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New Perspectives of Cancer Treatment and prevention

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Casual Comments on Cancer 2011-04-18 Ministry of Health (EANG) 5700 Yonge Street, Toronto M4 boardroom Zhi-Ping Ren M.D., C.M.D., Ph.D. www.DrRen.net – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: New Perspectives of Cancer Treatment and prevention


1
Casual Comments on Cancer 2011-04-18 Ministry
of Health (EANG) 5700 Yonge Street, Toronto M4
boardroom
Zhi-Ping Ren M.D., C.M.D., Ph.D. www.DrRen.net
2
What is tumor?How to diagnose and treat
tumor?Can tumor be prevented?
3
What is tumor?
4
The accurrence of cancer is a very complicated
process
5
Cancer is a disease of abnormal DNA Cancer is a
somatic cell genetic disease
6
Any single step goes wrong, problems will occur
7
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8
Cell Cycle
9
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10
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11
Multiple steps carcinogenesis
A series of events, initiation, promotion and
progression, that lead to the development of an
invasive cancer
12
Inactivation of Tumor suppressor genes
Activation of Oncogenes
Activation of Oncogenes
Other factors
Invasive Cancer
Carcinoma in situ
Normal
Dysplasia
Metastasis
Monoclonal Carcinogenesis
13
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14
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15
Each different cancer has its own pathway from
benign to malignant
  • Inherited gene mutation (internal cause)
  • Sporadic cancer (external cause)
  • Cancer cell is smarter than virus and is an
    unyielding survivor

16
Incidence, mortality and cure rates of the most
commonly diagnosed cancers in USA
17
Estimates of the Incidence of the Most Common
Cancers Worldwide 2000
Source Surveillance and Risk Assessment
Division, CCDPC, Health Canada
18
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19
Risk factors
Contact carcinogens air pollution, water
pollution, smoking, aflatoxin, nitrite,
nitrosamine harmful chemicals, radiation, UV
light, electric magnetic wave pollution, mental
stress, depression etc.
20
Report from Environmental Defence of Canada
21
How to diagnose and treat tumor?
22
Pathology is still the golden standard in cancer
diagnosis
Pathology, Cytology, PET scan, MRI, CT scan,
X-ray, Blood work,
23
The most important thing in cancer management is
early detection
  • Axiom Early detection of cancer leads to cure
  • Annual check up is essential for early detection

24
Techniques used in molecular pathology
  • DNA level
  • Mutation analysis
  • Comparative genomic hybridisation (CGH)
  • Fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH)
  • Mutation screening with arrays
  • RNA level
  • Gene expression-transcription
  • cDNA and oligonucleotide arrays
  • Serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE)
  • Detecting mutations and polymorphisms with arrays
  • Differential display and representational
    difference analysis
  • Protein level
  • Gene expression translation-proteomics and mass
    spectrometry
  • Tissue arrays functional genomics
  • Other techniques used in molecular pathology
  • Microdissection
  • Knockout and transgenic organisms
  • Quantitative and real-time PCR
  • Bioinformatics and data mining
  • Diagnostics, biomarkers and drug development

25
Microdissection
26
Microdissection History
  • Laser capture microdissection. Emmert-Buck MR,
    Bonner RF, Smith PD, Chuaqui RF, Zhuang Z,
    Goldstein SR, Weiss RA, Liotta LA. Science. 1996
    Nov 8274(5289)998-1001
  • Sequence-based analysis of the human p53 gene
    based on microdissection of tumor biopsy samples.
    Hedrum A, Pontén F, Ren Z-P, Lundeberg J, Pontén
    J, Uhlén M. Biotechniques. 1994 Jul17(1)118-9,
    122-4, 126-9.

27
Western ways to treat cancer
  • Slash (operation)
  • Burn (radiation)
  • Poison (chemotherapy)

28
Other methods in cancer treatment
  • Anti-angiogenesis, Vascular Endothelial Growth
    Factor (VEGF) inhibitor
  • Immunotherapy recognize cancer cell as foreign
    cell, attack the cancer cell
  • Interferon-alfa, interleukin-2
  • DNA vaccines
  • Hormonal therapy
  • Cryosurgery
  • Radiofrequency (RF) ablation

29
  • Knowledge is strength
  • Knowledge is power
  • Knowledge saves life

30
You are the best doctor of yourselfYour
knowledge could save your life
Website www.plwc.org (people live with
cancer) www.asco.org (American Society of
Clinical Oncology) www.mskcc.org/aboutherbs
(Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer
Center) www.cancer.ca (Canadian Cancer
Society) www.cancercare.on.ca (Cancer Care
Ontario)
31
Colon cancer
  • 1 in 17 men and women affected, 95 over the age
    of 50
  • About 75 are sporadic the rest is about 25
  • Long nature history from polyps to adenoma to
    carcinoma takes 20 years in average
  • Colorectal cancer can be prevented Life style
    (good diet-more vegetables, fruits
    exercises-strongest correlation to prevent
    colorectal cancer) screening (polypectomy-clonosc
    ope, sigmoidoscopy- prevents cancer-best kept
    secret)
  • Risk factor obesity, meat eating, smoking,
    alcohol
  • 5-FU, inhibit Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor
    (VEGF)

32
Breast cancer
  • 1 in 8 women affected
  • 212,600 cases diagnosed and 40,200 die of the
    disease in 2003
  • Screening 1. BRCA testing. 2. mammography
    screening (false negative up to 20)
  • Surgical prevention of breast cancer
    Prophylactic mastectomy
  • Tamoxifen, raloxifene, herceptin (Trastuzumab)

33
Lung cancer
  • 85 to 90 caused by smoking
  • 164,000 new cases in the U.S. MF1.2 1 Deaths
    156,900 (96) in 2000
  • CT screening is not sensitive enough
  • No demonstration of decreased mortality in
    screened population
  • Best treatment so far surgery.
  • Unresectable stage chemotherapy is worth the
    effort
  • Trial and Error
  • No effective testing methods

34
Prostate cancer
  • Most common cancer in American men
  • 320,000 new cases diagnosed 2005, 1/10 death
    anticipated in the U.S.
  • We do not have specific genetic testing in
    prostate cancer. PSA test is not specific.
  • Treatment options close observation, radical
    prostatectomy
  • Hormonal therapy chemotherapy
  • Prevention? Beta-carotene 7 years clinical trial
    FDA not proven

35
Cervical cancer
  • 500,000 women worldwide die of cervical cancer
    annually
  • 12,200 new diagnosis, 4,100 deaths in the US per
    year
  • Screening test Pap smear test (collect cells)
    reducing mortality rate by 70
  • Sexually transmitted
  • Known causes HPV DNA found in 99.8 cervical
    cancer
  • Can be prevented by screening and follow-up
  • Can nearly always be cured if detected early
  • Cryotherapy, laser vaporization, conization,
    trahelectomy
  • HPV vaccine

36
Ovarian cancer
  • 1 in 57 women
  • 25,580 diagnosed 16,090 died in 2004 in the US
  • Risk factors nulliparity 30-60 increased
    breast feeding decreased oral contraceptives
    30-60 decreased
  • Difficult to detect, symptom is non-specific

37
Skin cancer
  • Melanoma, Non-melanoma
  • 1 in 53 USA get melanoma
  • Self observing, pay attention to your every part
    of your body leads to early detection
  • Sun light, hair dye,

38
Brain tumor
  • Etiology is basically unknown
  • 17,000 new primary brain diagnosed per year in
    the US (100,000 matastatic)
  • More than 100 types of brain tumor
  • Each has separate pathologic features
  • Distinct biology
  • Different treatments and outcomes
  • No effective treatment methods
  • No effective detection methods. No role for
    screening as in breast cancer
  • Early detection DO NOT leads to cure

39
Western Medicine is not the only way to treat
cancer, such as the following
  • Certain tumors can not be resected
  • Metastatic tumors
  • Do not respond to chemotherapy or radiotherapy
  • Too weak to be treated

40
Adverse effects and toxicity of western treatment
  • Nausea, fatigue, diarrhea, ache, hair loss, blood
    cell lose, etc
  • Many patients can not complete their treatments
  • Prophylactic ectomy is hard to accept

41
Western medicine
Based on scientific evidence, focused on finding
out the etiology, pathology and the external
cause of the disease and seek to treat it
accordingly Remove, kill cancerous cells.
42
Traditional Chinese Medicine
  • Employ Chinese philosophy, culture and science,
    and summarizes the collective experience and
    wisdom in fighting against disease.
  • Base on experiences and practical applications
    accumulated over several thousands of years
  • Focus on the patient and try to cultivate and
    activate the patients internal repair power
    (increasing immune response against the disease).
  • Detoxify, depress the cancer cells.

43
Western Medicine and TCM are completely different
systems both in theory and in practice but both
serve the same objectivethe patient
44
  • Western Medicine treat Disease
  • TCM treat Patient
  • Western Medicine and TCM will not interfere with
    each other
  • In many aspects, they help and support each other

45
Can TCM alone cure cancer?
Not clinically proven But many successful
individual evidence exist TCM play a very
important complementary role in cancer treatment
46
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47
Chinese Medicinal Herbs for Cancer treatment
There are three kinds of herbs used in cancer
treatment 1. Restoratives???? Boost immune
system Ginseng ??, Astragalus??, Cordyceps
????, Medlar ???, Lily ?? etc. Should be
carefully used!
48
Chinese Medicinal Herbs for Cancer treatment
2. Eliminating heat and toxin??????
Honeysuckle ???, Houttuynia ???, Lobelia
???, Hedyotis?????, etc.
49
Chinese Medicinal Herbs for Cancer treatment
3, Invigorating the blood and removing blood
stasis ?????? Salvia??, Curcumae??,
Achyranthes??, Millettia???, Panax??, etc.
50
Why, When, How to use herbs?
  • Boost immune system
  • Detoxify body system
  • Change body's micro-environment
  • Reduce side effects of western treatment
  • Before and after surgery, radiation and
    chemotherapy treatments

51
If our immune system and repair ability is
intact, we should not suffer from tumor
52
Birth
Birth
Birth
Birth
Birth
Birth
Birth
Birth
Birth
53
Cultivate and activate the patients internal
repair power is extremely important
  • For example
  • Likelihood of getting HPV infection has been
    estimated to be 75 or more in life time
  • In younger women, the bodys immune system fights
    off the virus with no ill effects
  • Cervical cancer occur most often in women 30
    years of age or older

54
Can tumor be prevented?
55
Good doctors treat disease, best doctors prevent
it???? ??????????, ???????
56
Prevention Principles of TCM
  • Regulating psychological state,
  • free from avarice, stress relief.
  • ???? ???? ????

57
Proper diet
Eat regularly at the right time Eat in proper
proportions with hygienic eating habits ????
???? ???? ???? Food with anti-cancer effects
garlic, green tea, mushroom, hawthorn, kiwi,
lily, walnut, ...
58
Proper living style
  • Sufficient sleep regularly, wear proper clothing
  • Avoiding over-exertion, knowing release stress
  • ???? ???? ????
  • ???? ????

59
Physical exercises
Running water does not get stale, a door-hinge is
never decay. ???? ???? ???? Heart, no cancer.
60
Avoiding attack of pathogenic factors
Infectious diseases TB, Hepatitis virus, HPV
virus, EB virus, etc. Pollutions air, water,
food, electronic, magnetic, etc. ???
61
Early treatmentPreventing transmission and
change
???? ????
62
Multiple steps carcinogenesisA series of events,
initiation, promotion and progression, that leads
to the development of an invasive cancer
A series of events, stress, sleep after
mid-night, over-exertion, fast food, lack of
exercise, no annual check up, ignoring body
abnormal symptoms, , that leads to ?
63
  • with sufficient healthy qi (internal energy
    flow) inside the body, pathogenic factors will
    not invade the body
  • if pathogenic factors invade the body, qi in the
    body will be deficient
  • Haungdi Neijing

???????? ????????????
64
Better be late than never
Start taking care of yourself Live a different
life Health care plan, exercise plan, from
today
65
Concern Health, Cherish Life.
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