Topic 3: The Industrial Revolution (Chapter 25), Age of Democracy & Progress (Chapter 26), Age of Imperialism (Chapter 27), & Transformations Around the Globe (Chapter 28) - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Topic 3: The Industrial Revolution (Chapter 25), Age of Democracy & Progress (Chapter 26), Age of Imperialism (Chapter 27), & Transformations Around the Globe (Chapter 28)

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Title: Topic 3: The Industrial Revolution (Chapter 25), Age of Democracy & Progress (Chapter 26), Age of Imperialism (Chapter 27), & Transformations Around the Globe (Chapter 28)


1
Topic 3The Industrial Revolution (Chapter 25),
Age of Democracy Progress (Chapter 26), Age of
Imperialism (Chapter 27), Transformations
Around the Globe (Chapter 28)
2
The Industrial Revolution
3
Causes of the Industrial Revolution
Farming in the Middle Ages Disadvantages F
orces for change Graphic
Enclosure Movement Crop Rotation Other
Discoveries Results of the Agricultural
Revolution Graphic
4
Traditional/Pre-Industrial Society
  • Farming in the Middle Ages
  • Villages feed themselves (subsistence farming)
  • One of three fields left fallow (empty_ to regain
    fertility
  • Animals grazed in common pastures
  • Disadvantages
  • Land use was inefficient
  • Farmers didnt experiment with new farming
    methods.
  • Forces for change
  • Population growing- more food is needed
  • French blockade- no corn- more food is needed.

5
The Agricultural Revolution
  • Enclosure Movement
  • Wealthy landlords fenced in common pastures and
    experimented with new farming technology
  • Villages lost common lands and political power,
    peasants became poorer
  • Crop Rotation
  • Fields depleted of nutrients by one crop
    replenished by planting different crops
  • Fields not left inefficiently fallow.
  • Other Discoveries
  • Seed drill planted seeds efficiently
  • New crops Corn and potato
  • Results of the Agricultural Revolution
  • More food available
  • Population increased

6
Merchants Role in Cottage Industry Capitalism
Effects of the Cottage Industry Graphic
Textile Industry Invented Rise of the
Factory Effects of Textile Factories in
Britain Graphic
7
Cottage Industry and Early Capitalism
  • Merchants Role in Cottage Industry
  • Supplied materials- wool and cotton- to cottages
    to be carded and spun
  • Took supplies from spinning cottage to weaving
    cottage to dying cottage to sell finished cloth
  • Merchants sell product for mote than material and
    labor costs profit larger investment higher
    profit.
  • Capitalism
  • An economic system based on private ownership,
    free competition, and profit
  • Cottage industry is an example of early
    capitalism.
  • Effects of the Cottage Industry
  • Big profits for new class of merchants
  • Alternative source of income for peasants

8
Shift from Cottage Industry to Factory Work
9
The Textile Industry and Factory System
  • Textile Industry Invented
  • Cottage industry couldnt keep up with demand
    for textiles
  • Spinning jenny, water frame, spinning mule
    improved spinning
  • Power loom sped up weaving
  • Cotton gin separated seeds from cotton
  • Rise of the Factory
  • New machines, often too big for homes, were put
    in factories
  • Factories located new power source coal, iron,
    water
  • Effects of Textile Factories in Britain
  • Prices of mass-produced textiles were much lower
    than hand produced items
  • Britains textile industry increased enormously
  • Majority of villagers forced to leave to find
    work in urban factories.

10
The Need for Energy How the Steam Engine
Worked Effect of Steam Engine Graphic
The Need for Iron The Need for
Coal Effect of Iron and Coal Graphic
11
Steam Engine Energy for the Industrial Revolution
  • The Need for Energy
  • Early factories relied on horses, oxen, and water
    mills
  • Steam engine evolved in response to the
    increasing need for power
  • How the Steam Engine Worked
  • Steam forced from high to low pressure produces
    power
  • Effect of Steam Engine
  • Steam Power, used wherever coal existed,
    increased textile production
  • Improved mining which increased metal which in
    turn fueled other industries

12
Iron and Coal Energy for the Industrial
Revolution
  • The Need for Iron
  • Farming tools, new factory machinery, railways
  • Smelting makes iron more pure, but requires
    carbon
  • The Need for Coal
  • Carbon necessary for smelting iron
  • Steam engines powered by coal
  • Effect of Iron and Coal
  • Britain produced more iron than all other
    countries of the world combined
  • Coal powered Britains enormous navy.

13
The Need for Better Transportation Inventions
Effects of Railroads Graphic
Geography Government Social
Factors Colonial Empire Advantages of
Industrializing First
14
Transportation
  • The Need for Better Transportation
  • Increased production increased need to transport
    goods quickly and cheaply
  • Pre-Industrial society used horses, mules, and
    dirt roads
  • Inventions
  • Stone and eventually asphalt roads
  • Canals
  • Railroad era ushered in with the Rocket in 1829
  • Effects of Railroads
  • Expanded rapidly throughout Britain
  • Cheaper transportation increased production and
    profits
  • Railways fueled other industries Coal, steam
    engines, iron, steel, and many manufactured
    products

15
Steam Engine Energy for the Industrial Revolution
16
Why Britain Led the Industrial Revolution
  • Geography
  • Climate good for textile production
  • Plenty of natural resources such as iron and coal
  • Separation from the European continent kept them
    out of wars
  • Government
  • Internal trade encouraged
  • Population allowed to relocate
  • Helped build canals and roads
  • Social Factors
  • British society less rigid than other European
    countries
  • Colonial Empire
  • Supplied raw material for manufactured goods
  • Provided market for goods
  • Advantages of Industrializing First
  • No other countries competing for manufactured
    goods
  • Monopoly on technology

17
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19
Sensory Figures
What do I see?
What do I hear?
What do I feel?
What do I say?
What do I smell?
What do I touch?
20
Expanding economy
Large population increase
Political Stability
Industry Develops in Great Britain
Factors of production
Many natural resources
Creativity new inventions
Highly developed banking systems
21
Upper Class
rich entrepreneurs,
factory owners, merchants, bankersUpper
Middle Class Government employees, doctors,
lawyers, managers of factoriesLower Middle
Class factory overseers, skilled workers,
printersWorking Class Laborers
22
Industrial Changes
23
Section 4 Reform and Economics
The pamphlet I co-authored is called
___________ The economic policy I support is
___________
My book is called __________ The economic policy
I support is ____________.
The Wealth of Nations
Communist Manifesto
Capitalism
Socialism
24
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25
Britains Steps Toward Democracy
Chapter 26
26
  • Vote extended to most male property owners
  • Redistribution of seats in House of commons
  • Slavery abolished in Britain and British colonies

1830s
  • Removal of religious restrictions
  • Trade unions legalized

1820s
  • Fewer than 5 of the population has the right to
    vote
  • Politics dominated by wealthy men
  • Religious restrictions on voting and holding
    office
  • Rotten boroughs

1815
27
  • Vote extended to include most men
  • Secret ballot introduced
  • Reforms in public housing health

1880s
  • Free elementary education for all children

1870
1867
  • Vote extended to working-class men

28
1928
  • Vote extended to all women

1918
  • Vote extended to women over 30
  • Restrictions on power of the House of Lords

1911
29
Women Demand the Vote!
When? Where? Organizations? Accomplishments?
1800s
Britain
Womens Social and Political Union (WSPU)
  • organized the movement
  • brought attention to the cause
  • success was gradual, right to vote does not come
    until after WWI

30
  • Anti-Semitism
  • Definition prejudice against Jews
  • The Dreyfus Affair- Jewish Officer Dreyfus,
    France, accused of selling military secrets to
    Germany- found guilty, but evidence shows he
    was framed
  • Leads to widespread anti- Semitism in Europe-
    pogroms
  • Rise of Zionism- movement for a Jewish homeland
    in Palestine

An anti-Dreyfus poster Jews are being driven out
of France. The caption reads "Long live France!
Long live the Army! Down with the Jews! Death to
the traitors!" The poster also calls for a
boycott of Jewish shops.
31
Chartist Movement
        What?   Where?   When? Accomplishme
nts?    
19th-century Britain, members of the working
class demanded reforms in Parliament and in
elections, including suffrage for all men.

Britain
19th-century (1838)
By the early 1900s Suffrage for all men secret
ballot
32
Charles Darwin
  Who? Ideas? When? Accomplishments?
English Naturalist (Scientist)
  • Survival of the Fittest
  • Theory of Evolution

Late 19th-century
  • Wrote book The Origins of Species by Means of
    Natural Selection (1859)

33
Overview of Imperialism
34
Imperialists Divide Africa
Make a Web of the Factors Enabling the Scramble
for Africa
Military Force Better Technology
Racism Social Darwinism
Railways and Steam Engines travel inland
Cultural and Language Diversity over 1000
languages
Need Raw Materials to Industrialize diamonds,
gold, ivory
Ethnic and Tribal Problems and Rivalries
35
Berlin Conference
1884-1885
  • Laid rules for dividing Africa b/t Europeans (NO
    African leaders)
  • Divided with NO REGARD to native culture,
    language, or ethnicity
  • Carved Africa into pieces (only 2 left
    independent)

36
3 Groups Clash in South Africa
Boers
Zulus
British
Dutch Settlers
Largest tribe in S. Africa
Cape Colony Slave Trade Invade Lands
  • Boer War
  • Dutch and British fight over diamonds and gold
  • British win and control South Africa

37
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38
Muslim Lands Fall to Imperialist Demands
Review of Ottoman Empire
  • Capture Constantinople from the Byzantines in
    1451
  • Convert the church Hagia Sophia into a mosque
  • Suleiman the Lawgiver- expanded the empire and
    created a highly structured government
  • Culture flourishes under Suleimans leadership
  • Later poor economy, weak leaders, weak
    nationalism

Egyptian leaders cannot complete
modernization. Suez Canal
Persia falls to economic imperialism. GEOPOLITICS
Ottoman Empire tries to reform but fails.
Geography Application
39
Which two bodies of water are joined by the Suez
Canal? Why was the building of this canal
important? Where is the canal?
40
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41
Chapter 28 Transformations Around the Globe

Japan
  • China

42
China Responds to Pressure from The West
Internal Problems
External Problems
  • Overpopulation
  • Foreign Influence
  • Became Sphere of Influence to many European
    Powers US
  • Widespread Hunger
  • Opium Addiction

1842 Treaty of Nanjing
1850-1864 Taiping Rebellion
1899 Open Door Policy
Boxer Rebellion
43
China and Japan Respond to Imperialism
Open Door
Opium War
Meiji Era
Matthew Perry
Boxer Rebellion
44
  • Chinese addiction to
  • opium
  • B refuse to stop trading opium with Chinese
  • C defeated
  • Extraterritorial
  • rights
  • Treaty of Nanjing-Hong Kong

1839
Britain
  • 20 mil. Chinese died
  • Short lived Taiping Govt.
  • Inc. foreign pressure

British French
Chinas poverty
1853
  • US fears of external forces colonizing China
  • Protected US
  • trading rights
  • Prevented C from
  • being colonized
  • Inc. foreign
  • presence

1899
US
  • Nationalism
  • Established
  • Constitutional
  • government
  • Frustration w/foreigners
  • poverty

Reform movements
US European Nations
1900
45
China resists foreign influence
1
China Responds to pressure from the West
2
China falls to foreign influence
China rebels against foreign influence
3
46
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47
Opium Addiction
48
Open Door Policy
49
The Boxer Rebellion
1900
50
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51
Japan
52
Japan Under Shogun Rule After AD 1000 Japan
became increasingly feudalized, with various
regions controlled by lords who retained samurai
(warrior noblemen) to protect them and their
property. In the late 12th century, the Minamoto
family, led by Yoritomo, was one of the most
powerful bands of samurai. After Yoritomo
defeated a strong rival clan, the emperor of
Japan gave Yoritomo the title of shogun (military
commander in chief). The military form of
government in Japan, known as the shogunate,
survived through several dynasties until its
demise in 1867.
53
Japanese Samurai in Armor A distinct social
class, the samurai served powerful chiefs called
shoguns, who ruled Japan from the 12th century
until 1867. The samurai lived by a rigid code of
conduct called Bushido, or the way of the
warrior, which encompassed ideals of loyalty and
sacrifice.
54
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55
Japanese Feudal Society
Emperor- No Power
Shogun- Actual Ruler
Daimyo- Landowners
Samurai- defenders
Peasants, Artisans, Merchants
56
Historical Turning Point
Commodore Perry 1854
57
Japan Reacts to Foreigners
Before
After
  • Portuguese arrive in Japan (1543)
  • Spanish, Dutch, and English traders arrive
  • Japan acquires knowledge of European weapons and
    ideas
  • Christian missionaries arrive
  • Japan fears presence of missionaries will bring
    conquest by Western powers
  • Japan suspects Japanese Christians will be loyal
    to Church instead of nation.
  • Japan expels missionaries, persecutes Japanese
    Christians
  • Japan bars Western merchants and bans foreign
    travel
  • Foreign trade severely limited
  • Japans only contact with the West comes through
    annual visit of a few Dutch merchant ships
  • Internal trade booms
  • Cities Grow
  • Japan is forced to reopen relations with the West
    (1853)

Japan Shuts the Door (Early 1600s)
58
Emperor Meiji Meiji Resortation
Japan Industrializes
59
odernization
W
esternization
MEIJI
mperialism
apan
ndustrialization
60
Industrialized
Universal public education
Increased coal production
Meiji Era
Meiji Era
RR (1872)
Strong centralized government
Studied Western ways
Modernized military
61
Abolished extraterritorial rights
Claimed feudal lands for government
Forced Korean ports to open
Studied Western ways
Fought Sino-Japanese and Russo-Japanese wars
Industrialized
Annexed Korea
China
Japan
Both
  • Remains committed to traditional values
  • Loses numerous territorial conflicts
  • Grants other nations spheres of influence within
    China
  • Finally accepts necessity for reform
  • Considers modernization to be necessary
  • Borrows and adapts Western ways
  • Strengthens its economic and military power
  • Becomes an empire builder
  • Have well-established traditional values
  • Initially resist change
  • Oppose Western imperialism

62
Meiji Changes
  • Imperial Japanese Army
  • Well-trained
  • Well-armed
  • Strongest military power in Asia

samurai
Modernized (modeled German Army British navy)
Primitive
Mutsuhito (Emperor)
Tokugawa Shogun

Emperor (Centralized Government)
Military dictatorship
63
Meiji Changes
Constitution (Representation)
None
Modern World Market (Industrial)
Isolated
Industrial (RRs, factories, ship building, etc.)
Tea processing Silk production
64
Meiji Changes
Universal Public Education
No standards
Tough restrictions (Women escorted when travel)
Women Some rts. But segregates facilities
Nobility controlled (wealth)
Feudal
Discover Western ways
Isolationism
65
Japan (and Thailand)
Other Asian Nations (AKA China)
  • Resisted Western influence
  • Western experts came in to represent Western
    companies
  • Had weak governments
  • Faced power struggles within governments
  • Western investors controlled economies
  • Westerners built and owned railroads
  • Westerners developed and controlled ports
  • Economies depended on one crop or resource
  • Retained old social systems
  • Learned from the West, Sent people to study in
    the West
  • Invited Western experts to aid in development
  • Had strong central governments
  • Had well-organized bureaucracies
  • Adopted Western business and banking methods
  • Built railroads
  • Improved ports
  • Developed industry- factories became organized
    into monopolies
  • Introduced social reform

66
Latin America
67
Latin America After Independence
  • Majority of Latin American nations remained poor
  • Latin Americans often worked for large landowners
    (workers went into debt)
  • Rise of military dictators (Caudillos)
  • Latin Americans lacked a voice in government
  • Debt was passed on from generation to generation
    (generational poverty)
  • Unequal distribution of wealth and land in Latin
    America prevented social and economic development

68
Latin America Foreign Influence
  • Britain US main trading partners
  • Not self-sufficient
  • Borrowed money from foreign countries (unable to
    pay back loans)
  • Foreign lenders threatened to take facilities
    that they funded by force (increased foreign
    presence)
  • New age of economic colonialism emerged in Latin
    America

69
The US Latin America
Why did the US have an interest in Latin America
other than for money?
? The security of the US depended on the security
of Latin America.
What was the Monroe Doctrine?
? Document created by President James Monroe in
1823 that stated that, the American
continentsare henceforth not to be considered as
subjects for future colonization by any European
powers.
How was the Panama Canal built what was
Americas role in its creation?
? The US encouraged and supported Panama to fight
for independence from Columbia. As a result the
US was given the rights to connect the Pacific
Atlantic Oceans by way of the Panama Canal. It
opened in 1914.
70
The Roosevelt Corollary
  • Created in 1904, President Theodore Roosevelt
    issued the Roosevelt Corollary to protect the
    economic interests of the US in Latin America.
  • It stated that the Corollary gave the US the
    right to be an, international police power in
    the Western Hemisphere.

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73
   
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77
President Theodore Roosevelt
Walk quietly carry a big stick
78
Mexican Revolution

Flag_of_Mexico.svg? (SVG file, nominally 1400
800 pixels, file size 524 KB)
79
Mexican Revolutionary Leaders
1833 Mexican President
Started Liberal reform movement
RRs, banks, currency stabilized, foreign
investments
Ousted Diaz/Called for democracy
Land Liberty
Robin hood policy
Adopted present day constitution ended civil war
80
Sphere of influence
Economic Imperialism
  • End of isolationism
  • Hong Kong
  • Panama Canal
  • Overpopulation
  • Widespread hunger
  • Opium Addiction
  • Lack of industrialization
  • People in debt
  • Poverty
  • Need for resources
  • Lack of technology
  • feudal lands for govt.
  • Studied western ways
  • Industrialized

Sent citizens abroad to study Western govts.
Panama Canal
  • Meiji Restoration
  • Industrialized
  • Adopted Western ways

US dominant force in Latin America
Creation of constitutional government
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