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PyNe -- Glasgow

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PyNe -- Glasgow WP 2H Biorefinery Tony Bridgwater and Doug Elliott September 20, 2006 Presentation Organization Biorefinery basics Biorefinery concepts TEA for ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: PyNe -- Glasgow


1
PyNe -- Glasgow
  • WP 2H Biorefinery
  • Tony Bridgwater and Doug Elliott
  • September 20, 2006

2
Presentation Organization
  • Biorefinery basics
  • Biorefinery concepts
  • TEA for Biorefineries

3
An Example of a Current Biorefinery
Corn Wet Mill
Corn Wet Mill
corn gluten
corn gluten
corn gluten
corn gluten
starch
corn oil
starch
corn oil
meal
feed
meal
feed
hydrolysis
hydrolysis
food oils
food oils
food industrial
food industrial
industrial oils
glycerol
industrial oils
glycerol
glucose
glucose
feed oils
feed oils
starches
starches
hydrogenation
hydrogenation
fermentation
sorbitol
sorbitol
High fructose corn syrup
Other sweeteners
citric acid
citric acid
lactic acid
lactic acid
fuel
fuel
lysine
lysine
ethanol
ethanol
xanthan
gums
xanthan
gums
itaconic
acid
itaconic
acid
PLA
PLA
other
other


foodstuffs

foodstuffs
polymers
polymers
polyols
isosorbide
polyols
isosorbide
fermentation
fermentation

pharma
.

pharma
.
products
products

resins plastics

resins plastics
deicers
deicers
applications
applications
solvents
solvents
coatings
coatings

polyesters

polyesters

surfactants

surfactants

pharmaceuticals

pharmaceuticals
T.A. Werpy, Biorefineries, ACS Mtg, Washington,
DC August 31, 2005
4
Current Ethanol Process
Corn
Dry Grind
Liquefaction
Scarification
95 EtOH
50 EtOH
Primary Distillation
Distillation Rectifier
Molecular Sieves
Fermentation
Solids
100 EtOH
Centrifuge
DDG Dryer
DDG Animal Feed
Ethanol
Liquids
Solids
Triple Effect Evaporator
Water Recycle
T.A. Werpy, Biorefineries, ACS Mtg, Washington,
DC August 31, 2005
5
Strategies for Creating Additional Value
  • Modify dry mills to include a quick steeping
    process that allows germ recovery
  • Add an intermediate filtration process to
    recovery non-starch derived sugars
    (hemicellulose)
  • Develop new fermentations for utilization of five
    carbon sugars (itaconic acid, succinic acid, etc)
  • Develop new chemistry to produce value added
    products from hemi-cellulose (sugar alcohols,
    polyols)
  • Include an energy component-pyrolyze DDG or
    modified DDG to produce bio-oil

T.A. Werpy, Biorefineries, ACS Mtg, Washington,
DC August 31, 2005
6
The Holistic Ethanol Facility
Oil
Germ Separation
Corn
Quick Steep
Scarification
95 EtOH
EtOH
Fermentation
Ethanol Recovery
Molecular Sieves
Filtration
Starch
100 EtOH
New DDG Animal Feed
Fiber
Hydrolysis
Ethanol
Fermentation
Itaconic Succinic, Etc
Pyrolysis
Catalytic Conversions
EG, PG Glycerol, Etc
Fuel/Power
T.A. Werpy, Biorefineries, ACS Mtg, Washington,
DC August 31, 2005
7
Possible Future Biorefinery
Lignocellulosic Biomass
Products
Hydrolysis
Fermentation
sugars
Ethanol Fuel
Distillation
Heat, electricity
lignin
Upgrading
Pyrolysis
Motor Fuel
bio-oil
Additional Biomass
Products
D.J. Stevens, PyNe, 2005
8
The Potential Role of Pyrolysis
  • Part of a Petroleum Refinery
  • Biomass first would be converted to bio-oil,
    possibly at distributed locations at small scale
  • Bio-oil can be partially upgraded by catalytic
    hydrotreatment at larger scale in proximity of a
    petroleum refinery
  • Upgraded bio-oil then would be co-fed with
    petroleum feedstocks through a catalytic process
    to produce conventional refinery product slate
  • The global petroleum industry is showing more
    interest
  • From the Department of Energy perspective, this
    is a medium-term approach

9
Pyrolysis/Petroleum Biorefinery
Distributed Lignocellulosic Biomass
Fast Pyrolysis
bio-oil transport
Products
Upgrading and Refining with Petroleum
Motor Fuel
10
Overall Biorefining Concept
Yrjö Solantausta, 14.3.2006, VTT
10
11
The Potential Role of Pyrolysis
  • Stand-alone facilities
  • Small size makes economics of fuel production
    difficult
  • May be more appropriate for heat and power
    applications
  • High-value specialty chemicals may provide the
    economic driver
  • Unlikely to gain strong support from Department
    of Energy in the U.S. because of current focus on
    petroleum displacement, but Department of
    Agriculture is interested

12
Concept of a Biorefinery
Hydrolysis Fermentation
Biomass
Ethanol
Anhydrosugars
Slow Release Fertilizers (N, Ca, Zn, Fe ...)
NH3
Reaction
Pyrolyzer
Bio-oil
Noxolene (NOx reduction)
Reaction
BioLime (NOx/SOx reduction)
lime
Fuel Gas
Reaction
Fuel Enhancers Flavor Chemicals
alcohol
Char Converter
Chemicals Flavors
Separation
water
Adhesives
Diesel/boiler Fuel Specialty
Ash
Activated carbon
Separation
Catalytic Reforming
Synthesis Gas Hydrogen
D. Radlein, Fast Pyrolysis Handbook, 1999
13
Biomass Refinery Concept D. Meier
Biomass
Fractionation
alcohols water (NCW, steam)
Fibers Cellulose
Hemicellulose
Lignin
direct use
Pyrolysis
direct use
  • in situ treatment
  • post treatment

PHENOLS
14
Biomass Refinery Concept D. Meier
Biomass
Fractionation
alcohols water (NCW, steam)
Fibers Cellulose
Hemicellulose
Lignin
direct use
Pyrolysis
direct use
  • in situ treatment
  • post treatment

PHENOLS
15
BIOREFINERY CONCEPT
Steam activation
Activated carbon
Process energy
Char
Solvent extraction
Optional hydrolysis
Biodiesel
Extractives
Steam reformation
Wet fuels Mixed fuels
H2 for fuel cells
Aqueous phase
Fast pyrolysis
Hydrolysis, fermentation
Bio-ethanol for fuel cells
Woody biomass waste wood, Acacia bark,
agro-biomasses, constr. wood
Alcohol addition, solids removal
Lignin phase
Fuel oils, Diesel fuels
Thermal cracking/ Catalytic hydrotreatment
Lignans
Anja Oasmaa, 2005, VTT
16
Different biomass and carbon feedstocks
lignocellulosic biomass
other biomass
organic waste
wood, straw, hay ....
fossil fuel
paper, plastics, dung ...
starch, oil ...
coal ...
biomass preparation
fast pyrolysis
special chemicals
bio-oil/char -slurry
rail transport from many pyrolysis plants
to large, central plant for syngas generation and
use
O2
pulverised coal coal/water slurry
entrained flow gasification
CO2
gas cleaning
liquid fuel synthesis

synthesis products synfuel, chemicals, H2
low T heat
electricity generation
electricity
17
Summary
  • Numerous opportunities involving
  • incorporation into sugar biorefinery
  • incorporation into a petroleum refinery
  • stand-alone with chemical, fuel, and power
    production
  • incorporation into a gasification and synthesis
    plant
  • Pyrolysis demonstration will lead to biorefinery
  • Product separation and recovery is a major hurdle
  • Finding the right niche is key

18
PyNe -- Glasgow
  • Progress in Biorefinery
  • Case studies
  • Max Lauer and Doug Elliott
  • September 20, 2006

19
The Potential Role of Pyrolysis
  • Part of a sugars-based biorefinery based on
    residue pyrolysis for fuel and, perhaps, products
  • Part of a Petroleum Refinery with distributed
    production and centralized processing
  • Stand-alone facilities with distributed
    production and centralized processing and
    refining or true stand-alone with or without
    fractionation and product processing
  • Incorporation into a gasification and
    chemical/fuel synthesis plant

20
TEA of Pyrolysis Biorefinery
  • What process concept (or concepts?)
  • Single concept in depth, or
  • Comparison of several concepts
  • Technical or Technoeconomic
  • Detailed mass and energy balance only, or
  • ME balance to allow capital operating cost
    estimate
  • What methods?
  • What level of detail?

21
Biorefinery Concepts to be Evaluated
  • The following institutions agreed to provide the
    relevant information for the concepts listed
    below, and these would form the basis of an
    evaluation exercise.
  • USDA - compare pyrolysis to combustion in ethanol
    plants
  • IWC pre-separation concept and pyrolyse
    products (lignin), maximise by-products and
    chemicals from the process, particularly phenols
  • FZK bio-slurry gasification synthesis
  • PNNL - Distributed pyrolysis to central refinery
    for upgrading and integration
  • BTG direct gasification of bio-oil in existing
    gasifier synthesis
  • Aston Speciality chemicals and fuels
  • Rodim Chemicals and animal pharmaceuticals and
    fertiliser
  • JR - Pyrolysis CHP stand-alone
  • ECN comparison with biomass gasification routes

22
Biorefinery Concepts to be Evaluated
  • Chemicals as primary product
  • IWC pre-separation concept and pyrolyse
    products (lignin), maximise by-products and
    chemicals from the process, particularly phenols
  • Aston Speciality chemicals and fuels
  • Rodim Chemicals and animal pharmaceuticals and
    fertiliser
  • Fuels as primary product
  • FZK bio-slurry gasification synthesis
  • BTG direct gasification of bio-oil in existing
    gasifier synthesis
  • ECN comparison with biomass gasification routes
  • PNNL - Distributed pyrolysis to central refinery
    for upgrading and integration
  • USDA - compare pyrolysis to combustion in ethanol
    plants
  • JR - Pyrolysis CHP stand-alone
  • Template
  • Block flowsheet starting with biomass input
    maybe as bio-oil, using all products in some way
    and minimising waste production
  • Outline mass balance through blocks
  • Capital costs
  • Product costs

23
Biorefinery Concepts to be Evaluated
AU, IWC, UN, USDA ECN, FZK, BTG, VUT, PNNL,
VTT, UT, AU, CF JR, NTNU, UF, USDA _at_ JR Define
ISW _at_ JR
  • Chemicals as primary product
  • Speciality chemicals and/or separation of biomass
    components
  • Transport fuels as primary product
  • Bio-oil for transport fuels via gasification and
    FT and/or methanol
  • Bio-oil (hydro) de-oxygenation for transport
    fuels
  • Reference case
  • Power and heat
  • Process
  • Template for specifications and bio-oil costs
  • Block flowsheet starting with biomass (industrial
    sawmill waste ISW) input, using all products in
    some way and minimising waste production, to give
    end products
  • Outline mass balance through blocks. Size
  • Capital costs
  • Product costs
  • How and when?
  • Small working groups, Email, Draft (a) (b)
    (c) by end 2006 to DCE
  • Small meetings if needed
  • (d) (e) TBD but NOT after next TNet meeting
  • Group meeting 2007
  • FT 20,000bbl/d3000t/d

24
Biorefinery Concepts to be Evaluated
  • FACTS
  • FT single train 20,000bbl/d 3000t/d diesel
    ca 12,000t/d biomass
  • USA Biomass 2,000t/d 660,000t/y
  • EU Biomass 300 t/d 100,000 t/y
  • Choren planning 1,000,000 t/y for gasification
    FT
  • SIZE OF BIOMASS PROCESSING PLANTS for
    consideration
  • Small 200 t/d input dry biomass
  • Large 2000 t/d input dry biomass 400 MWth
    input 160 MWe
  • SIZE OF intermediate fuel products dependent of
    biomass input, e.g. partially refined product to
    refinery
  • SIZE OF FT
  • 12,000 bbl/d output diesel production
  • Upgraded bio-oil hydrotreater 6000 bbl/d diesel
    800 t/d diesel

25
PyNe -- Glasgow
  • Round Robin on Lignin Pyrolysis
  • Dietrich Meier and Doug Elliott
  • September 20, 2006

26
Round Robin
  • Participants
  • Which laboratories? list of potential
    participants at Lille
  • Feedstock requirements
  • What kind? many potential sources
  • How much? depends on the laboratory method
  • Time line
  • Acquire feedstock
  • Distribute feedstock
  • Perform tests
  • Collect data
  • Submit report

27
Potential Round Robin Participants
28
Potential Round Robin Participants
29
Potential Lignin Sources for Round Robin
  • MeadWestvaco
  • Indulin AT precipitated Kraft lignin (softwood)
  • Lignol (Alcell)
  • Organosolve lignin
  • Variable biomass source potential
  • IOGEN
  • EtOH residue (straw lignocellulosic)
  • International Lignin Institute
  • Others
  • Sigma Aldrich (sulfur-free)
  • Borregard (kraft lignin or lignosulfonates, both
    with sulfur)
  • STFI (Swedish pulp paper institute), kraft
    lignin

30
Lignin Source
  • MeadWestvaco www.meadwestvaco.com
  • pulping lignin products
  • several grades
  • sulfonated Kraft lignins REAX and KRAFTSPERSE
  • sulfonated sulfite lignin POLYFON
  • unsulfonated Kraft lignin Indulin
  • AT 5 moisture, 6.5 pH (15 aq) 3 ash, 97
    lignin
  • C 5 moisture, 10.2 pH (15 aq)
  • commercial products, readily available in most
    quantities

31
Lignin Source
  • Lignol (Alcell process) Bridgwater/Elliott
  • organosolve hardwood lignin
  • Michael Rushton, Vancouver, BC, Canada
  • kilogram quantities available
  • signed agreement by each researcher
  • no third party distribution
  • no publication without permission source
    attributed
  • no chemical analysis without permission data
    shared
  • inform Lignol of patenting efforts involving
    Lignol lignin
  • joint ownership of jointly developed IP
  • mutual confidentiality
  • recipient pays cost of shipping, duties, etc.
  • many potential biomass types in the future

32
Lignin Source
  • Iogen Elliott
  • ligno-cellulosic EtOH residue
  • Ron R. Paradis, VP EtOH and Byproduct Marketing
  • not responsive

33
Lignin Source
  • ENEA-Trisaia -- Chiaramonti
  • steam explosion, alkali extracted, acid
    precipitated
  • Dr. Braccio and Dr. Zimbardi
  • 1 kg lignin available for round robin tests
  • they would ship the lignin
  • they would like to know some details like what
    kind of tests and who would carry them out

34
Lignin Source
  • Abengoa Prins
  • biorefinery residue
  • Viorel Duma, Chesterfield, MO, USA
  • a few hundred kilos available at a time
  • start up this winter
  • 30 dry solids (could be treated (?) to reduce
    moisture for pyrolysis)
  • lignin content of 60, balance fiber and ash
  • less interesting alternative -- dry purified
    lignin product

35
Lignin Source
  • Aldrich Chemical www.sigma-aldrich.com
  • Several grades, commercially available
  • low sulfonate, alkali 0.30-0.40/g
  • hydrolytic 1.20-1.60/g
  • organosolve 0.60-1.00/g
  • 100s of gram quantities

36
Lignin Source
  • Lignoboost -- Meier/Elliott
  • pulping residue lignin
  • Per Tomani, STFI-Packforsk AB, Stockholm
  • sulfur content depends on method, but typically
    1-3
  • several hundred kilos of product available
  • they need to know more of purpose of testing

37
Lignin Source
  • Swedish Energy Agency Bridgwater
  • organosolve
  • enzyme
  • acid

38
Other Potential Lignin Sources for Round Robin
  • Lignin without sulfur
  • Baltic hydrolysis
  • ILI
  • Genencor enzyme hydrolysis lignin
  • Mondi
  • Sulfur containing lignin
  • Kraft lignin (Borregard?)
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