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Emerging Clean Coal Technologies: Limiting the Environmental Impact of Coal Power Generation

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Emerging Clean Coal Technologies: Limiting the Environmental Impact of Coal Power Generation Michael Slanders ... Gasification 2. Advanced Combustion 3. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Emerging Clean Coal Technologies: Limiting the Environmental Impact of Coal Power Generation


1
Emerging Clean Coal Technologies Limiting the
Environmental Impact of Coal Power Generation
Michael SlandersOffice of Clean Energy
Systems, US Department of Energy
2
Presentation Overview
  • US/World Electricity Outlook
  • Clean Coal Technologies as a Solution
  • Meeting RD Challenges 1. Gasification 2.
    Advanced Combustion 3. Carbon Capture and
    Storage
  • Demonstrating Clean Coals Potential 1.
    FutureGen 2. Clean Coal Power Initiative (CCPI)

3
U.S. WorldElectricity Outlook
U.S.
World
  • 41 increase from 2005-2030
  • 85 increase/yr. from 2004-2030

Challenge Meet the increasing national/worldwide
demand while addressing global climate change
Sources International Energy Outlook, 2007 Fig.
60 Annual Energy Outlook, 2007 Fig. 53
2006 Table 8
4
Clean Coal Technologiesas a Solution
  • Near-Zero Emissions - Remove all environmental
    concerns over the use of coal with regard to
    criteria pollutants and greenhouse gas
    emissions (CO2)
  • Emerging Clean Coal Technologies (CCT) -
    Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle
    (IGCC) - Ultra-Supercritical Combustion -
    Oxy-fuel Combustion
  • Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) - Stabilize
    greenhouse gases in the atmosphere through
    safe and permanent sequestration

RD Challenges 1. Limit Environmental
Impact 2. Improve Cost, Efficiency,
Reliability
5
Clean Coals Path to Near-Zero Emissions
Carbon Capture and Storage
Capture
Storage
AdvancedCombustion
FutureGen
CCPI
Large-Scale Field Tests
Core RD Program
Advanced Turbines
Fuel Cells
Fuels
IGCC
Carbon Sequestration
Advanced Research
6
Overview ofAdvanced Gasification
  • Partial oxidation rather than complete combustion
  • Formation of a combustible syngas that can be
    cleaned of potential pollutants
  • Combined Cycle power generation (combustion
    steam)
  • Hydrogen production
  • Marketable byproducts

Advanced Gasification Features
IGCC Flow Diagram, Source Colorado School of
Mines
7
Meeting Gasification RD Challenges
Emerging Technologies IGCCLimiting
Environmental Impact 1. Develop high-temperature
syngas shift technologies for hydrogen
combustion Improving Cost, Efficiency,
Reliability 1. Lower technology capital
costs - Gasification - Air Separation
Units - Hydrogen Turbines - Fuel Cells
IGCC Power Plant, Polk County. TECO Energy
2. Develop membrane technologies for H2/CO2
separation 3. Demonstrate near-zero IGCC
feasibility at large-scale 4. Reduce
maintenance/operation costs
8
Overview ofAdvanced Combustion
Advanced Combustion Features
  • Capable of enhancing existing power generation
    facilities
  • Reliable processes and generation methods
  • Higher efficiencies
  • Lower specific emissions

Oxy-Fuel Flow Diagram, Source www.ccsd.biz
9
Meeting Advanced CombustionRD Challenges
Emerging Technologies Ultra-supercritical Ox
y-fuelLimiting Environmental Impact 1. Enhance
current flue gas cleanup - Flue Gas
Desulfurization (SOx) - Selective Catalytic
Reduction (NOx) - Electrostatic Precipitation
(PM) 2. Develop advanced low NOx
burners Improving Cost, Efficiency,
Reliability 1. Reduce the costs of -
High-temperature and high-strength materials
- Large-volume CO2 capture 2. Enhance
low-cost membrane technologies for Air Separation
Units 3. Demonstrate at large-scale
Emissions from Coal Power Plants
10
Meeting Carbon Capture and StorageRD Challenges
Emerging Technologies Capture- Advanced Selexol,
Membranes, Advanced CO2 Compression Sto
rage- Geologic Formations, Enhanced Oil
Recovery Limiting Environmental Impact 1.
Monitor sites to insure permanent storage 2.
Develop sequestration options most suited for
particular regions - Regional
Partnerships - Carbon Sequestration
Leadership Forum (CSLF) Improving Cost,
Efficiency, Reliability 1. Improve capture
methods 2. Demonstrate at large-scale
Geologic Sequestration Paths
11
Demonstrating Clean Coals Potential FutureGen
  • Objectives of the FutureGen Project
  • Integrate IGCC, CCS, and hydrogen production
    technologies to gain acceptance of the near-zero
    emissions coal concept
  • Prove the effectiveness, safety, and permanence
    of large-scale CO2 sequestration
  • Validate the engineering, economic, and
    environmental viability of coal-based near- zero
    emission technologies for commercial readiness
    by 2020.

12
Demonstrating Clean Coals Potential CCPI
13
Summary Remarks
  • Coal will continue to play a large role in
    domestic/worldwide power generation
  • Clean Coal Technologies offer the potential for
    coal power production with near-zero emissions
    and limited environmental impact
  • While ultra-low emission technologies have been,
    and will continue to be, demonstrated, RD
    currently focuses on improving performance
    efficiencies and reducing costs through
    technology advances
  • Further large-scale projects such as FutureGen
    and those demonstrated in CCPI are needed to
    gain acceptance of clean coal technologies
    ability to achieve near-zero emissions.

14
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15
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16
Technology Improvements to Meet Challenges
17
Polk Emissions Improvements
18
Wabash Emissions Improvements
19
National SO2 Emissions
1989-91 2004-06
Source http//www.epa.gov/castnet
20
DOE Budget by Organization
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