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Title: fix up: restore: fix up: restore: 4). (Don t


1
  • The Joy of Travel
  • Preparation
  • In-class Reading
  • After-class Reading
  • Quiz1
  • Quiz2
  • Unit 7

2
Preparation
As far as we can see, knowledge can be roughly
acquired from two sources books and experience.
The latter is no less valuable than the former.
Believe it or not, one of the best means of
getting knowledge of the latter is to travel
since traveling provides a much more direct means
of understanding people, culture and the world.
In the modern world, travel is still motivated by
the desire to expand ones horizons, to
experience other cultures, and to connect with
other people. Like reading a fascinating book,
traveling is in many respects an exhibition of
mans fundamental curiosity. To see is to
believe. Only through travel can one personally
experience and satisfy this curiosity. For
example, you must have a lot of idea of what
Shanghai is like before you pay a visit there.
Whats your first impression of the city? What
are you eager to know about it? Well, pay a visit
there and you can gain your personal insight and
perspective, which can in no case be obtained
through other means. Now, you are to have an
opportunity to make a trip to several world
famous cities. Lets see what we can get during
this short journey. (Ask students to open the
book to P. 236-237, quickly read the brief
introduction about each city. Then, prepare to
answer the following questions. These questions
are primarily intended to test students ability
to locate key information from among details. It
is advisable to ask students to have something
like a contest and see who or which group is the
quickest and the best to give the correct
answers.) Now, to have a further understanding
of each city, our guide puts forward several
review questions to test our memory and knowledge.
3
1. Which historical places can one pay a visit
to in Beijing? (the Great Wall, the Ming Tomb,
the Imperial Palace) 2. Which city is said to
have the cleanest train in the world? What about
its speed? (Osaka in Japan, over 210 kilometers)
3. Which city is a city of contrasts? Or in
which city can you see the rich and the poor, the
sacred and the worldly side by side? (Jakarta ,
the capital city of Indonesia) 4. Which city is
a fascinating mixture of old and new? (Manila)
5. Which city has the largest population?
(Beijing , 9 million) 6. Which city can never
make travelers feel tired? (Manila) 7. Which
city still has the influence of Dutch and
Portuguese? (Jakarta) 8. In which city is there
a big casino? (Seoul) 9. Which city was
originally founded by the Spanish explorers?
(Manila) 10. Which city is mainly a commercial
and industrial city? (0saka) 11. How many
capital cities are mentioned ? What are they ? (4
capital cities, they are Jakarta, Beijing,
Manila, and Seoul ) 12. Which city has the
castle as its tourist attraction? (Osaka)
4
(When finishing this exercise, be sure to draw
students attention to the following useful
expressions the sacred and the worldly, be said
to be, be situated in , as early as, a mixture of
, be bored with , a commercial city, a tourist
resort/attraction , a bullet train, have a
population of , have a collection of , go for a
drive) Through this trip, I am sure you must have
got in a good harvest. I also hope in time to
come, you will have opportunities to make a real
journey there. Traveling can not only accumulate
our knowledge about history, culture, geography,
and local traditions, but also bring us many
other benefits. For instance, traveling can even
develop into an industry called tourism, which is
the primary source of national income for some
countries. Now you are going to listen to a short
passage on Benefits of Travel. While
listening, try to fill in the missing parts. Then
quickly look through the whole passage again and
see what benefits you can obtain from it. Travel
can __________(1 widen) our knowledge and
___________(2 broaden our horizons) which we can
never get from books and classrooms. Through
traveling we can get the knowledge of
____________(3 geography), customs, cultures, and
life-style of different places and countries. In
travel, we can make more friends and know more
about the _______________(4 development) in other
countries and the different ways of thinking.
Travel is also one of the best ways of
__________(5 pastime). After long period of hard
and _________(6 tense) work, we can ___________(7
relax) ourselves in a free ________(8
5
mental) state ___________(9 completely) by
traveling to enjoy the beautiful _____________(10
scenic spots), to visit _____________(11 historic
interest), to see different cities or
countryside, to meet distinctive people and to
taste _________(12 peculiar) food. Furthermore,
travel can _____________(13 strengthen) our
health. One who keeps him indoors all day long is
likely to be sick. By traveling we can get the
chance to climb mountains, walk on foot, do more
exercises and _________(14 breathe) more fresh
air. Especially in recent years, owing to the
_____________(15 environmental pollution), more
and more people look for clean destinations where
they can breathe fresh air and __________(16
admire) nature in its unspoiled state. Nowadays,
with all the comforts _____________(17 available)
in route and modern modes of ___________(18
transportation), many people find it more
convenient to travel to other places and even
other countries just for the sake of
_____________(19 pleasure) and sightseeing. To
sum up, it is well worth our time and money since
traveling is _____________(20 beneficial) to
people in so many ways. As is discussed in
the above passage, most people travel mainly for
the purpose of enriching experiences, getting
fun, strengthening health or having relaxation.
However, have you ever heard traveling can even
transform a person? In other words, traveling can
create a new self? Well, read the passage
Transformative Travel and see what changes have
been brought about to the authors life by
traveling.
6
In-class Reading
  • Text Information Analysis
  • surface-level information analysis
  • deep-level information analysis
  • Language Points
  • Difficult sentences
  • Key Language Points
  • Stick
  • Challenge
  • Transform
  • Pay off
  • With all ones heart (and soul)
  • In itself / oneself
  • Push
  • Reinforce
  • Intend
  • Back down / off
  • Perspective

7
Surface-level information analysis
1.       How did the author feel before he went
on a trip to Aruba? What caused his
dissatisfaction ? or what was the author
dissatisfied with then? ( para1-2 He felt
hopeless and lost. He is dissatisfied with his
job and his engagement.) 2.       To get released
from his distressing situation, the author
decided to take a class, where he made his first
important decision. What was he determined to do?
(para3 Probably under the influence of the
counseling course, he decided to quit his job and
end his engagement. ) 3.       When he finally
got released, what did he feel then? Why? And how
did he cope with the situation? (para 4 He was
mixed with both excitement and anxiety. Excited
because he enjoyed freedom then. Anxious because
he was at a loss as to what to do next. He thus
made his second important decision booking a
trip for a week in Aruba) 4.       What did he do
when he settled on the little island of Aruba?
What appeared to be of greatest importance to the
author there? (para 6 He made a careful schedule
of his daily activities he spent mornings . To
the author, the most important thing is the
freedom to enjoy being different from his usual
self. ) 5.       How many stages of processes for
change did the author undergo? (para. 7-14 7.
It is advisable to ask students to make a list of
the key idea of each stage by following the topic
sentence of each paragraph) What did
the author think of his trip to Aruba? What did
he learn from this trip? (para. 15 He thought his
trip transformed him a great deal and decided his
future traveling have some transformative
dimension to it so as to continue his growth. )
8
Deep-level information analysis
1.       Reading this story, we know the one-week
trip to Aruba was rather costly as we know it may
take a year for the author to pay it off. Did the
author think it worthwhile to do so? Why? (The
author believed it worthwhile to make this trip
there since he was convinced that a single week
in Aruba was worth three years in therapy. One
thing that needs to be kept in mind is that the
author made this trip not for pleasure or
entertainment but for transformation. He just
chose a very peculiar way to achieve this purpose
and he made it. In this sense, his efforts paid
off. What the trip brings in return to him is a
new life, a new and promising self, which is
something money cant buy. ) 2.      What does
the title Transformative Travel mean? (Travel
can change a persons life. Through his own
experiences, the author highly recommends the
advantage of travel.)
9
Difficult Sentences
1. (para. 2 line 5) but I suppose it was the
fantasy of reality explain the emphatic
structure it was/is that 2. (L12, S1,
para4)find oneself participle / prepositional
phrase further explain the part excited by
yet Examples Then I found myself surrounded
by a dozen boys. Once or twice I found myself
doubting my own judgment. Youll soon find
yourself without any friends at all if you keep
on being so rude to everybody. 3. (para. 6 line
21 ) I really could have been anywhere as long as
nobody could reach me I wanted to do. Explain
(1) the structure could have been (2) the
meaning of the word reach here 4. L47-48, S3,
para11)to see how it felt (feel to give you the
feeling esp. when you touch or experience sth.)
to find out what feelings I would have
Examples Her skin felt cold and rough.
The metal felt smooth and cold. 5. (L52,
S2, para12)There are times when Sometimes
Example There are times when she makes me
despair of the whole thing. 6. (L60, S1, para14)
I made changes when I returned that continued the
transformation that started while I was in Aruba.
explain the two that clauses. Both are
attributive clauses. The first that clause that
continued the transformation in Aruba modifies
the word changes, separated by when-clause. The
second that clause that started modifies the
word transformation.
10
stick
(stuck, stuck) v. 1. be or become fixed fail to
work properly??,??2. push (sth pointed) (into,
through, etc)?,(??)?? 3. (cause to) be or become
joined or fastened with, or as with, paste, glue,
or other substance (?)??,??
n. short thin branch used as a support, as a
weapon or as firewood?, ?,??
Usage stick on fasten to with paste,
etc???? stick sth. in/through (sth) stick sth.
into sth push or thrust ,esp. sth pointed into,
through, etc sth???? ?(??)stick to ? not abandon
or change sth keep to sth??? (cause sth to)
become fixed, joined or fastened with a sticky
substance???? ?be faithful to(ones ideals, a
friend, etc.)??,?? ???,?? E.g. (Hand out the
material and ask the students to decide on the
meaning of each sentence. Then teachers make a
summary.) It looks as if Im stuck in the job of
clearing up this mess. He was stuck awkwardly in
the middle. (?????) Our car was stuck in traffic
for hours. I was stuck over/on/in/with one word
in that crossword puzzle.
11
Will you help me with this mathematical problem?
Im stuck with/on/in/over it. The football fan
stuck some pictures of the football stars on the
wall by his bed. Just stick the stamps on all
those letters. The key has stuck in the
lock. Windows sometimes stick so that you cant
open them. Powdered sand sticks to peoples hair
and skin. If you stick to the truth, youve
nothing to fear. Make sure you stick to the
same story when youre questioned a second time.
Once weve sorted out a program of events,
lets for Heavens sake try to stick to it. We
should stick to the main road since were not
sure of the way. Dont keep changing your
companions get a few good friends and stick to
them. Derivative sticky a.?(?)?(??)??????,???
12
challenge
v. ?to invite sb. to compete against one in a
fight, match, etc. ?to question the rightness,
legality, etc., of to dispute ????? n. ?an
invitation to compete in a fight, match, etc. ?a
questioning of the rightness, legality, etc., of
sth.
Usage give a challenge ?? accept/ meet/ respond
to/ take up a challenge ?? challenge n. /
pron.( sb.) to sth./to do sth. E.g. (Hand out
the material and ask students to work on them by
themselves after class. Teachers may summarize
its usage in class by giving the Chinese
translations of some sentences and by asking
students to do oral translation in English.
) Our school team challenged the local champion
team to a football match. I challenge you to
race me across the lake. The champion swimmer
challenged the world to beat him. The difficulty
of putting our ideas into practice challenged us
to explore a new method. No one has ever
challenged his authority in these matters. Im
afraid it is out of place to challenge your
superiors orders. Exploring outer space
is/presents a great challenge to mankind. He
accepted his friends challenge to swim across
the river. The government will have to meet the
challenge of rising unemployment. One of the
biggest challenges facing the present government
is that of creating new jobs opportunities.
. Derivative challenging a. needing the full use
of ones abilities and effort difficult, but in
an interesting way
13
transform
v. to change completely in form, appearance, or
nature
Usage transforminto E.g. One form of energy
can be transformed into another. Manual labor
has transformed her completely. She is no longer
what she used to be. A beard transformed him
beyond recognition. Responsibility transformed
him from a happy-go-lucky boy into a capable
leader. We were surprised greatly at the plans
that were transformed overnight into
reality. Derivative transformative a.
transformation n. transformer n. ???
Hints ? Transform can only be used as a
transitive verb. It denotes the great, sudden,
mysterious, thorough and fundamental change of a
person or thing in appearance, form and nature.
?Draw students attention to the prefix trans-,
which means across, on or to the other side
of. More example (It is advisable to ask
students to make a list ) transplant /
translate / translation / transfer / transport /
transportation / transition / transmit
/transmitter / transmission / transistor /
transparent(a.) Exercise Fill in the following
blanks with the words listed below. Change the
form where necessary. transform, transfer ,
transmit , transplant, transport, transparent
14
1) In only 20 years the country has been
_____(transformed) into an advanced industrial
power. 2) The head office has been
________(transferred) from Leeds to London. 3)
Parents _________(transmit) some of their
characteristics to their children. 4) In terms of
modern technology, the medical means can
________(transplant) almost every organ of the
human body. 5) As a result of speed in
______________(transport/transportation) and
communication, the world is getting smaller and
the peoples living in different parts of the
earth are becoming more closely linked
together 6) As is known to us all, iron
_________(transmits) heat. 7) It was
_________(transparent) that she was displeased.
The remarks you had made on her performance must
have offended her. 8) The land, factories and
others sorts of production goods have been
_____________(transferred) from the well-to-do
families to the state. 9) In recent years his
perceptions of the world have undergone a
complete ______ (transformation). 10) Experts
urged that students be educated on how to prevent
sexually__________ (transmitted) diseases such as
AIDS.
15
pay off
?pay the whole of (a debt) ? pay in full and
discharge from service ?????????? ? be profitable
or advantageous be successful (No passive) ????,
??????
E.g. He had expected to pay off all his debts
shortly but as a matter of fact it took him four
years. The employees were paid off just before
they quit for the holiday. Hardly had the
bridge been completed when more than 50 employees
were paid off. Stick to your goal and dont
hesitate. Your efforts will pay off in the long
run. John studied hard before the examination,
and it paid off. He made an A. Hints Draw
students attention to its third figurative
meaning, whose usage students often have
difficulty grasping. In addition, review the
following phrasal verbs concerning pay pay
for ?give money, etc. in exchange for ?????,
?? ? receive punishment or suffering for (sth)
?????, ????? pay back ?return / repay money
?give the same treatment as received ???,? ?
pay up pay in full pay what is owned ???? pay
out to make a large payment for sth. ??,
?? Exercise Choose the correct phrases to fill
in the following blanks.
16
1). I assure you that he is trustworthy and will
___________(pay back) every cent he owes you.
2). Sometimes one has to dearly/heavily
__________(pay dearly/heavily for) the mistakes
he has committed. 3). She knows she wasnt fair
to him in the past, and now she is trying to
_______________(pay for) it with kindness. 4).
How can I _____________ (pay you back) you for
all your kindness and generosity? 5). To his
great relief, the monthly installments on the car
were eventually ______________(paid up). 6). The
damage is due to his neglect of duty, so hell
have to ___________(pay for) it. 7). He took out
an interest-free loan. That is to say, he just
needs to _______________(pay back) the principal
to the bank. 8). He is a kindly sort of fellow
and will probably not try to ______________(pay
back) for the insult. 9). He has
______________(paid out) a lot(or large sums of
money) on school fees and uniforms
17
with all ones heart (and soul)
completely and willingly heart and soul very
earnestly
E.g. I wish you success with all my heart. Ill
help you with all my heart. I love you with all
my heart. Hints The connotative meaning of the
word heart is often dealt with, which can be
reflected in a large number of its idiomatic
phrases or expressions. Besides, a comparison
between the word heart and mind in their
application of different contexts is highly
necessary. Ask students to do the following
exercise first and then based on their
understanding, summarize the relevant idiomatic
expressions regarding the two words. Exercise
Please fill in the following blanks with heart or
mind. 1)      I hope with all my
___________(heart) that you will succeed in the
speech contest. 2)      He made up his
________(mind) not to keep company with those
people any longer. 3)      The heros death
almost broke the _____________(heart) of his
mother but she turned her grief into strength and
had her youngest son sent to the front. 4)     
Dont lose _______(heart). The failure is just
temporary and all will turn out well if you put
your ________(heart) into it. 5)      I dont
think changing ones __________(mind) indicates a
lack of mental stability.
18
6)     Once he sets his __________(heart /mind)
on something, he wont easily give up till he
makes it. 7)      Despite many difficulties on
the way, he took _________(heart) and fulfilled
the task in time. 8)      She took her
boyfriends ingratitude very much to__________(
heart). 9)      Please ____________(keep / bear
in mind) the instructions the doctor has given
you. 10)   From the bottom of our
_________(hearts) we hope that the friendship
between our two peoples will last
forever. 11)     His manners are rough, but hes
a kind man at ________(heart). 12)    Most people
agree with him, but to my ________(mind) he
departs from the truth at least in that point.
The following can be referred to when teachers
make the summary (1) Idiomatic phrases
concerning heart at heart in ones real
nature in spite of appearances at bottom in
reality break sbs heart make sb very sad (get
/ learn / know sth) by heart from memory from
(the bottom of) ones heart sincerely in ones
heart of hearts in ones inmost feelings lose
heart be discouraged set ones heart on be
very anxious to do / have take heart be
confident take to heart be much affected by
it grieve over it to ones hearts content as
much as, or as long as, etc one wishes (2)
Idiomatic phrases concerning mind keep / bear
sth in mind (remember sth) change ones mind
(change ones purpose or intention) make up
ones mind (come to a decision) to my mind in
my eye have in mind be considering sth. or sb.
as suitable for set ones mind on sth. put all
ones attention to sth.
19
in itself / oneself
??,???
E.g. The talk was all right in itself but it
went on too long. The fair(???) is in
itself a symbol of the development of Chinas
foreign trade. In a sense, an
encyclopedia(????) is a library in itself.
Hints Compare the following easily confused
phrases by oneself / itself ???, ???of itself
/oneself ???,??? for oneself ????,???? to
oneself ? ?? Exercise Choose the correct
oneself phrases to fill in the following
blanks 1)      It took him almost two years but
he fulfilled the tremendous task all ______ (by
himself) 2)      Victory will not come
_________(of itself). 3)      The door closed
__________(of itself) and the light went
out____________(of itself). 4)      First of all,
to live a meaningful life one should not live
___________(for oneself) alone. 5)      We
suspected that Mary knew the answer to the
problem, but she kept it _______(to
herself). 6)      When Bob insisted on going,
Joan left him ________(to himself). 7)      The
problem is unimportant _________(in itself) but
its long-term effects could be very
serious. 8)    The wooden house stands there all
__________(by itself) and the machine in it works
________(by itself).
20
push
v. ?use force in order to move sth away from
oneself (forward or to a different position)
?try to make (sb) do sth (that he does not want
to do drive or urge)
Usage push sb to do sth / into doing sth push
sb on /ahead / forward (continue on ones way
move forward with haste or determination) push
sb about / around (infml) (try to control sb
in an unpleasant way, as by giving orders order
sb about / around) E.g. We pushed him hard
to take up science. She was pushed into going to
university by her parents. Well be pushed to
get there in time. (have difficulty getting
) Lets push on its nearly nightfall. If we
push forward, we can get home before
dark. Whatever happens, we must push ahead with
our plans to increase production. We must push
on with the work if we are to finish it on
schedule. Stop pushing me around!Im quite able
to make my own decisions!
21
reinforce
v. (1). to add strength or support to ????
(2). to strengthen (a group, esp. an army) by the
addition of men, equipment, etc. ??
Usage reinforce with E.g. Their arguments
are strongly reinforced by the latest trade
figures. Newspapers like this tend to reinforce
peoples prejudices. This cement building is
reinforced with bands of steel. It is easy to
direct a childs pattern of behavior by
reinforcing good behavior with some kind of
reward. To put forward a convincing argument,
one must reinforce it with facts. The rescue
team was reinforced by 12 experienced miners.
Derivative reinforcement n.
22
intend
mean have (a particular purpose or plan) in mind
Derivative intention n. Usage intend to do/
doing sth intend sb / sth to do(for)sth. often
used in be intended to do(for) sth. / intend
sb. sth. / intend that-clause (usually in
subjunctive mood) intend sth as sth (be
intended as) E.g. We intend her to set out at
once./ We intended her for departure at once.
What do you intend to do next? Can you iron
out the misunderstanding? They intend you no
harm. The fund is intended for emergency use
only. They intend that this reform (should) be
carried through this year. My remark was not
intended as a joke! Jims gift of flowers was
intended as a way of saying that he was sorry
that he had quarreled with Mary. I had intended
to complete the assignment during the weekend,
but something unexpected occurred.
23
Hints Draw students attention to the last
example and further explain this usage to them.
The sentence means I planned to complete the
assignment during the weekend, but I couldnt.
Without changing its meaning, the same sentence
can be put this way I intended to have
completed the assignment Other words having
the similar usage can be referred to as follows
expect, wish, plan, mean, hope, want, be, etc.
Exercise Translate the following sentences into
English. 1)  ????????????,?????????(I was to have
returned you the book, but I was too busy that
day.) 2)  ????????, ???????????(I intended to
have come yesterday / I had intended to come
yesterday, but I had to attend a
meeting.) 3) ???????????,????????(He had planned
to go abroad / planned to have gone abroad next
month but he was suddenly taken
ill.) 4)  ???????,???????, ????????????,????(When
I reached the corner, I had meant to drive /
meant to have driven slowly, but I was talking to
my friend and forgot.)
24
back down / off
(infml) yield in argument, point of view, or
claims
E.g. The time for the action has arrived now.
Its too late to back off, Im afraid. After
several hours negotiations, they finally backed
down on their unreasonable demands. After being
shown conclusive evidence, the other side had to
back down. The manager of the auto company is
not willing to back off his prediction of a
considerable gain. Hints Review the related
phrase back up we learned in Unit 2. back up
? (cause to) move backwards e.g. He carefully
backed his car up into the garage. ?give moral,
physical support to e.g. Harris will back me up
wholeheartedly as he used to. The lectures of
this course are to be backed up by a
comprehensive programme of field work.
25
perspective
n. ? the way in which a situation or problem is
judged, so that proper consideration and
importance is given to each part ??,?? ? a view,
esp. one stretching far into the distance ??, ??
? ????
Usage in perspective / in its right perspective
?????? ???,????? ?see, view, put ????????out
of perspective in/from the perspective of
????lack perspective ???? E.g. The comments of
foreign critics often give us a new perspective
on our literary achievements. The new
evidence put an entirely different perspective on
the case. From the top of the hill you
can get a perspective of the entire park. We
should see events in their historical
perspective. Things have changed a lot, so we
should view the situation from a new
perspective. The objects in the background are
in/ out of perspective. The drawing of the house
is good, but the car is out of perspective.(????)
We must get/keep the problem in
perspective its not really that serious.
26
After-class Reading
Passage One
The Romance of Train Travel
  • Text Information Analysis
  • Key Language Points
  • Characteristic
  • Schedule
  • Bring on
  • Advantage
  • Fix up
  • Restore
  • Live
  • Board
  • Pull in / into
  • Passage II
  • Distress
  • Boast

27
Text Information Analysis
In Passage I, the Romance of Train Travel, the
author first comments on one of the
characteristics of modern world---- speed. Then
he states that many of us actually want to slow
down. Each time we hear the sound of a train
whistle, well have a strong sense of nostalgia.
Thats because there is a sense of romance about
a train that doesnt exist on a modern jet plane,
and train whistles may remind us of the good old
days when life was slower. Therefore, many
railroad companies are taking advantage of the
nostalgia for train travel to offer unique tours
for travelers who arent in a hurry and who enjoy
the romance of the past. Describing the romantic
train travels, the author brings us back to those
unforgettable trips on trains in the past. Now
you are going to listen to some descriptions and
then decide on which train the following
situations often happen. (1) This train travel is
specially offered to those interested in
religion, passengers can have a chance to visit
the place where Prince Gautama became Buddha.
(The Great Indian Rover) (2). On this train,
passengers can enjoy the natural beauty, they can
even take photographs or have picnics during the
trip. (Toy Train, a train of India) (3). This
train travel was usually associated with
excitement and danger the traveling was the
scene of mystery or crime. It was really like an
adventure, giving people a sense of romance.
(Orient Express) (4). This train takes you 7
days. Passengers can go sight-seeing to palaces,
cities, where they can receive warm welcome.
(Palace on Wheels ) (5). This train offers
creative, entertaining games, in which the
travelers act as detectives, helping to
participate in solving the mystery and catch the
criminal. (Mystery Express running from New York
to Montreal) (6). On this train, travelers on
board can enjoy an extra advantage, they can hear
a lecture on a countrys history and culture. (
Trans-Siberian Special from Mongolia to Moscow )
28
characteristic
a. forming part of the character of a person or
thing typical n. distinguishing
feature
Usage be characteristic of (be typical
of) E.g. Windy days are characteristic of
March. Its characteristic of her that she
never complains. It is characteristic of her to
keep herself indoors all day long when in low
spirits. Good planning is one of the
characteristics of a successful business. The
major characteristic of jazz is its heavy
rhythm(?????). Hints Draw students attention
to the two easily confused words character and
characteristic. Unlike characteristic (n.),
which often describes objectively the specific
feature or quality of sb or sth., character
refers to the combination of qualities which make
a particular person, thing, place, etc.,
different from others or that are regarded as
valuable or admirable, such as honesty, etc. It
can be interpreted in Chinese as ?? ,??,??,??
etc. Roughly speaking, character is the sum of
all the specific characteristics of a thing or
person. In addition, character can have such
connotations as a person who is very unusual or
well-known(??,????), a person in a novel or
play(??), etc. The following two phrases deserve
to be discussed as well. in character
29
(????????) out of character (?????????) e.g.
Mary was a nice girl her fit of temper was
indeed out of character. Exercise Fill in the
following blanks with character and
characteristic. 1) They resemble each other in
appearance but are strikingly different in
_________(character). 2) Cheerfulness is one of
the girls distinguishing _________(characteristic
s) while the boy is usually of a strong
__________(character). 3) The style of this
painting is fairly _______ (characteristic) of
his early work. 4) The fat actor was in
________(character) because the ______(character
) he played was supposed to be fat. 5) It really
distressed my heart when I saw some people who
even gave up their noble _______________(character
) in return for the material benefits. 6) The
ability to use language is one _________(character
istic) that distinguishes man from animals. 7)
Let me list some of the _____________(characterist
ics) many outstanding top-achievers have in
common. 8) The whole ____________(character
?????) of the village has changed beyond
recognition since I was last here.
30
schedule
n. timetable, calendar, agenda or program for
work v. plan , arrange
Usage on schedule on time as planned or
expected ahead of schedule ahead of time
before the planned or expected time behind
schedule after the planned or expected time
not on time (according) to schedule as planned
be scheduled for / be scheduled to do sth E.g.
We are all aware of the importance of completing
the project on schedule / ahead of
schedule. This workshop has fulfilled its
output quota(????) two months ahead of
schedule. The train was half an hour behind
schedule. If everything goes according to
schedule, we should have the work finished by the
end of the month. We were then badly behind
schedule in our work.

(?????????????????) The arrival of the
steamer is scheduled for the 18th instant.

(??????18???) The president is scheduled for/
to make a speech tomorrow.
31
bring on
cause (sth such as an illness) cause to advance
or improve??,?????
E.g. The sudden weather brought on his fever
again. Reading in poor light may bring on
a headache. The warm weather should bring on
the crops nicely . Hints Review the following
phrasal verbs concerning bring bring about
cause (sth) cause to happen ??,??? bring out
?reveal, show ????(?????????) ?offer to the
public??, ?? bring up ?( Br.E ) educate raise
(a child) ??, ??, ???mention or introduce (a
subject) ??, ??,?? Exercise Fill in the
following blanks with the bring on, bring up,
bring about, bring out . 1)    Land reform
________(brought about) a great change in the
lives of the common people. 2)    The
tutor(????) ___________(brought on) the backward
boy until he was normal in intelligence.
3)      Difficulties and hardship can
_________(bring out) a persons best qualities.
32
4)     The new environment _____________(brought
about) a wonderful change in her character. She
used to be very easily angered. 5)     The farm
machinery plant is _________(bringing out) a new
walking tractor next month.(????????????????????)
6)     The question of practicing economy was
again _______(brought up) at yesterdays
meeting. 7)     The warm sunshine has
________(brought out) all the flowers on the
fruit trees. 8)   The crisis in our industry was
_________(brought on) by intense competition from
foreign producers. 9)   The Peoples Publishing
House will soon ________(bring out) a new series
of childrens books.
33
advantage
n. ?sth. that may help one to be successful or to
gain a favorable result ?a favorable
condition resulting from a particular course of
action gain benefit
Usage take advantage of(1). to make use of,
profit from (??)??(?????) (2). to make unfair
use of sb. or ones quality, exploit????,????to
advantage to a good effect, favorably(???????)??
??????? to sbs advantage to ones favor ?????
gain / get / win / have / obtain an advantage
over or have the advantage of have a better
position or opportunity ??,? ?????,??? give
sb. an advantage over give sb a better position
or opportunity ????? E.g. (When explaining the
usage of the phrase take advantage of,
teachers are advised to ask students to
translate the following sentences into English.
Then give some other English examples to further
elaborate on its other expressions.) 1).
??????????????(He often took advantage of my lack
of experience.) 2) ??????????????(I took
advantage of the fine weather today to paint the
doors and windows.) 3). ??????????(rivals)??????(
He always takes full advantage the mistakes made
by his rivals.)
34
4). ?????,??????????(Dont try to take advantage
of me I know full well what youre up to.) 5).
????????????????????????(Toms university
education gave him an advantage over boys who had
not been to a university.) Other examples to
refer to in explaining other phrases 6)     
This painting is seen to (better) advantage from
a distance.?????????(????)? 7)      What they
suggest would only be to their advantage and not
ours. ????????????,?????????? 8)      He has the
advantage of the other teachers in the group when
he talks about American literature.
??????????????????????? 9)      Her teaching
experience gave her a big advantage over the
other applicants for the job. 10)      This
method has the advantage of saving a lot of
fuel. 11)      The disadvantages of the proposal
outweigh the advantages. (????) Derivative
advantageous adj. (to) Antonym disadvantage n.

35
fix up
? repair or improve ??,?? ?make arrangements
for, find a place to stay ??, ??, ??(??)
E.g. The old machine was fixed up and put to
work again. They fixed up a temporary
platform at one end of the room so that the
performance could be carried on. I hope you
can fix up an appointment with the director
recently. The hotel attendants fixed up the
tired travelers for the night. Hints Compare it
with fix on / upon (1. decide about choose ??,??
2. look intently at gaze at ??,??). E.g. Have
you fixed on where to hold the party? After a
long discussion we fixed on this site for the
new reservoir. The trouble is that I cant fix my
mind on what I am doing.
  • restore

v. (1). to bring back into use or existence to
put back into a former position or
condition????? (2). to put (esp. an old
building, piece of furniture, or work of art)
back into its original state?? ?? (3). to give
back??, ??
Usage restore to restore(prep) in /
into / out of E.g. The relations between the
two countries were restored to normal.
Troops were sent to restore law and order
to the city. The temple has
been carefully restored to its original state.
The stolen property was restored
to its original owner. After
the holiday, I feel completely restored to
health.
36
Hints Both the words restore and recover
refer to getting back something that has been
lost. Recover is more general it can refer to
finding a lost item by chance or accident as
easily as by intention and effort. Restore
suggests bringing back to an original or
unimpaired condition after exhaustion, illness,
dilapidation, etc. The two words also differ
greatly in their usage, with recover used in
recover()from and restore in restore to.
Exercise Fill in the following blanks with
restore or recover. 1)      The new managers
job is to ________(restore) the company to
profitability. 2)      He has completely
________(recovered) from his bad cold and will
start to work next week. 3)      They
________(restored) the house to the way it might
have looked in the 18th century. 4)      The
army was able to _____(recover) any of the
territory it lost. 5)      One of his eyes was
injured in an accident, but after a delicate
operation, he quickly ____________(recover )his
sight. 6)      Ill see to it that the lost child
will be _______(restored) to his own parents.
7)      The region soon _________(recovered)
from effect of the earthquake. 8)      The
manager was asked to resign but was later
______(restored) to his former job. 9)      He
only ________(recovered) his position of
eminence(??,??) among his fellow scientists in
the last day of his life.
37
live
a.? having life (usu. as a modifier) ????,?? ?
charged with electricity ??? ? (of sth broadcast)
not recorded in advance (on tape or records)
?????,(????)?????? (4). of interest or importance
at the present time ???????
Hints Compare the three easily confused words
alive, live, living. Living may refer only to the
condition of not being dead. E.g. He is the
greatest living novelist in England. My
grandfather is still living at the age of 93. By
extension, living may also describe things that
are full of energy and significance or are
actually operative. e.g. a living language.
Normally used as a predicative, alive applies to
all degrees of life, from that which is barely
evident to that which implies the very utmost of
vitality and power.(???? ???????,??????????????)
e.g. The wounded man was unconscious but still
alive when taken to the hospital. She is so alive
that her presence in the room brought a lot of
laughter and fun. Live, which is usually placed
before the noun modified, may describe the
condition of appearing in the flesh rather than
being depicted in photographs, paintings, etc.
e.g. It is the first time the little child has
seen a live monkey. In television and radio, a
live program is one being performed at the time
of transmission rather than appearing in a taped
performance. When applied to certain things,
live carries the idea of vital functioning. E.g.
a live wire (??), a live topic (????)
(????????????,???,????,??????????? ?????????????
?????????????????? ??????????,?????)
38
Exercise Fill in the following blanks with live,
alive and living. 1). They brought down an enemy
plane last night. The pilot was captured
____(alive). 2). The lion only eats ______(live)
animals. 3). It was said that several black
people were burnt _______(alive) in the
accident. 4). The dog was playing with a
_______(live) rabbit. 5). The sleeping pattern of
a __________(living) creature is determined by
the food it eats. 6). While politicians argue
about nuclear weapons, ordinary people are simply
concerned with staying __________. (alive) 7).
The laboratory is conducting experiments with a
dozen ______(live) monkeys. 8). The wilderness is
a ________(living ????) museum of natural
history. 9). Sunlight, air and water are very
important to ________(living) things. 10). Peace
talks are a ______(live) issue today.
39
board
v. to get on or into a bus, ship or plane ,etc.
n. ?long thin flat piece of cut wood
?committee, council, group of people controlling
a company or some other organization ?(cost of)
daily meals(in rented accommodation) (???)??
Usage on board aboard (on/in) a ship, bus,
airplane, etc. above board honest and open,
without trick ????,???,????? across the board
(infml) including everyone or all so that all
are included.????????, ??? E.g. (Hand out the
material and ask students to work on them after
class first and teachers make a brief summary in
class.) We boarded a taxi and headed for the
airport immediately. The passengers will board
the airplane at gate 9 at noon. She has a seat
on the board of directors of a large company.
He pays 40 a week for board and lodging. As
long as everything is above board, I dont mind
but I hate anything underhand. On his first
night on board he didnt sleep very much. Most of
the night he lay awake. He wasnt on board the
ship when it sailed. The ship set sail after all
the passengers came on board. They asked for a
pay increase across the board.
40
pull in / into
?arrive(at) stop ones journey (at a place)
(?)??,??,?? ? (of a vehicle or boat) move to (one
side) (?)?????,(?)????
E.g. The train is just pulling into the
station. The bus pulled into the side of the
road to let the cars pass. The express from
Beijing pulled in on schedule. Find a good place
to pull into for some tea on the way to
London. Hints Review the pull phrases. pull
out move away (of a train/ boat, etc.) leave a
station pull up (cause to) come to stop (?)??
e.g. The bus pulled up sharp at the foot of a
bridge. The driver pulled up by the side of the
road to give an old woman a lift. The driver
pulls the bus up only in time to avoid hitting
the child. The train bound for Shanghai will
pull out in five minutes.
41
distress
n. ?state of being in danger or difficulty and
requiring help ??,?? ? suffering caused by lack
of money, food, etc. ??,?? ? great pain, sorrow,
suffering, etc. ?????,??, ??v. (usu. passive)
cause great pain, sorrow, suffering, etc. to
(sb./sth)???,???, ???
Usage be distressed to do sth. be distressed
about sth. in distress to sbs distress E.g.
(Hand out the material and ask students to work
on these examples first. Then teachers make a
summary in class ) The lifeboat went out to a
ship in distress(???) after receiving the
distress signal she sent out. The Government
acted quickly to relieve the widespread
distress(????) caused by the earthquake. The
girls leaving home was a great distress to her
family. To her distress, her husband engaged in
drug trafficking again. If the storm continues
on the mountain, the climbers will be in
distress(in danger) by morning. The public is
distressed about/at the potential economic impact
of this move. The news of his death distressed
us greatly. I was most distressed to hear the
sad news of your fathers death. Derivative
distressful distressing adj. causing distress
42
boast
v. ? talk (about ones own achievements,
abilities, etc.) with too much pride and
satisfaction. ??,???? ?possess (sth. to be proud
of) ?????? n.
Usage boast of/about sth boast that make a
boast of E.g. One boasts of his wealth,
another boasts of his learning. Achievements
only mean something in the past. There is nothing
to boast of . He boasted of being the best
player in the team./He boasted that he was the
best player in the team. The city of York can
boast (of) many historic buildings. A fishing
village 30 years ago, it now boasts (of) an
economic and industrial center. His boast that
he was the strongest man in the village turned
out not to be true. He often makes a boast of
the gold medals he has won in the boxing matches.

43
Quiz 1
1. Complete the following sentences with the
appropriate forms of the words according to the
Chinese meanings given in brackets. The first
letter has been given to you. (20 points) (1)
Winning the c___________ (??) put an end to his
financial problems.(competition) (2) The new name
was meant to give the party greater public
a_____(??).(appeal) (3) My new laptop can p
____________(??)information much more quickly
than my old computer. (process) (4) The new
threat on the horizon is u_________________(??)
(unemployment) (5) He made public c__________(??)
of what he intended to do so it would be harder
to back down. (commitments) (6) After all the
guests had left, she experienced a feeling of
complete i_____________(??,??). (isolation) (7) I
am sure that this meeting will contribute to the
r__________(??) of peace and security all over
the world. (reinforcement) (8) This difficulty
c________(??,??,??)my mind to find an answer.
(challenges) (9) This seasons e__________ (??)
includes five new plays and several concerts of
Chinese and Indian music. (entertainment) (10) In
recent years the film industry has undergone a
complete t______________(??,??). (transformation)
44
2.  Make sentences with the following phrases or
expressions. Make sure the sentences you make
should be meaningful and concise(???). (40
points) a. pay off (vi.) b. of oneself c.
from/in the perspective of d. at heart 3. 
Write from your memory some of the words, phrases
or sentences of para.11and para. 15 of In-Class
Reading Transformative Travel (40 points ) I
pushed myself to ?____________new ways of being.
I ?_____________________and pretended to be a
different person. I ______________________________
(3) just to see how it felt. Whatever I would
usually do(4)____________________________, I
forced myself to (5)______________________.This(6)
_________________________________, that I could
do anything I wanted. I decided that much of
my future traveling would have some
transformative dimension to it. Although it is
possible to (7)___________________________________
____in a single week, transformative change
(8)_________________________________. I promised
myself that I would (9)___________________________
______in order to (10)_____________________.
45
Quiz 2
I. Fill in the blanks with proper phrases
according to the Chinese given in brackets. (20
points) 1. The trip on the Mystery Express is a
safe, entertaining, and very c_________(????)
game. (creative) 2. We see each other
o__________(??), but not as often as we used to.
(occasionally) 3. Many companies encourage their
employees to use alternative means of
t___________(??), rather than the car. (
transportation/transport) 4. The badly neglected
furniture and paintings have all been carefully
r___________(??,??) (restored) 5. This kind of
exercise is most c__________(????), and therefore
is a good test of the students c__________(??).
( challenging, competence ) 6. Ireland
b___________(???) beautiful beaches, great
restaurants and friendly locals. (boasts) 7. She
used to tell us that she was d___________(??,???
????)from some Scottish Lord. (descended ) 8.
She expressed much concern that the ship might be
in d__________(??, ??) (distress) 9. Aruba has
many sports f__________ (??)for sailing, deep-sea
fishing, water-skiing, golf, tennis and
horse-back riding. (facilities)
46
II. Make sentences with the following phrases and
expressions. (20 points) 1.       fix up 2.      
on board 3.       gain an advantage over 4.      
bring on 5.       pull out III. Write from your
memory some sentences, phrases or words of
para.1-2 of Passage I The Romance of Train
Travel (40 points) If there is one (1)
______________________of the modern world that
makes our lives different from our grandparents,
it is probably speed. We are always
(2)___________, and we dont have much
(3)_______________________________________. We
want to get there, and we want to do it fast!
(4)_____________________________ of mass transit
systems all share a common goal. They are all
trying to provide us with faster and faster ways
to (5)_______________________________________.
Nevertheless, many of us actually want to slow
down.. Although (6)_______________________or when
we (7)__________________________________, we also
complain about always being in a hurry.
(8)_______________, we (9)________________________
___clear and high in the night airand we feel
sad. There is strong sense of nostalgia for other
places and other times, (10) _____________________
__________.
47
IV. Paragraph Writing (20 points) (This part will
be done after-class as home assignment Time limit
30 minutes at most ) Directions Write ONE
paragraph of the topic Travel. The topic
sentence of this paragraph is given to you and
you are required to supply the essential
information and complete the paragraph. Before
you write, remember to go over the writing basics
discussed before (e.g. topic sentence, unity and
coherence ). Considering the several factors,
travel is of vital importance to both individuals
and the country. _________________________________
________________________________ _________________
__________________________________________________
__________________________________________________
__________________________________________________
__________________________________________________
__________________________________________________
_________________________________________.
(The End)
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