Hurricane, storm and flood damages
are much larger
Nuclear Power
  • Fission of 1 kilogram of uranium releases more
    energy than does burning 3 million kg of
  • coal.

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Geothermal Features associated with groundwater
  • Hot springs
  • Water is 6-9oC warmer than the mean annual air
    temperature of the locality
  • The water for most hot springs is heated by
    cooling of igneous rock

Features associated with groundwater
  • Geysers
  • Intermittent hot springs
  • Water erupts with great force
  • Occur where extensive underground chambers exist
    within hot igneous rock
  • Groundwater heats, expands, changes to steam, and

Evolution of a geyser eruption
Yellowstone Geyser erupting geothermal energy
for a Supervolcano
Geothermal Energy is energy stored in the form of
heat beneath the surface of the solid
earth Geothermal Energy can be spectacular!
Geysers and volcanoes show the earths heat
Photos of US Geological Survey
What is geothermal energy?  Geothermal energy is
heat from Earths interior. Geothermal heat
originates from Earth's fiery formation more than
four billion years ago. At Earth's core 7900 km
(4,000) miles deep - temperatures may reach over
6000 degrees Centigrade, 9,000 degrees Fahrenheit
  • Direct Sources function by sending water down a
    well to be heated by the Earths warmth.
  • Then a heat pump is used to take the heat from
    the underground water to the substance that heats
    the house.
  • Then after the water it is cooled is injected
    back into the Earth.
  • Ground Heat Collectors This system uses
    horizontal loops filled with circulating water at
    a depth of 80 to 160 cm underground.

Borehole Heat Exchange This type uses one or
two underground vertical loops that extend 150
meters below the surface
Ring of Fire
Pacific Ocean
High-Enthalpy Geothermal Energy world-wide
Graph from Geothermal Education Office, California
Sources of Earths Internal Energy
  • About 70 comes from the decay of radioactive
    nuclei with long half lives that are embedded
    within the rocks in lithosphere and mantle
  • Some energy is from residual heat left over from
    Earths formation.

Temperature increases with depth in
Geothermal Energy is energy stored in the form of
heat beneath the surface of the solid earth.
Geothermal gradient Normally 20 to 30º C / km,
1300-1400º C at base of lithosphere, 3000-6000º C
in core
Outer Core
Inner Core
Graph from Geothermal Education Office, California
Geothermal Power Natural steam is extracted from
wells to power the turbine generator. The
left-over cool water is pumped down to sustain
Hawaii Geothermal Area The Hawaii geothermal area
includes the Puna Geothermal Venture, which is
located about 38 km (21 miles) south of Hilo on
the Big Island of Hawaii. The facility is
situated along the Lower East Rift Zone of the
Kilauea Volcano. At the Puna Geothermal Venture,
geothermal fluid is brought to the surface
through production wells, which tap into the
resource at a depth of almost a mile. The steam,
along with its non-condensable gases, is routed
to the power plant and used to produce
electricity for the Big Island of Hawaii.
Benefits of Volcanoes Geothermal Energy - One of
the benefits of volcanism is geothermal power.
The geothermal power plant on Kilauea's east rift
zone is shown here. Pu'u O'o is up-rift from this
plant. (This photo was taken on December 29,
1989.) The drilling has encountered some of the
hottest underground fluids yet found. At a depth
of 1,969 m the hole has a temperature of 350
degrees C. Increased development of Hawaii's
geothermal resources is under consideration

Hawaii Geothermal Inter-island Submarine Cable
Project Proposed Route (Fesmire and Richardson,
Map of the major islands of Hawaii showing the
location of the 20 Potential Geothermal Resource
Areas (PGRAs)
HAPPENING? There is still resistance to using
geothermal energy by some members of he local
population even though the above issues have been
and will continue to be addressed by the
government and the developers. However there are
well organized groups and various community
organizations that will continue to express
concern in various ways about the ability of the
government and developers to provide socially and
environmentally sound geothermal power. Further,
the level of support given by the states
political establishment to expansion of
geothermal capacity
The 30 megawatt (MW) PGV plant uses air-cooled
condensers and noise reduction enclosures.  Its
a low-profile plant, 8 meter, 24 feet high, and
has near zero emissions.  Geothermal fluid and
gas is reinjected into the deep earth.
Puna Geothermal Venture geothermal power plant
provides about 20 of electricity demand on the
Big Island of Hawaii.
Global Warming and the Fossil Fuels There are
approximately 1700 kWh of electricity in a barrel
of fuel oil, however, power plants are, on
average, 31 efficient and an additional 5 of
that energy is lost in transmission from source
to user. Thus, 17000.310.95 501 net kWh per
barrel. Burning of a barrel of crude oil 0.43
tons of carbon dioxide are released into the
environment. A barrel has 42 gallons, one gallon
produces 0.011 tons.
Steam Engine Internal Combustion Engine
Steam Engine
Effect on Coastal Areas Lava from Kupaianaha pond
enters the ocean near Kalapana and extends the
coastline (December 27, 1989). Intermittent
littoral (sea shore) explosions added spatter to
a large littoral cone on top of the sea cliff.
Lava flows temporarily destroy land. However,
when these same flows reach the sea, new land is
added to the total area of the island.
Different Geothermal Energy Sources
  • Hot Water Reservoirs As the name implies these
    are reservoirs of hot underground water. There
    is a large amount of them in the US, but they are
    more suited for space heating than for
    electricity production.
  • Natural Steam Reservoirs In this case a hole
    dug into the ground can cause steam to come to
    the surface. This type of resource is rare in
    the US.
  • Geopressured Reservoirs In this type of
    reserve, brine completely saturated with natural
    gas in stored under pressure from the weight of
    overlying rock. This type of resource can be
    used for both heat and for natural gas.

  • Normal Geothermal Gradient At any place on the
    planet, there is a normal temperature gradient of
    300C per km dug into the earth. Therefore, if
    one digs 20,000 feet the temperature will be
    about 1900C above the surface temperature. This
    difference will be enough to produce electricity.
    However, no useful and economical technology has
    been developed to extracted this large source of
  • Hot Dry Rock This type of condition exists in
    5 of the US. It is similar to Normal Geothermal
    Gradient, but the gradient is 400C/km dug
  • Molten Magma No technology exists to tap into
    the heat reserves stored in magma. The best
    sources for this in the US are in Alaska and

World Geothermal Provinces
Indian Plate
Geothermal Energy Electricity Power Generation
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  • Alternate Geothermal Technology Power Tube

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A short glimpse at geothermal power
First experiment to produce geo-thermal power,
done in Italy in 1904 by prince Ginori Conti
Photo courtesy of ENEL/ERGA, Italy
Photos Lund
Modern geothermal power plants in Larderello,
A short glimpse at geothermal power
Principle of EGS system for geothermal power
Drilling rig at the European RD site
Soultz-sous-Forêts (F)
Deep Geothermal Energy
Geothermal heating plant Neustadt-Glewe photo
O. Joswig
doublet system, used since the late 1970s in
France and since 1984 in (Eastern) Germany
  • Present world-wide geothermal energy resources
    are constrained to areas where hot springs,
    geysers, and volcanic activity produce sufficient
    heat energy near the Earths surface for electric
    power generation. These areas follow plate
    tectonic boundaries around the world. Vast areas
    of the Earth lie sufficiently far from these
    boundaries that they are generally untapped for
    geothermal electric power production.
  • A clean, renewable and environmentally benign
    energy source based on the heat in the earth
  • Used in 58 countries of the world. Known in over
  • Electricity generation 53 TWh/a in 22 countries
  • Direct heating use 53 TWh/a in 55 countries
  • Geothermal is number three of the renewable
    energy sources in world electrictity production
    after hydro and biomass. It is followed by wind
    and solar energy

Geothermal electricity Installed capacity MWe
U.S. Geothermal Provinces
United States Geothermal Electric Power
Generation Potential (GeoPowering The West - DOE,
2000) Top 3 States Nevada, California,
Utah Other High Potential States Idaho, Hawaii,
New Mexico, Oregon, South Dakota, Texas, and
  • The basic requirements for an exploitable
  • DPSGE geothermal region are similar to
  • those for oil and gas exploration
  • 1) a sufficiently high geothermal gradient
  • 2) A significantly large, porous and
  • permeable reservoir to receive and heat
  • injection fluids
  • 3) A seal to contain the system.

  • Water temperature (optimum range)
  • 230o to 380o F (110o to 193o C)
  • Construction costs 1500 per kW
  • including exploration and drilling.
  • 10 Mw plant 15,000,000
  • (National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 1999)

Geothermal Delivery Systems
  • Existing Plant Designs
  • Dry Steam Power Plants use steam directly.
  • Flash Steam Power Plants hot water under
    pressure (most common).
  • Binary Cycle Power Plants hot water through
    heat exchanger.
  • Feedstock Systems incremental heat in elevated
    water temperatures.
  • New Plant Designs
  • Power Tube iso-pentane iso-butane into

Direct uses of geothermal energy is appropriate
for sources below 1500C
  • space heating
  • air conditioning
  • industrial processes
  • drying
  • Greenhouses
  • Aquaculture
  • hot water
  • resorts and pools
  • melting snow

Geothermal Greenhouses
Geothermal greenhouse in Nigrita, Greece
Cultivation of spirulina algae using
geothermal heat
How Direct Uses Work
  • Direct Sources function by sending water down a
    well to be heated by the Earths warmth.
  • Then a heat pump is used to take the heat from
    the underground water to the substance that heats
    the house.
  • Then after the water it is cooled is injected
    back into the Earth.

The power tube housing resembles a giant
hypodermic needle. It has a modular nature, with
the 10 megawatt unit measuring about 4 feet
across and around 180 feet in length.
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Geothermal application in the food industry
Geothermal tomato drying in Northern Greece
The finished product
Ground Heat Collectors
This system uses horizontal loops filled with
circulating water at a depth of 80 to 160 cm
Borehole Heat Exchange
This type uses one or two underground vertical
loops that extend 150 meters below the surface.
Generation of Electricity is appropriate for
sources gt150oC
  • Dry Steam Plants These were the first type of
    plants created. They use underground steam to
    directly turn the turbines.

Flash Steam Plants These are the most common
plants. These systems pull deep, high pressured
hot water that reaches temperatures of 3600F or
more to the surface. This water is transported
to low pressure chambers, and the resulting steam
drives the turbines. The remaining water and
steam are then injected back into the source from
which they were taken.
Binary Cycle Plants This system passes
moderately hot geothermal water past a liquid,
usually an organic fluid, that has a lower
boiling point. The resulting steam from the
organic liquid drives the turbines. This process
does not produce any emissions and the water
temperature needed for the water is lower than
that needed in the Flash Steam Plants (2500F
Casa Diablo
Geothermal application in the food industry
Fish factory in Laugar, Iceland
Geothermal fish drying in Northern Iceland
The finished product
Hot Dry Rocks The simplest models have one
injection well and two production wells.
Pressurized cold water is sent down the injection
well where the hot rocks heat the water up. Then
pressurized water of temperatures greater than
2000F is brought to the surface and passed near a
liquid with a lower boiling temperature, such as
an organic liquid like butane. The ensuing steam
turns the turbines. Then, the cool water is
again injected to be heated. This system does not
produce any emissions. US geothermal industries
are making plans to commercialize this new
Hot Rock
Geothermal Energy for the German Parliament
Heat- and Cold Storage, heat source waste heat
from Combined Heat- and Power-Generation (CHP)
during summertime
Shallow Geothermal Energy
Geothermal heating at the Polar Circle Hotel
Storforsen, Älvsby, Sweden 33 BHE each 160 m deep
Geothermal energy in Iceland
Total Primary Energy Consumption in 2002
  • 86 of houses in the country are heated by
  • 17 of the electricity (200 MW) comes from
  • Other uses include greenhouses, fish farming,
    industry, snow melting, swimming pools etc.
  • Only a fraction of the potential is used

Thank you für your attention! See you all in
Blue Lagoon, Iceland
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Direct uses for Geothermal water
McDonald's World Famous French Fries are made
here Beware of the Crocs
Heating the alligator tank in Idaho No swimming
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A boy bathes in Beaujolais Nouveau at a Hakone
Onsen Yunessun hot springs resort west of Tokyo
in Japan. The young French wine is released on
the third Thursday of November every year.
Geothermal Harmful Effects
  • Brine can salinate soil if the water is not
    injected back into the reserve after the heat is
  • Extracting large amounts of water can cause land
    subsidence, and this can lead to an increase in
    seismic activity. To prevent this the cooled
    water must be injected back into the reserve in
    order to keep the water pressure constant
  • Power plants that do not inject the cooled water
    back into the ground can release Hydrogen
    Sulfide H2S, the rotten eggs gas. This gas can
    cause problems if large quantities escape because
    inhaling too much is fatal.

Geothermal Energy - Positive Attributes
  • Useful minerals, such as zinc and silica, can be
    extracted from underground water.
  • Geothermal energy is homegrown. This will
    create jobs, a better global trading position and
    less reliance on oil producing countries.
  • US geothermal companies have signed 6 billion
    worth of contracts to build plants in foreign
    countries in the past couple of years.
  • In large plants the cost is 4-8 cents per
    kilowatt hour. This cost is almost competitive
    with conventional energy sources.

  • Geothermal plants can be online 100-90 of the
    time. Coal plants can only be online 75 of the
    time and nuclear plants can only be online 65 of
    the time.
  • Flash and Dry Steam Power Plants emit 1000 times
    to 2000 times less carbon dioxide than fossil
    fuel plants, no nitrogen oxides and little SO2.
  • Geothermal electric plants production in 13.380 g
    of Carbon dioxide per kWh, whereas the CO2
    emissions are 453 g/kWh for natural gas, 906g
    g/kWh for oil and 1042 g/kWh for coal.
  • Binary and Hot Dry Rock plants have no gaseous
    emission at all.
  • Geothermal plants do not require a lot of land,
    400m2 can produce a gigawatt of energy over 30

  • Geothermal Heat Pumps
  • - produces 4 times the energy that they consume.
  • -initially costs more to install, but its
    maintenance cost is 1/3 of the cost for a
    typical conventional heating system and it
    decreases electric bill. This means that
    geothermal space heating will save the consumer
  • -can be installed with the help of special
    programs that offer low interest rate loans.
  • Electricity generated by geothermal plants saves
    83.3 million barrels of fuel each year from being
    burned world wide. This prevents 40.2 million
    tons of CO2 from being emitted into the
  • Direct use of geothermal energy prevents 103.6
    million barrels of fuel each year from being
    burned world wide. This stops 49.6 tons of CO2
    from being emitted into the atmosphere.

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Availability of Geothermal Energy
  • On average, the Earth emits 1/16 W/m2. However,
    this number can be much higher in areas such as
    regions near volcanoes, hot springs and
  • As a rough rule, 1 km3 of hot rock cooled by
    1000C will yield 30 MW of electricity over thirty
  • It is estimated that the world could produce
    600,000 EJ over 5 million years.
  • There is believed to be enough heat radiating
    from the center of the Earth to fulfill human
    energy demands for the remainder of the
    biospheres lifetime.