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Economics and Expansion

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Title: Economics and Expansion


1
Economics and Expansion
  • Chapter 3

2
Europe Decides to Move Out of the Middle Ages
  • Europeans had not been completely isolated from
    the rest of the world before the 1400s.
  •         Crusades
  • However, Europeans had neither the interest nor
    the ability to explore foreign lands.
  • By the early 1400s the following factors spurred
    an age of European exploration.
  • 1.      the desire to grow rich
  • 2.      and to spread Christianity,
  • 3.      coupled with advances in sailing
    technology,

3
Europeans Seek Greater Wealth
  • The desire for new sources of wealth was the main
    reason for European exploration.
  • 1.      The Crusades brought new and exciting
    goods back to Europe
  • a.      Spices and other luxury goods
  •                                                   
                            i.      Called the Spice
    Trade
  •                                                   
                          ii.      Increased traffic
    along the Silk Road

4
The Spice Trade...
  • Not Spice Girls - Spice Trade...

5
The Spice Trade
  • The spice trade is a commercial activity of
    ancient origin which involves the merchandising
    of spices, incense, herbs, drugs and opium.
    Civilizations of Asia were involved in spice
    trade from the ancient times.
  •  
  • By mid-7th century the rise of Islam closed off
    the overland caravan routes through Egypt and the
    Suez from Axum and India.
  • Arab traders eventually took over conveying goods
    via the Levant and Venetian merchants to Europe
    until the rise of the Ottoman Turks cut the route
    again by 1453. Overland routes helped the spice
    trade initially, but maritime trade routes led to
    tremendous growth in commercial activities.
    During the high and late medieval periods Muslim
    traders dominated maritime spice trading routes
    throughout the Indian Ocean, tapping source
    regions in the Far East and shipping spices from
    trading emporiums in India westward to the
    Persian Gulf and the Red Sea, from which overland
    routes led to Europe.
  •  

6
Spice Trade
  • The Spice Trade was controlled in Asia and Europe
    by the Islamic and Venetian merchants
  • 1.      Chinese and Indian merchants sold the
    spices to Arab merchants
  • 2.      the Arabs then shipped the goods overland
    to Venetian merchants
  • a.      Muslims brought cargoes across the
    mountains and deserts of Asia, then sold the
    Asian goods to Italian merchants
  • b.      at huge profits

7
Spice Trade
  • the merchants of Venice then took the goods to
    Italy where they were dispersed throughout the
    continent
  • a.      the Italians controlled trade across the
    land routes of the Mediterranean region, as well
    as the seaports of the eastern Mediterranean
  • b.      Because demand for these goods was
    greater than the supply, merchants could charge
    high prices and thus make great profits.

8
Spice Trade Routes
9
Economics...
  • Economics and Exploration
  • 1.     Supply and Demand and its effect on prices
  • 2.      The concept of middle men
  • 3.      Final cost to consumer or end user

10
Spice Trade
  • European traders on the continent did not like
    this arrangement.  Paying such high prices to the
    Italians severely cut into their own profits.
  • 1.      These merchants sought to bypass the
    Italian merchants and increase their profits
  • 2.      One of the alternatives they came up with
    was the possibility of the trade routes by sea
  • 3.      since the Muslims controlled the overland
    routes

11
Assignment in your Groups
  • Draw a "multi-colored" map showing the trade
    routes of the Silk Road (large enough to display)
  • list the beginning and the end of the routes
  • make  note of the stops along the route
  • list the products traded at each stop
  • list the people who traded at each stop 
  • Calculate the time it took for the entire journey
  •  
  •  Answer the following questions in 100 words
    minimum (One paper per group only)
  • What influence did the Muslims have on this trade
    route?
  • How did this trade route affect the price of what
    Europeans         paid for the goods? 
  • What effects did religion and wars have on this
    trade route? 

12
The Silk Road
13
The Spread of Christianity
  • The desire to spread Christianity also fueled
    European exploration.
  •  
  •  Not only did Europeans hope to obtain popular
    goods directly from the peoples of Asia, they
    also hoped to convert them to Christianity
  •  
  • Another factor was the desire to halt the
    expansion of Islam

14
Advances in technology made the voyages of
discovery possible.
  • One of the main problems was that European ships
    could not sail against the wind.
  • 1.      In the 1400s, shipbuilders designed a new
    vessel the caravel.
  • a.      It used triangular sails called lateen
    sails invented by the Islamic traders that
    allowed it to sail effectively against the wind.

15
Caravel with Lateen Sails
16
Technological Advances
  • .      Another problem was the lack of accurate
    maps
  •  
  •  Cartographers map makers often filled their
    maps with lands found only in rumor or legend
  •  One solution came in the discovery during the
    Renaissance of maps made by Ptolemy the Greek
    astronomer and mathematician
  •    Ptolemy had used the grid system of map
    references based on the coordinates of Longitude
    and Latitude

17
Latitude
18
Longitude
19
Improved Navigational Devices
  • To better determine their location on the sea,
    sailors used the astrolabe.
  •  
  •  
  •  
  •  
  •  
  •  
  •  
  •  
  •  
  • They were able to better track their direction by
    using the Chinese invention the magnetic 
    compass
  •  

20
Portugal Leads the Way to Exploration
  • The leading country in developing and applying
    these sailing innovations was Portugal.
  • Portugal was able to take the lead in overseas
    exploration in part due to strong government
    support.
  • In 1419, Prince Henry, son of King John I of
    Portugal, founded a navigational school with the
    goal to reach Asia by water.
  • He was called Prince Henry the Navigator"
  • He had discovered the wealth in the parts of Asia
    he had visited when fighting against the Muslims
  • He found spices, silks, jewelry and other riches
    in his travels.

21
Prince Henry of Portugal
  • Henry returned to Portugal determined to reach
    the source of these treasures in the East
  • The prince also wished to spread the Christian
    faith.  
  • He sponsored many voyages westward into the
    Atlantic Ocean and also southward down Africas
    west coast.
  •  
  • Sailors from Henrys school began voyages from
    Portugal down the west coast of Africa
  •  

22
Portugal's Initial Sailings
23
Bartholmeu Diaz to Cape of Good Hope
24
Vasco Da Gama 's Voyage to India
25
Portugal to India
  • 1.      Discovered the Azores, The Madiera
    Islands, the Cape Verde Islands
  • 2.      Then in 1487, Portuguese captain
    Bartolomeu Dias ventured farther down the coast
    of Africa until he reached the tip.
  • He called the tip, the Cape of Good Hope
  • 3.      Portuguese explorer Vasco da Gama reached
    the port of Calicut, on the southwestern coast of
    India.
  • a.      He returned to Portugal with a shipload
    of treasures and was proclaimed a hero
  • b.      he had given Portugal a direct all water
    route to India
  •  

26
Spain Reacts to Portugal
  • In 1492, an Italian sea captain, Christopher
    Columbus, convinced Spain to finance what was at
    that time a bold plan finding a route to Asia by
    sailing west across the Atlantic Ocean. (Spain
    had just finished the "La Reconquista" and they
    realized that they had to do something to catch
    up with Portugal in the competition for trade
    money)
  • Columbus landed on an island in the Bahamas
  • Named the island San Salvador
  • Claimed all the islands he explored for Spain
  •  There were several, all in the Caribbean Sea
  • Called the people (natives) los indios which
    translated means Indian
  • He thought he had reached India

27
Spain vs. Portugal
  • It was not until 1507 that another Italian sea
    captain (who had sailed for Portugal), suggested
    that Columbus had discovered a New World
  • a.      In honor of Amerigo Vespucci, the man who
    made this claim, America began to appear on
    maps that included these new lands.
  •  
  • The immediate impact of Columbuss voyage was to
    increase tensions between Spain and Portugal.
    Both were competing fiercely for the riches in
    Asian trade
  •  

28
The Pope Steps In
  •  Columbus had claimed many islands for Spain  
         
  • the Portuguese, believing as Columbus himself
    believed, had reached Asia and had claimed some
    of the islands that the Portuguese sailors had
    already claimed for Portugal
  •  
  • Pope Alexander VI stepped in and made an attempt
    to settle the dispute and keep peace between the
    two Catholic countries.
  • he drew a line through the Atlantic Ocean from
    the North to the South Pole using the lines of
    longitude
  • a.      All lands to the west of the line, known
    as the Papal Line of Demarcation, would be
    Spains. And all the lands east would belong to
    Portugal

29
The Pope Steps In
  • 2.      In 1494, Spain and Portugal signed the
    Treaty of Tordesillas, in which they agreed to
    honor the line.
  • a.      Problem was only Spain and Portugal
    agreed to the Treaty, so the Dutch, English and
    French were free to go where they pleased.

30
Papal Line of Demarcation
31
Portugal and Brazil
  • Several years later, a Portuguese explorer, Pedro
    Cabral, sailed far west from Africa and landed in
    South America.
  • a.      The land he landed upon was east of the
    Papal Line so he claimed this land for Portugal
  •                                                   
                i.      It was present day Brazil
    still has Portuguese roots in its culture
  •                                                   
              ii.      The only area of the New
    World settled by Portugal

32
Portuguese and Their Trade Empire
  • In the years following de Gamas voyage, Portugal
    built a bustling trading empire throughout the
    Indian Ocean.
  • 1.      They took control of the spice grade from
    Muslim merchants
  • 2.      The Portuguese captured Goa, a port city
    on Indias west coast. 
  • a.      They made Goa the capital of their Indian
    Ocean trading empire.
  • 3.      Portuguese seized control of the Strait
    of Malacca
  • a.      this gave them control of the Moluccas,
    islands so rich in spices that they became known
    as the Spice Islands.
  • 4.      Portuguese merchants brought back goods
    from Asia at about a fifth what they cost when
    purchased through the Arabs and Italians.

33
Portuguese Trading in the Indian Ocean
34
Spain on the Atlantic side
  • The Spanish intended to transform the islands of
    the Caribbean Sea into colonies.
  • a.      Colonies Lands that are controlled by
    another nation
  •  
  • Both Spain and Portugal began to send out
    explorers to expand their holdings to increase
    the lands they controlled as colonies
  • Both nations saw the value of having colonies

35
Magellan
  • As early as 1521, a Spanish expedition led by
    Ferdinand Magellan arrived in the Philippines. 
    Spain claimed the islands and began to settle
    them as colonies.
  • 1.      Magellan claimed these islands as he was
    attempting to circumnavigate the globe. (Circle
    the globe)
  • 2.      He sailed from Spain, went around South
    America, across the Pacific Ocean
  • a.      The Pacific Ocean had been discovered a
    few years earlier by Nunez de Balboa a Spanish
    explorer who had crossed the Isthmus of Panama

36
Magellan
  • It was in the Philippine Islands after he claimed
    them for Spain that Magellan was killed by the
    local tribes.
  • 4.      One of his ships managed to escape and
    continue on its journey to Spain, thus he is
    given the credit for becoming the first to sail
    around the world.

37
Magellan's Route
38
Beginning around 1600, the English and Dutch
began to challenge Portugals dominance over the
Indian Ocean trade.
  • Only Spain and Portugal (both very loyal to the
    Pope) honored the Treaty of Tordesillas
  • Portugals main interest was in Africa and Asia
    and in trade
  • a.      They had little interest in colonization,
    especially in the Americas
  • b.      They had established trading posts in and
    around the Indian Ocean
  • Begun during the beginnings of the Mughal Empire

39
The Dutch in Asia
  • The English and Dutch broke Portuguese control of
    the Asian region. 
  • a.      The Portuguese could not compete with the
    superior naval capabilities of both of these
    nations
  • 2.      The two nations (England and the Dutch)
    then battled one another for dominance of the
    area. 
  • 3.      Each nation had formed an East India
    Company to establish and direct trade throughout
    Asia.

40
The Dutch
  • The Dutch East India Company was richer and more
    powerful than Englands company.
  • As a result, the Dutch eventually drove out the
    English and established their dominance over the
    region.
  • England then began to concentrate on its North
    American colonies
  • With so many goods from the East traveling to the
    Netherlands,
  • The nations capital, Amsterdam, became a leading
    commercial center. 

41
Dutch Indonesia / English India
  • By 1700, the Dutch ruled much of Indonesia and
    had trading posts in numerous Asian countries. 
    They also controlled the Cape of Good Hope on the
    southern tip of Africa.
  •  
  • The English East India Company focused much of
    its energy on establishing outposts in India. 
    There, the English built up a successful business
    trading fine cloth on the European market.
  •  
  •      European traders did gain control of
    numerous port cities throughout the region. 
    However, their influence rarely spread beyond the
    ports into the countries interiors.

42
China
  • Europeans made healthy profits in the Indian
    Ocean trade.  Looking for additional sources of
    wealth, they sought a trading relationship with
    China.
  •  
  •  
  • Economics also plays a great role in the desire
    to form a relationship with the "Far East".

43
(No Transcript)
44
The Ming Dynasty
  • China had become the dominant power in the region
    under the rule of the Ming Dynasty
    (1368-1644).The Ming rulers would not allow
    outsiders from distant lands to threaten the
    peace and prosperity they had brought to China
    following the end of Mongol rule.
  •  What region are we talking about?
  •  Hongwu, the son of a peasant, commanded the
    rebel army that drove the Mongols out of China in
    1368.
  • a.      That same year he became the first
    emperor of the Ming Dynasty.
  • 2.      The first Ming emperor used respected
    traditions and institutions to bring stability to
    China.
  •  
  •  

45
The Ming Dynasty
  • Yonglo (yung-lu), son of Hongwu,  continued many
    of his fathers policies. 
  • He launched the first of seven voyages of
    exploration. 
  • All were led by a Chinese Muslim admiral named
    Zheng He (jung huh).
  • the voyages of exploration went throughout the
    area, and as far as Africa 
  • Yonglo hoped to impress the world with the power
    and splendor of Ming China and also hoped to
    expand Chinas tribute system.
  • the voyages were successful in doing just that
    he exchanged gifts with many nations and they in
    turn sent envoys to China to pay tribute to
    Yonglo.

46
Map of Zheng He's Voyages
47
China Becomes Isolated
  • However, many of Yonglos advisors discouraged
    any more expeditions, And China went into a
    period of isolation.
  • 2.      Chinas official trade policies in the
    1500s reflected its isolation.  To keep the
    influence of outsiders to a minimum, only the
    government was to conduct foreign trade.
  • 3.      However, profit-minded Chinese merchants
    smuggled cargos in and out of China and made huge
    profits trading with European nations

48
The Qing Dynasty
  • In 1644, the Manchus people from beyond the north
    of China invaded China.  They were from
    Manchuria. The Ming could not repel the invasion,
    and the Ming dynasty collapsed.
  • The Manchus took a Chinese name for their dynasty
    the Qing  Dynasty. 
  • This dynasty ruled China for over 260 years, but
    not without periods of trouble...
  • Many of the Chinese people resisted rule by the
    non-Chinese Manchus.  Rebellions flared up
    periodically for decades. However in time they
    gave in to their rule.
  •  

49
The Qing (Manchu) Dynasty
  • Chinese culture taught that China, referred to as
    the Middle Kingdom, was the cultural center of
    the universe. If foreign states wished to trade
    with China, they would have to follow Chinese
    rules.
  • 1.      These included trading only at special
    ports and paying tribute.
  • 2.      Dutch diplomats paid tribute to Chinas
    emperor through gifts and by performing the
    required kowtow ritual.  As a result, the
    Chinese accepted the Dutch as trading partners. 
  • a.      The Dutch traded for silks and gems, but
    also for what became a very valued commodity
    tea
  • b.      By 1800 tea made up 80 of the trade with
    China

50
The Qing (Manchu) Dynasty
  • 1.      The British also wanted to trade with
    China but their envoy sent to Qian-long refused
    to kowtow to the emperor and the emperor was
    insulted
  • a.      Qian-long refused to allow trade with the
    English
  •  
  • This rejection forced the British to go elsewhere
    for their tea - to India

51
Korea Under the Manchus
  • In the early 1600s, the Manchus had conquered
    nearby Korea
  • 1.      Made it a vassal state. 
  • a.      Vassal state a country or kingdom that
    relies heavily on a stronger state for
    protection, goods and other economic aid
  • 2.      Koreans organized their government
    according to Confucian principles. 
  • 3.      The Koreans adopted Chinas technology,
    its culture, and especially its policy of
    isolation.
  • 4.      Under the Manchus, Korea was Chinas
    little brother.

52
China Under Manchu Rule
  • The Chinese devotion to agriculture began to pay
    off during the late Ming and early Qing
    dynasties.  Greater rice production, along with
    the general peace and prosperity of the 1600s and
    1700s, ushered in a better life for most Chinese.
  • 1.      Most Chinese families farmed the land. 
  • 2.      They farmed in much the same way as their
    ancestors had for thousands of years.
  • 3.      With increased food production, nutrition
    and diet improved. 
  • a.      Such changes encouraged families to
    expand, and a population explosion followed.
  • b.      These expanded Chinese families favored
    sons over daughters.
  • c.      Women generally suffered as a result of
    their inferior status in Chinese society. 

53
Japan
  • In the 1300s, the unity that had been achieved in
    Japan in the previous century broke down. 
    Shoguns, or military leaders, in the north and
    south fought for powering a devastating civil
    war.
  • 1.      In 1467, this civil war shattered Japans
    feudal system of traditional government
  • 2.      The country collapsed into chaos. 
  • 3.      Centralized rule ended.  
  • 4.      Power drained away from the shogun to
    territorial lords.
  • 5.      A violent era of disorder followed. 
  • 6.      This time in Japanese history, which
    lasted from 1467 to 1568, is known as the
    Sengoku, or Warring States, period. 

54
Japan
  • 1.      Powerful samurai seized control of old
    feudal estates. 
  • a.      They offered peasants and others
    protection in return for their loyalty.(Exactly
    what happened in Europe during Feudalism)
  • b.      These warrior-chieftains, called daimyo,
    became Feudal lords in a new kind of Japanese
    feudalism. 
  • 2.      Rival daimyo often fought each other for
    territory thus brought about more warring and
    disorder
  •  
  •  
  • The daimyo who eventually defeated his rivals and
    took control of the entire country was Oda
    Nobunaga

55
Samurai
56
Daimyo        
57
Tokugawa Shogunate Unifies Japan
  • Nobunagas best general, Toyotomi Hideyoshi,
    continued his fallen leaders mission of trying
    to unify Japan.
  • One of Hideyoshis strongest daimyo allies,
    Tokugawa Ieyasu (E-yay-yas-oo) completed the
    unification of Japan . 
  • 1.      He became the sole ruler, or shogun.
  • 2.      Ieyasu founded the Tokugawa Shogunate.
  • 3.       He then moved Japans capital to his
    power base at Edo,
  • a small fishing village that would later become
    the city of Tokyo.

58
Ieyasu Tokugawa
59
  • Japan enjoyed more than two centuries of
    stability, prosperity, and isolation under the
    Tokugawa shoguns.
  • 1.      The farming community produced more food,
    and the population rose.
  • 2.       the vast majority of peasants, weighed
    down by heavy taxes, led lives filled with
    misery.
  • 3.      The people who prospered in Tokugawa
    society were the merchant class and the rich.
  • 4.      In Japan, as in China, Confucian values
    influenced ideas about society.
  • a.      According to Confucius, the ideal society
    depended on agriculture, not urban commerce.
  • By the mid-1700s, Japan began to shift from a
    rural to an urban society

60
  • Culture Under the Tokugawa Shogunate
  • 1.      Townspeople attended kabuki theater.
  • a.      These were dramas in which actors in
    elaborate costumes, using music, dance, and mime,
    performed skits about modern 
  • urban life. 
  •  
  •   People also read haiku 
  •  poetry 
  • which does not express 
  • ideas,
  • but presents images.  
  •  
  •  

61
Japanese Kabuki Theater
62
Contact Between Japan and Europeans
  • 1.      The first merchants from Europe were the
    Portuguese
  • 2.      At first, the Japanese were curious about
    these newcomers.  They welcomed the traders and
    missionaries
  • 3.      Japanese merchants, eager to expand their
    markets, were happy to receive the newcomers and
    their goods.
  •  
  •  
  • However... They soon instituted a Closed Country
    Policy

63
  • 1.      When Europeans first arrived, no Japanese
    central authority existed to contain them. 
  • 2.      The strong leaders of Japan who later
    took power did not like the introduction of
    European ideas and ways,
  • 3.      They were especially concerned with the
    success the missionaries were having converting
    Japanese to Christianity
  • 4.      but they valued European trade. 
  • 5.      As time passed, the Tokugawa shoguns
    realized that they could safely exclude both the
    missionaries and the merchants. 
  • 6.      By 1639, they had sealed Japans borders
    and instituted a closed country policy.
  • 7.      One port, Nagasaki, remained open to
    foreign traders. 
  • a.      Only Dutch and Portuguese traders were
    allowed into the port
  • 8.      For more than 200 years Japan remained
    basically closed to Europeans

64
Japan - today
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