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Chapters 20,21,22: Africa and the Slave Trade, the Gunpowder Empires, and Asian Changes, 1450-1750

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Chapters 20,21,22: Africa and the Slave Trade, the Gunpowder Empires, and Asian Changes, 1450-1750 Mr. Bartula AP World History The Red Fort, Delhi Mughal ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Chapters 20,21,22: Africa and the Slave Trade, the Gunpowder Empires, and Asian Changes, 1450-1750


1
Chapters 20,21,22 Africa and the Slave Trade,
the Gunpowder Empires, and Asian Changes,
1450-1750
  • Mr. Bartula
  • AP World History

2
Africa 1450-1750
  • No longer aligned with the Islamic world trading
    system
  • Forceably brought into the Atlantic trading
    system
  • Heterogeneous societies and cultures

3
The Empire of Mali
  • Located in the Sahel region south of the Sahara,
    became powerful after 750 CE
  • Wealthy center of trade
  • Part of Dar alIslam
  • Rich in gold, agriculturally fertile
  • Capital Timbuktu

4
Timbuktu A Major Cultural Center
5
Timbuktu A Major Cultural Center
6
The Mosque of Jenne
7
Mansa Musa 1312-1337 Greatest King of Mali
8
Songhay
  • After the decline of Mali the Kingdom of Songhay
    gained power in the Sahel
  • Powerful cavalry and navy
  • Muslim dominated
  • Standardized weights, measures, and currency
  • Greatest King Sonni Ali 1464-1492

9
The Swahili Coast
  • Eastern coast of Africa
  • Long term involvement in Indian Ocean trade
  • Portuguese and other European influence
  • Cosmopolitan city-states
  • Predominantly Muslim
  • Swahili language a lingua franca
  • Traded with the interior of Africa

10
English and Swahili
11
Great Zimbabwe
  • Southern African kingdom
  • Traded with the Swahili Coast and the African
    interior
  • Too far inland to be affected by Islam
  • The only fully African civilization, with no
    outside cultural influences

12
Ruins of Great Zimbabwe
13
The Forest Kingdoms of West Africa
  • First area to be exploited by Europeans
  • Dominant region Benin
  • Benin art highly detailed and realistic
  • Source of most slaves taken to the Americas

14
Benin Art
15
The Atlantic Slave Trade Beginnings
  • Contact between Europeans and Africans began in
    late 1400s with Portuguese expeditions along the
    coast
  • At first Europeans saw Africans as being equal to
    themselves
  • Europeans and Africans studied at universities,
    exchanged ambassadors, and communicated between
    rulers
  • Christian missionaries traveled to Africa

16
Africans and Slavery
  • Slavery was an indigenous part of African culture
  • Slavery among Africans was usually temporary

17
The Atlantic Slave Trade Begins
  • European discovery of the Americas led to
    exploitation of Africans
  • Native Americans quickly died off from overwork
    and disease
  • Europeans needed a new source of coerced labor
  • By 1600, slaves were the largest trade item from
    Africa

18
The Atlantic Slave Trade
  • 1450-1850 about 12 million Africans were shipped
    to the Americas
  • As many as 4 million more Africans were killed in
    internal slaving wars
  • African rulers participated in the slave trade by
    gathering slaves and bringing them to coastal
    forts
  • Portuguese, Dutch, French, and British all
    established posts and fortresses along the west
    coast of Africa for buying slaves

19
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23
African Captives in Yokes
24
The Middle Passage
25
The Triangle Trade
26
A typical slave ships layout
27
Coffin Position Onboard a Slave Ship
28
Slave Ship Interior
29
African Slavery in the Americas
  • Primary destination of most slaves Brazil and
    the Caribbean Islands
  • Typical life expectancy of a healthy male slave
    on arrival 6 months
  • No natural increase among the slave population in
    most areas

30
North American Slavery
  • Labor on tobacco and rice plantations was less
    onerous
  • There was a natural increase among North American
    slaves

31
Consequences of Atlantic Slave Trade
  • Long term population decline in West Africa
  • Transfer of African foods and customs to the
    Americas
  • American food crops introduced in Africa
  • Africans in the Americas were converted to
    Christianity, but sometimes maintained elements
    of African religions

32
Europeans in South Africa
  • The Cape of Good Hope was reached by the
    Portuguese in the late 1400s
  • The Dutch established a colony there in 1652.
    Their settlers were called Boers
  • Expansion brought the Boers into contact and
    conflict with the indigenous Bantu, Zulu, and
    other African peoples
  • In 1815 the British took control of South Africa
  • Conflict continued between the Boers, British,
    and the indigenous Africans

33
The Gunpowder Empires
  • Ottomans (Middle East, primarily Turkey, and
    Eastern Europe)
  • Safavids (Iran)
  • Mughals (India)

34
The Gunpowder Empires
  • Military power based on gunpowder weapons
  • Islamic (Ottomans and Mughals Sunni Safavids
    Shia)
  • Political absolutism
  • Cultural renaissances
  • Less powerful than Western Europe

35
The Ottoman Turks
  • One of several Turkic tribes which entered the
    Middle East and converted to Islam
  • Powerful military led by Janissaries
  • In 1326, captured the town of Bursa near
    Constantinople
  • Built navies and seized control of the eastern
    Mediterranean
  • Conquered much of Balkan Peninsula

36
Janissaries
37
Constantinople captured, 1453
  • Captured by Sultan Mehmed II
  • End of the Byzantine Empire
  • Constantinople (Istanbul) was rebuilt and gained
    population and wealth
  • Tolerance for dhimmis
  • More emphasis on military than economic power
    conquest over commerce
  • Ottoman Empire continued to expand for the next
    century
  • Ottoman Sultans were also the Caliphs of (Sunni)
    Islam

38
Suleiman the Magnificent 1520-1566
  • Greatest Ottoman ruler
  • Called The Lawgiver or The Just by Muslims
  • Codified the Sharia
  • Rebuilt and beautified Istanbul
  • Patron of the arts, poet, made Istanbul a center
    of Ottoman cultural flowering

39
Suleimans Poetry
  • Some of Suleiman's verses, have become Turkish
    proverbs, including the well-known "Everyone aims
    at the same meaning, but many are the versions of
    the story," and "In this world a spell of good
    health is the best state He wrote in Turkish,
    Persian, and Arabic.
  • "The people think of wealth and power as the
    greatest fate,
  • But in this world a spell of health is the best
    state.
  • What men call sovereignty is a worldly strife and
    constant war
  • Worship of God is the highest throne, the
    happiest of all estate's

40
Tughra or Monogram of Suleiman
41
The Topkapi Palace
42
The Blue Mosque of Constantinople
43
Suleimanye Mosque
44
Miniature Painting An Ottoman Art Form
45
The Piri Reis Map, a mystery from Suleimans time
  • It appears to show the west coast of Africa, the
    east coast of South America, and the northern
    (land) coast of Antarctica
  • A map belonging to the Turkish Admiral Piri Reis
    ca 1514
  • Appears to be based on older maps
  • Shows accurate use of longitude

46
Suleiman and the Europeans
  • Suleiman recognized that Europe was a major
    potential threat to the Ottoman Empire and to
    Islam
  • He attempted to destabilize Europe with several
    invasions
  • He also provided financial support to Protestants

47
The death of Suleiman and the decline of the
Ottomans
  • As Suleiman grew older he lost interest in
    government and allowed the bureaucracy to rule
    alone
  • He allowed his sons to be raised uneducated in
    the harem, dominated by their mothers
  • This set a precedent for future Sultans and their
    sons

48
Selim II, The Drunkard 1566-1574
  • The first disinterested Ottoman sultan
  • Defeated by the Spanish at the Battle of Lepanto
    in 1571, lost control of the Mediterranean

49
Ottoman Decline
  • Over the next several centuries, the Ottoman
    Empire gradually declined
  • Europeans gained control of the seas and ended
    Muslim trade monopolies
  • Succession problems and uneducated Sultans
  • European economic competition
  • Technological and cultural conservatism
  • Janissaries held power and blocked reforms

50
The Safavids
  • Turkic tribe which entered Iran
  • Converted to Shiite Islam

51
Ismail 1494-1524
  • Took control of the Safavids in 1494 at the age
    of 7, claimed to be the Hidden Imam
  • By 1512 he controlled all of Iran and became the
    first Safavid Shah
  • Defeated by the Ottomans at the Battle of
    Chaldiran in 1514 (blocked Shiite expansion)

52
Shah Abbas I 1588-1629
  • The greatest Safavid ruler
  • Made alliances with Europeans against the
    Ottomans
  • Encouraged trade and commerce with Western
    Europeans
  • Period of great wealth and cultural creativity
  • Mixture of Persian and Islamic influences

53
Isfahan The Safavid Capital
54
Safavid Architecture
55
Safavid Poetry (Rumi)
  • O you who've gone on pilgrimage
    -              where are you, where, oh
    where?Here, here is the Beloved!              Oh
    come now, come, oh come!Your friend, he is your
    neighbor,             he is next to your wall
    -You, erring in the desert -               what
    air of love is this?If you'd see the
    Beloved's              form without any form
    -You are the house, the master,              You
    are the Kaaba, you! . . .Where is a bunch of
    roses,              if you would be this
    garden?Where, one soul's pearly
    essence              when you're the Sea of
    God?That's true - and yet your
    troubles              may turn to treasures rich
    -How sad that you yourself veil              the
    treasure that is yours!

56
Ottomans and Safavids Compared
  • The Ottomans were more market-oriented than the
    Safavids
  • Safavid women had more freedom and were less
    secluded than Ottoman women
  • The Ottomans had a larger territory and more
    resources.

57
Decline and Fall of the Safavids
  • Succession problems after the death of Abbas I
  • European economic competition
  • Religious conflict between Sunnis and Shiites
  • 1722 Safavids collapsed

58
The Mughals
  • Descended from the Mongols
  • Influenced by Chinese and Islamic cultures
  • Originated in Turkestan in Central Asia
  • Sunni Muslims with Sufi influence

59
Babur the Tiger 1483-1530
  • Invaded present day Afghanistan and then northern
    India
  • Defeated the Delhi Sultanate
  • First Muslim to use gunpowder weapons (muskets
    and artillery
  • At the same time, Europeans were beginning to
    have contact with India from the sea

60
Humayun 1530-1556
  • From 1530-1540, lost all of his fathers empire
    in a series of rebellions
  • Went into exile in Persia and rebuilt his army
    (Persian culture introduced to Mughals)
  • By 1555, managed to reconquer the Mughal Empire

61
Humayuns Tomb in Delhi
62
Akbar the Great 1556-1605
  • Greatest ruler of Indian history
  • Became Shah at age 13
  • Completed the conquest of Northern India
  • Developed an efficient bureaucracy
  • Attempted to win over Hindus

63
The Din-i-Ilahi The Religion of God
  • Attempted to synthesize the worlds religions
    into one
  • Predominantly based on Islam
  • Elements of Hinduism, Jainism, and Zoroastrianism
  • Asked Christian missionaries to participate
  • Eventually rejected by both Muslims and Hindus

64
Jahangir 1605-1628
  • Conquered Eastern India
  • Patron of the arts
  • The Age of Mughal Splendor

65
Mughal Art
66
The Red Fort, Delhi
67
Mughal Architecture
68
Jahan 1628-1658
  • Expanded Empire
  • Defeated the Portuguese
  • Known for magnificent architectural projects

69
Mumtaz Mahal
  • Jahans favorite wife
  • Died in 1631 giving birth to her fourteenth child
  • Jahan built the most magnificent tomb possible
    The Taj Mahal
  • Combination of Indian, Persian, Chinese
    architectural styles

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72
Aurangzeb 1658-1707
  • Shah Jahans building projects and taxes caused
    rebellions among the Hindus
  • Aurangzeb overthrew and imprisoned his father in
    1658 and became Shah
  • Expanded the Mughal Empire to its greatest extent

73
Aurangzeb 1658-1707
  • Devout Muslim who insisted Sharia become the law
    of the land
  • Persecuted Hindus, closed temples, outlawed
    practice of sati
  • Renewed taxes on non-Muslims which had been ended
    by Akbar the Great
  • Revolts began, aided by Europeans in India
  • By early 1700s Mughals were losing control of
    India and Europeans were gaining influence

74
Sikhs
  • A major Indian religion which began in the 16th
    century under the Mughals
  • Centered in Northern India, 23 million followers
  • Began with Guru Nanak (1569-1539)
  • Total of 10 Gurus (the last died in 1708)
  • Mystical, egalitarian, disciplined
  • Major political and economic force in India and
    Pakistan

75
Comparisons of the Declines of the Gunpowder
Empires
  • Internal weaknesses and conflicts
  • Overexpansion
  • Weak, incompetent rulers
  • Muslim contempt for Europeans meant the Europeans
    were underestimated
  • Economic and military decline as Europeans gained
    power

76
Asia and European Contact 1450-1750
  • Europeans were not powerful enough to exploit
    Asia during 1450-1750
  • Europeans at first had difficulty trading for
    Asian goods since they had little or nothing the
    Asians valued
  • Europeans were only able to trade successfully
    with Asia after they gained access to the New
    Worlds precious metals

77
European Trade With Asia
  • Using superior naval technology, the Portuguese
    were able to establish a trade network in the
    Indian Ocean by 1507
  • By the later 1500s, the Dutch, French, and the
    English had driven out the Portuguese
  • The Dutch took control of the Spice Islands
    (modern Indonesia)
  • The French and English concentrated on India

78
European Missionaries
  • Roman Catholic Christianity was introduced into
    the Philippines by the Spanish, where it merged
    with local animistic beliefs and traditions
  • Elsewhere in Asia, Christianity became a minority
    religion

79
Philippine Folk Altar
80
Ming China 1368-1644
  • Oldest, largest, and richest civilization
  • Part of the world economy, but foreign trade was
    only a small part of the Chinese economy
  • Silk, porcelain, and cotton were major exports,
    with tea becoming increasingly important

81
Ming Chinas Economic Impact on the World
  • Ming China used silver as its monetary metal
  • The Single Whip tax on all Chinese had to be paid
    in silver
  • Therefore, Ming China was a major importer of
    silver in exchange for trade goods
  • The largest source of silver was the Americas

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Ming Chinas Agricultural Revolution
  • New World crops such as corn, peppers, and the
    sweet potato were introduced to China
  • Crop rotation
  • Massive reforestation
  • Chinas population grew from 65 million in 1400
    to 300 million by 1800

84
Ming Chinas Commercial Revolution
  • Population growth led to increased urbanization
  • Small businesses specialized in porcelain, tea,
    silk, cotton, and paper manufacturing
  • European trade with Ming China was tightly
    controlled by the Chinese government, which was
    wary of foreign influence

85
Decline and Fall of the Ming
  • Little Ice Age related climate problems were
    especially severe in the early 1600s
  • Incompetent emperors were unable to help
  • Famine and natural disasters led to peasant
    rebellions
  • In 1644 the Manchus invaded, destroyed the Ming,
    and established the Qing Dynasty

86
Japan 1450-1750
  • Ca 1467-1600 Warring States period no central
    leadership (Emperor only ceremonial)
  • 1543 Portuguese traders arrived in southern
    Japan. Other Europeans followed
  • Portuguese and other Europeans served as
    middlemen, carrying goods between Japan and China

87
Christianity in Japan
  • Catholic missionaries led by Francis Xavier
    arrived beginning in 1549
  • Christianity had great appeal in Japan, and many
    converted, especially on island of Kyushu
  • Japanese converts traveled to Europe to meet the
    Pope

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Japans reaction to European contact
  • Fascination with the nanbanjin
  • Intense interest in learning about and from the
    Europeans
  • Large amount of trade between Japanese and
    Europeans

90
Tokugawa Ieyasu
  • By 1598, had managed to unify Japan under his
    rule
  • Tokugawa Shogunate 1598-1868
  • Distrusted Europeans and Christians as
    potentially disloyal to his rule
  • Restrictions placed on European traders and
    missionaries
  • Japanese Christians were persecuted

91
Sakoju Jidai National Seclusion
  • By mid 1600s all European traders were banned
    except the Dutch
  • Dutch traders were only allowed in Nagasaki
  • Japanese were not allowed to travel abroad, and
    foreigners were forbidden to enter
  • Christianity was suppressed

92
The Tokugawa Shogunate
  • Centralized government under Confucianist
    principles
  • Four social classes
  • Samurai (including the Shogun and daimyo)
  • Farmers
  • Artisans
  • Merchants

93
The Tokugawa Shogunate
  • Urbanization, with three major cities Edo,
    Kyoto, Osaka
  • Rice was the staple crop
  • Urban areas had many small businesses and
    industries
  • Confucianist schools allowed most men and some
    women to become literate
  • Dutch studies group studied European books in
    Nagasaki
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