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Challenges in implementation of Underground Coal

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Challenges in implementation of Underground Coal Gasification Project Composition of typical dry UCG product gas (Calorific Value 13.6MJ/Nm3) (Spanish Trial ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Challenges in implementation of Underground Coal


1
Challenges in implementation of Underground Coal
Gasification Project
2
The Presentation
  • Energy Scenario and UCG
  • UCG A Brief
  • ONGCs Experience
  • Learnings
  • Sum up

3
India
  • 16 of Global population
  • 0.5 of worlds petroleum reserves
  • 7.1 of coal reserves
  • Targeting 8-9 GDP Growth, the CAGR in primary
    energy demand works out to 4.5
  • India faces a formidable challenge on Energy
    front

4
INDIA.
  • Has the 4th largest coal reserves in the world
    (264 Billion Tons)
  • Ranks 3rd in coal production (492.95 Million TPA)
  • Total Recoverable reserves are only about 20

Underground Coal Gasification is the only way to
harness these unrecoverable reserves
5
The Presentation
  • Energy Scenario and UCG
  • UCG A Brief
  • ONGCs Experience
  • Learnings
  • Sum up

6
What is Underground Coal Gasification?
Underground coal gasification (UCG) Converts coal
/ lignite in-situ into a gaseous product,
commonly known as synthesis gas or syngas.
  • UCG Process
  • Drilling of adjacent bore holes in the coal seam
    and its linkage
  • Down hole ignition of the coal seam
  • Injection of a pressurised oxidant such as
    air/oxygen and steam
  • Removal of product gas to surface.

Sounce http//www.ausairpower.net/APA-USAF-SynFue
ls.html
7
Carbon/coal gasification reactions
  • Partial Combustion C O2 2CO exothermic
  • Combustion C O2 CO2 exothermic
  • C CO2 2CO endothermic
  • Water-Gas C H2O CO H2 endothermic
  • Hydrogasification C 2H2 CH4 exothermic
  • Shift CO H2O CO2 H2 exothermic
  • Reformation CO 3H2 CH4 H2O exothermic

8
Composition of typical dry UCG product gas with
increase of O2 enriched Air
9
Underground Coal Gasification
Product usage.
Power
SYN GAS
Nitrogenous Fertilizers
Petrochemicals
Liquid Fuels
10
Technology plays an important role UCG process
  • Well configuration and well spacing
  • Different types of wells such as vertical,
    inclined or horizontal, with intersections
  • Wells to be completed properly with special high
    temp. resistant cements, tubular and well heads
  • Injectors producers need to connected and
    gasification passage Flame treated
  • Compression and injection of the air steam
    through the set of injector wells for maintaining
    gasification
  • Producing, cooling and processing of the produced
    gas

11
The Presentation
  • Energy Scenario and UCG
  • UCG A Brief
  • ONGCs Experience
  • Learnings
  • Sum up

12
UCG Pilot Flow Diagram
13
1st stage Site Selection
  • ONGC working with Russian scientists to test UCG
    technology
  • MoUs also signed with coal companies
  • Fifteen sites studied Five sites found suitable
    for UCG
  • One site in South Gujarat, prioritized for UCG
    pilot study
  • The site is adjacent to the pit head Power Plant

14
DETAILS OF UCG BLOCK
15
2nd stage Detailed geological and Hydro
geological studies
  • More than 20 boreholes drilled
  • Detailed Geological and Geo-mechanical studies
    carried out
  • Hydrological Hydrodynamic studies carried out
  • HRSS carried out

16
Seismic Grid
250X250-Line Interval
Lines Covered (FS 06-07)
Lines Covered (FS 07-08)
Well for logging
Drilled Bore wells
17
V 7
Structure Contour Map of Seam1 (based on 2D HRSS)
18
Structure contour map
19
3rd stage Pilot Design
  • Pilot lay out firmed up
  • Detailed Engineering Design is available

20
The Commercial UCG Station Well Pattern..
21
The Presentation
  • Energy Scenario and UCG
  • UCG A Brief
  • ONGCs Experience
  • Learnings
  • Sum up

22
UCG is a site specific technology
  • Data required for proper site selection is not
    usually available with the mining companies
  • Large amount of data like the hydro-geological
    data, seismic data, geo-mechanical data etc. has
    to be generated
  • All these data generation can tend to delay the
    time schedule of the project, if not accounted
    for properly

23
Use of seismic as an exploratory tool vis a vis
borehole drilling
F
V-07
V-07
F
F
F
24
UCG process is technology dependent
  • Process wells in a UCG panel involves a
    combination of vertical and horizontal wells
    which need to intersect to make a gasification
    passage
  • High degree of accuracy
  • Drilling challenge to drill horizontal sections
    of more than 100 meters through coal / lignite at
    shallow depth
  • Producers and injectors need to be interlinked
    and flame treated
  • Syngas that is produced is at a high temperature
    of around 2000 C and needs to be cooled down
    before processing
  • The clean up process will change with the end
    usage and is not similar to the one for
    conventional HC gas
  • Project is technologically dependent - ready on
    the shelf solutions are not available
  • Claimed to be available with only selected few

25
UCG Economics
  • No authentic publication of figures in literature
    for carrying out cost economics
  • Sale of Syngas considered on energy basis (rate /
    BTU) will give the project a technological
    disadvantage
  • Costing of a UCG Project and economic
    calculations thereof are a challenge
  • A pilot must be considered as an RD investment
    to boost the development of UCG in India

26
Regulations
  • Gazette notification Issued in July 2007
  • UCG can be end uses for the act
  • Guidelines for UCG Issued in July 2009
  • Provision for nomination of coal blocks to
    National coal companies
  • The applicant company should have minimum net
    worth of Rs. 200 crores
  • The applicant company should have collaboration
    /tie up with the proven technology providers
  • The normative time limit
  • Explored Blocks - 36 months
  • Unexplored Blocks -24 months 36 months
  • Penalty for slippage in meeting time limit

27
Flow diagram of UCG Commercial Plant
UCG is site specific technology It requires
pilot testing before commercialisation
Govt. coal companies given preference
for Nomination of Blocks
Start
Linc Energy Chinchila Pilot (1999 -
2003) Restarted Commercial operations in 2007 and
reached up to Demo in 2009
A demo plant has to be considered before
commercialisation
28
The Presentation
  • Energy Scenario and UCG
  • UCG A Brief
  • ONGCs Experience
  • Learnings
  • Sum up

29
Summing up
  • The energy requirements of India are expected to
    grow by CAGR of 4. Coal will continue to occupy
    centre-stage of India's energy scenario
  • UCG is the only feasible technology to harness
    energy from deep unmineable coal seams, in an
    economically and environmentally clean way
  • ONGC has embarked on a highly prestigious project
    of UCG and is poised to demonstrate the UCG
    technology in the near future

30
Cont
  • The complexity of UCG makes it technologically
    dependent where still ready on the shelf
    solutions are not available. The technology
    required for drilling, linkage, flame treatment
    and hot gas clean up is claimed to be available
    with only selected few
  • Costing of a UCG Project and economic
    calculations thereof are a challenge
  • The present statutory regulations require further
    refinement

31
Recommendations
  • Preference for award of coal blocks should also
    be given to other coal companies who can
    demonstrate the technology early
  • Provision of a pilot and a demo plant has to be
    made in a UCG Project, which if successful should
    be followed by a commercial venture. This will
    necessitate increasing the normative time for
    commercialization of UCG in the guidelines
  • Since UCG is a complex underground process, which
    is yet to be commercialised in India, it requires
    support of GoI in the form of relaxation in
    policies and a lucrative economic package. This
    will help in faster development of UCG Technology
    in India

32
(No Transcript)
33
Geological Section of Vastan (Dip)
DD249.7
DD 249.7 m
DD280.5
DD 280.5 m
DD342
DD 342.0m
34
Composition of typical dry UCG product gas
(Spanish Trial-Gasification with Oxygen)
(Angrenskaya Gasification with Air Injection)
(Calorific Value 13.6MJ/Nm3)
(Calorific Value 3.5 MJ/Nm3)
35
Product Gas Composition
36
Flow sheet of gasifier, UCG pilot
37
Earlier Field Trials
  • UCG has been tested in many different
    experimental tests in many countries.
  • The Former Soviet Union executed over 50 years of
    research on UCG, field tests and several
    commercial projects, including an electric power
    plant in Angren, Uzbekistan that is still in
    operation today after 47 years.
  • The U.S. carried out over 30 pilots between 1975
    and 1996, testing bituminous, sub-bituminous, and
    lignite coals.
  • Since 1991,China has executed at least 16 tests,
    and has several commercial UCG projects for
    chemical and fertilizer feedstocks.
  • In 2000, Australia began a large pilot
    (Chinchilla) which produced syngas for 3 years
    before a controlled shut-down and controlled
    restart.
  • At present, multiple commercial projects are in
    various stages of development in the U.S.,
    Canada, South Africa, India, Australia, New
    Zealand and China to produce power, liquid fuels,
    and synthetic natural gas.

38
Development of a Generalized Simulation Model
  • Factors to be considered
  • Drying of porous media
  • Devolatilisation or pyrolysis of coal
  • Gasification reactions of char with oxygen,
    carbon dioxide, steam and hydrogen
  • Gas phase reactions combustion, water-gas shift
    and methanation
  • Gas flow turbulent and laminar
  • Heat transfer conduction, convection and
    radiation
  • Water flow through porous media
  • Physical and thermal degradation of solids
  • Site layout and geophysics

39
Downstream Application of the Syngas
  • Dimethyl Ether (DME) can be used
  • For Power Generation, As LPG
    Substitute, As Transportation fuel, As Chemical
    feedstock etc.
  • Methanol to Olefins (MTO)
  • Coal gasification route can be extended to
    manufacturing olefins
  • from methanol (called MTO).
  • Coal to Liquid Petroleum (CTL)
  • The project involves direct conversion
    of coal to syngas, from which hydrogen will be
    separated to be further processed along with coal
    to produce liquid hydrocarbon (Fischer Tropsch
    process). This liquid hydrocarbon will be refined
    / distilled like in a typical refinery to produce
    gasoline and diesel, naphtha etc. Waxes are the
    byproduct of this process.

40
Downstream Application of the Syngas
  • Ammonia / Urea
  • N23H2 ? 2NH3
  • 2NH3 CO2 ? CO(NH2)2 H2O
  • Methanol for Gasoline Blending
  • CO 2H2 ? CH3OH
  • Dimethyl Ether (DME)
  • MeOH Synthesis
  • CO H2 ? CH3OH
  • MeOH Dehydration
  • 2CH3OH ? CH3OCH3 H2O
  • Water Gas Shift
  • H2O CO ? H2 CO2
  • Net Reaction 3H2 3CO ? CH3OCH3 CO2

41
Process efficiencies
  • Efficiency of processes for electricity production

42
Concept of UCG Process
  • The gasification occurs within a bubble in an
    aquifer
  • the gas pressure inside the bubble prevents the
    water from quenching the
  • reactions.
  • Due to the elevated temperature of the gas,
    water evaporates
  • into the bubble and it is only the flow of water
    through the
  • surrounding solids that prevents the gas bubble
    from expanding
  • excessively,
  • a situation that can lead to loss of gas into
    the surrounding strata.
  • The location and size of the bubble will depend
    on factors such as
  • the gas pressure, temperature and water inflow
    rates.
  • Release of volatiles from the coal is likely to
    cause hot regions
  • due to combustion of the volatiles, causing
    localized drying.
  • Conversely, in cold regions it is likely that
    water will seep into the void and
  • reactions will be extinguished.

43
Concept of UCG Process
  • While char combustion is possible in the void, it
    is unlikely that it
  • will be sustained due to all oxygen being
    consumed before it can
  • contact the char surfaces.
  • Most char will be consumed by steam and carbon
    dioxide gasification
  • reactions,
  • with steam dominating due to the high moisture
    levels.
  • As these reactions are endothermic, they require
    that the char must
  • be kept hot for reaction rate to be maintained.
  • This requires locally high gas temperatures and
    heat transfer through radiative or
  • convective means,
  • The driving force for a sustainable UCG process
    will be the combustion
  • of volatiles and gasification product gases by
    the injected oxygen.

44
Shift conversion CO H2O
CO2 H2 42.3 KJ/ Kmole The rxn is used
to adjust H2/ CO ratio in the feed gas for
methanation/ hydrogenation rxns. Also used in
reforming rxn of CH4. and NH3 production. Methana
tion/ Hydrogenation reactions is used to
produce additional CH4 from H2 and the oxides of
carbon in case of SNG production. CO H2
CH4 H2O Steam reforming CH4 H2O
CO H2- 206 KJ/ Kmole CH4 2 H2O
CO2 H2- 167 KJ/ mole The CH4 is reformed under
specific CO/ H2 ratio thru shift conversion of
CO
45
What UCG can offer for India
303 Billion Tons (CoalLignite Reserves)
256 Billion Tons (Unminable Reserves)
47 Billion Tons (Minable Reserves)
25.7 Billion Tons (Reserves amenable to UCG)
Potential of UCG Syngas 64.17 TCM
46
Indias Energy Mix (Requirement)
Source Integrated Energy Policy, Govt. of India,
Planning commission, New Delhi
Total 306 kgoe
Total 1125 kgoe
  • Oil consumption to grow by CAGR 4.0
  • Gas consumption to grow by CAGR 6.1

47
Underground Coal Gasification
  • Underground coal gasification (UCG) is the
    in-situ conversion of coal into combustible gases
    (CO, H2 CH4)
  • A complex process involving
  • chemical reactions
  • heat and mass transfer
  • complex flow dynamics
  • growing cavity dimensions.
  • Advantages over conventional process are
  • Low dust and noise
  • No ash handling at power stations
  • No coal stocking and transportation
  • Larger coal resource exploitation
  • Converts sulphur (S) to H2S and nitrogen (N) to
  • NH3 instead of SO2 and Nox
  • Disadvantages
  • Surface subsidence

48
Revival of Interest in UCG
  • Early part of last century -there was lot of
    interest in UCG especially in erstwhile USSR
  • Subsequently, huge natural gas reserves were
    discovered in Russia-interest in UCG died out
  • Surge in demand for energy as well as prices of
    crude oil has renewed interest in UCG all over
    the world
  • Recently, Australia and South Africa have carried
    successful tests. In China and other parts of the
    world several projects are planned/ being carried
    out

49
  • ONGC an Indian State Enterprise
  • and an integrated Oil Gas Corporate
  • with interests in
  • EP, Refining, LNG, Power, Petrochemicals New
    sources of energy
  • a reliable energy solution provider for the
    country

In pursuit of new Energy Sources CBM Coal Bed
Methane UCG Underground Coal Gasification
50
Synergies between Oil Gas and UCG
51
Commercial UCG Station
V-13
V-7
V-14
V-1
V-8
V-2
V-15
V-9
V-16
V-3
V-10
V-17
V-4
V-11
V-18
V-5
V-12
V-6
Plan to produce 2 BCM Syngas from two gasifiers
per year
52
Suggestions
  • Inclusion of Pilot and demo plant to be
    considered in the overall scheme thereby increase
    in time limit for commercialisation
  • Preference for award of coal blocks be given to
    companies who can demonstrate the technology
    early
  • Lucrative economic package by the GoI will help
    faster development of UCG Technology in India
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