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Linguistics A Study of English from 1066 to the present Prepared by Brenda White, Communication Arts Dept. Joplin High School, Joplin, Mo. July 2006 – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Linguistics

  • A Study of English from 1066 to the present
  • Prepared by
  • Brenda White, Communication Arts Dept.
  • Joplin High School, Joplin, Mo.
  • July 2006

Topics of Study
  • Language and Communication
  • History of the English Language
  • English Old, Middle, and Modern
  • American English
  • Ozark Dialect
  • Acquiring Language
  • Sounds and Sound Production
  • Do Animals Have Language?
  • Portfolio

Language and Communication
  • What are the characteristics of language?
  • Terms and Definitions
  • Be a Linguist

Seven Characteristics of Language
  • Use these to decide whether something is a
  • It can change and adapt as required.
  • You can speak to and be understood by others who
    know that language.
  • It relates sounds or gestures to meanings.
  • It can negate, ask questions, and refer to the
    past or future.
  • It is acquired without external instruction.
  • It is used creatively rather than in response to
    internal or external stimuli.
  • It has symbols that have discrete meanings.

Terms and Definitions
  • Linguistics the science that is concerned with
    the natures of human languages, their grammars
    and use
  • Alphabet a series of symbols where each symbol
    represents a designated sound or gesture
  • Arbitrary in linguistics, it describes the
    property of language, including sign language,
    whereby there is no natural or intrinsic
    relationship between the way a word is pronounced
    or signed and its meaning. (i.e., If language
    werent arbitrary, every language would have the
    same words for the same meanings.)
  • Grammar Everything a speaker knows about a
    language. It includes what the speaker knows
    about syntax, semantics, and lexicon.
  • Orthography the written form of a language

Discussion, Inquiry
  • How are language and communication different?
  • Which came first and why do you think that?
  • How did people communicate before spoken
  • Is pointing language? Are grunts? Are drawings?
    Why or why not?
  • Is ASL a language? Why do you think that?
  • Who makes the rules?

Types of Communication
  • Interactional Language is used primarily to
    establish and maintain social relations. You
    attend a party and begin small talk to those
    around you. You talk about the weather, sports,
    etc. These subjects are fairly predictable
    conversational topics, and their primary purpose
    is to establish and maintain social bridges and
  • Transactional Language has a much different
    purpose than interactional language. It is used
    to transmit knowledge, skills, or information. It
    is message-oriented because its purpose is to
    create a change in the listeners knowledge.
  • Write down an example of each type of language
    that you have experienced recently.

Types of Communication
  • Direct (intentional) communication deals with
    meaning -- statements that provide few
    alternative understandings Norm caught a
    5-pound black bass. Sally lived in Israel for
    six months. Direct communication is common and
    offers few challenges.
  • Indirect (inferential) communication provides
    more alternative understandings. A friend is
    wearing one black and one brown sock. What are
    some possible meanings you can ascribe to this
    observation? Your friend is a sloppy dresser?
    Your friend is colorblind? Your friend dressed in
    the dark? Your friend has a pile of dirty clothes
    and had only two unmatched but clean socks in the
    dresser drawer? Indirect communication often
    involves metaphors or idioms. Youre way off
    base. That assignment is a piece of cake.
  • Write down an example of each type of language
    that you have experienced recently.

Be a Linguist Language and Communication
  • On the following pages you will find quotes about
    language and communication. Your task is to
    choose two of the quotes that are similar or
    opposed so that they can be discussed. Write a
    long paragraph that discusses those quotations,
    their meanings, their implications, their
    applications. Discuss them in terms of
    communication and/or language.
  • Print your work. Be sure your name and hour are
    on the page.
  • This goes into your Linguistics portfolio, which
    will be submitted at the end of the course.

A few words about words
  • Never miss a good chance to shut up. - Anonymous
  • Drawing on my fine command of language, I said
    nothing. - Anonymous
  • Talk is cheap because supply exceeds demand. -
  • Its not what you tell them, its what they hear.
    - Red Auerback
  • Heaven, n A place where the wicked cease from
    troubling you with talk of their personal
    affairs, and the good listen with attention while
    you expound your own. - Ambrose Bierce

More words about words
  • Language is the biggest barrier to human progress
    because language is an encyclopedia of ignorance.
    Old perceptions are frozen into language and
    force us to look at the world in an old-fashioned
    way. - Edward de Bono
  • There are four ways, and only four ways, in which
    we have contact with the world. We are evaluated
    and classified by these four contacts what we
    do, how we look, what we say, and how we say it.
    - Dale Carnegie
  • To have another language is to possess a second
    soul. - Charlemagne
  • 9. From now on, ending a sentence with a
    preposition is something up with which I will not
    put. - Winston Churchill

More words about words
  • Language is a city to the building of which every
    human being brought a stone. - Ralph Waldo
  • Be careful of your thoughts they may become
    words at any moment. - Ira Gassen
  • Dance is the hidden language of the soul, of the
    body. - Martha Graham
  • Arguments over grammar and style are often as
    fierce as those over IBM versus Mac, and as
    fruitless as Coke versus Pepsi and boxers versus
    briefs. - Jack Lynch
  • Be sincere be brief be seated. - Franklin
    Delano Roosevelt

The final words about words
  • 15. England and America are two countries divided
    by a common language. -
    George Bernard Shaw
  • 16. Man invented language to satisfy his deep
    need to complain. - Lily Tomlin
  • 17. Numbers constitute the only universal
    language. - Nathanael West
  • 18. English usage is sometimes more than mere
    taste, judgment and education -- sometimes its
    sheer luck, like getting across the street.
    - E. B. White

History of the English Language
  • Language Map
  • Where in the world is Indo-European?
  • Timeline of English
  • Be a Linguist

One of many languages in the world
  • English is descended from the Germanic branch of
    the Indo-European Languages.
  • By virtue of the prominence of the countries
    (chiefly U.S. and Britain) who speak it, English
    is currently the Lingua Franca.
  • Lingua Franca refers to the language that is
    recognized globally and is used for international
    travel and international commerce.
  • Many other countries in the world teach English
    to all their students as a required subject.
  • Before English, French was the Lingua Franca.

Indo-European Language Chart http//www.chass.utor
Germanic Stem
World Map of IE Languages
  • The nations surrounded by the red line are
    Indo-European-speaking nations. Many of the
    nations were introduced to English when they were
    British colonies. Some were introduced to the IE
    family through France or Spain, however. This is
    an approximate map. There are, of course,
    indigenous languages such as Native American,
    Australian aboriginal languages and others. The
    red border in central Europe excludes Hungary.
    Finland and Estonia are not IE-speaking
    languages, although they are surrounded by other
    countries who are.

Indo-European Language Tree, Centum
  • Using the website above, write the answers to the
    following questions.
  • How many languages from this branch are extinct?
  • How is it that Latin is technically an extinct
    language but is still in use?
  • How much of Ireland speaks the Irish Gaelic
  • The Hittite language was spoken in what modern
  • True or False. Austrians speak Modern High
  • Afrikaans is spoken chiefly in what part of
  • Besides Denmark, Danish is spoken in what
  • True or False. The boot heel of Italy speaks
    Modern Greek.
  • Name three countries who once spoke now-extinct
  • True or False. Part of Norway speaks Icelandic.
  • Cornish was spoken only in what country?
  • The origin and spread of Proto-Indo-European
    languages is either hypothetical or
    substantiated. Which is it?
  • Spanish is spoken in how many identifiable areas
    of the world?
  • Which South American country speaks Portuguese?
  • True or False. The three Frisian languages are
    easily understood by all speakers.
  • Swedish is spoken in what other countrys
  • Norwegian is spoken on what island?
  • Provencal is spoken mostly in the southern region
    of what country?

1066 the Norman Conquest or Why We Could Be
Speaking French
  • Back in 1066, the Norman French successfully
    invaded England. From that time until the Normans
    were defeated a few hundred years later, the
    aristocratic class in England spoke French. The
    working class, however, stuck with English. Many,
    many new words were formed at that time, a mix
    between French and English. Many of our words
    today came from that mixing and adapting of
    languages. 1066 is the unofficial end of Old
    English and the beginning of Middle English.

Timeline of the English Language
The earliest known residents of the British Isles
were the Celts who spoke Celtic languages -- a
separate branch of the Indo-European language
family tree. Over the centuries the British Isles
were invaded and conquered by various people, who
brought their languages and customs with them as
they settled in their new lives. There is now
very little Celtic influence left in English. The
earliest time when we can say that English was
spoken was in the 5th century CE (common era - a
politically-correct term used to replace
AD). FYI, England from Enga Land from Angle
Land (Land of the Angles, a people of northern
Germany). Their name lives on in the district of
England named East Anglia and also in the
Anglican Church.
  • There are many different types of dictionaries.
    The ones we are most familiar with give us
    information about particular words. Reading a
    dictionary entry gives us
  • Etymology
  • Pronunciation
  • Definitions
  • Part(s) of speech
  • Common usage
  • Type of word
  • Oxford English Dictionary entries are somewhat
    different. Besides all the above information, the
    OED gives the complete history of the word all
    the way back to its first recorded use.

Be A Linguist History of the English Language
  • This class has access to the OED online.
  • Choose a word. The more interesting the word, the
    better. Do not choose an everyday word.
  • Your task is to find that word in the OED, and
    write a short report (one page or less) including
    all the following information about the word
    original use, meaning current use, meaning
    etymology use in a sentence with current
  • Put this document in your Linguistics portfolio.
    Be sure to include your name and hour.
  • Your word should be interesting and appropriate.

Old, Middle, and Modern
  • Beowulf to the Internet
  • New Words
  • Be a Linguist

(No Transcript)
Middle English
English in History
  • Old English - mid-fifth century to mid-twelfth
    century Old English
  • Middle English - approximately 1066 to the mid-
    to late-15th century Middle English
  • Modern English is continually changing.
    New Words in English

Why does Language Change?
There are no exact times for the end of one era
of English and the beginning of another. The
language gradually melded from one to the next.
People didnt wake up on New Years Day, 1200,
and start speaking Middle English. Lets take
William Shakespeare as an example. He lived
during the infancy of Modern English, and that is
one thing that makes his works sometimes
difficult for us understand he is using mostly
Modern English, but there is enough Middle
English leftover in his word endings and sentence
constructions that it sometimes throws us off.
But Shakespeare didnt sit around and wait for
the language to change. He invented thousands of
new words which he used in his plays. What
shapes the change of one language period to
another? The speakers do. New words are coined.
New inventions spark new vocabulary. New people
invade your country and take over. People do new
things new stuff happens. Some changes are
subtle, some arent.
New Words that have entered the language in the
last 50 years HINT What happened in history that
might have contributed new words? Do NOT use
commercial words (e.g., iPhone)
  • TERM
  • Integrated Circuit
  • Software

Be A Linguist Old, Middle, and Modern English
  • Image search Old English Manuscripts
    Print the best example. Label it.
  • Image search Middle English Manuscripts
    Print the best example. Label it.
  • Image search Chaucers Canterbury Tales
    Print the best example of writing and your
    favorite art work. Label them.
  • Image search Modern English Manuscripts and
    find a modern translation alongside an
    older type of manuscript. Print and label
  • Save this document to your Linguistics portfolio.

American English
  • Dialects
  • Pidgin and Creole
  • Be a Grammarian
  • Be a Linguist

Dialect Vocabulary
  • IDIOLECT The unique characteristics of an
    individual speaker
  • DIALECT Mutually intelligible variety of a
    language that differs in systematic ways from
    other varieties
  • DIALECT AREA A geographic area defined by the
    predominant use of a particular variety of
  • DIALECT LEVELING Movement toward greater
    uniformity or decrease in variations among
    dialects regularization of dialects
  • COMMUNICATIVE ISOLATION Describes limited or no
    contact between speakers of the same language
  • ACCENT - Characteristic of speech that conveys
    information about a persons dialect
    characteristic of the speech of someone who is
    not a native speaker

Idiolect? Dialect?
  • English speakers can talk and be understood by
    other English speakers, yet no two speak exactly
    alike. Each has their own IDIOLECT.
  • Differences might be based on age, sex, size,
    speech rates, emotional state, state of health,
    or whether English is a first language (L1).
  • A dialect is not an inferior or degraded form of
    a language. In fact, a language is a collection
    of dialects.

How do dialects develop?
  • Dialects develop when people who all speak one
    language are separated geographically or
  • Dialects develop when the linguistic changes that
    occur in one area do not necessarily spread to
  • Dialects occur within a group, linguistic changes
    occur, and those changes spread and are then
    learned by the next generation.
  • When a physical or social barrier exists
    mountain, river, ocean, political, racial, or
    religious linguistic changes do not spread
    easily and dialect differences are reinforced.
  • A change that occurs in one region and fails to
    spread to another region gives rise to REGIONAL
    DIALECT. Each regional dialect has its own
    character or flavor
  • Changes in grammar take place gradually and
    spread slowly. Change takes place over several
    generations of speakers.
  • Dialect differences tend to increase
    proportionately to the degree of COMMUNICATIVE
    ISOLATION. Today, even far-flung groups are more
    likely to communicate than earlier in history.

U.S. Dialect Regions
  • http//

Dialects the American Way
  • By the time of the American Revolution, there
    were three main dialect areas in the Colonies
    Northern dialect, spoken in New England and
    around the Hudson River Midland dialect, spoken
    in Pennsylvania and Southern dialect, spoken in
    areas south.
  • The characteristic dropped r (car cah farm
    fahm) was carried into these three dialect
    regions and remains today in Boston, New York,
    and Savannah. These regions maintained close ties
    to Southern England, who also had the dropped r
    in their dialect.
  • As settlers came from Northern England, where
    they did not drop their rs, and as westward
    expansion began in the United States, the
    dialects merged and DIALECT LEVELING occurred in
    the West.
  • More waves of immigrants brought non-English
    speaking groups to the United States who settled
    in various parts of the country. Their native
    languages affected the dialect in that region.

Dialect? Language?
A language is a dialect with an army and a
navy. Max Weinreich
  • The rule of thumb is that when dialects become
    mutually unintelligible, that is when the
    speakers of one dialect group can no longer
    understand the speakers of another dialect group,
    these dialects become different languages.
  • Mutually unintelligible is not easy to
    characterize. ---Danes (Danish), Norwegians
    (Norwegian) and Swedes (Swedish) can all speak
    and be understood, although their languages have
    different grammatical structures and are in
    different countries. ---Hindi (India) and Urdu
    (Pakistan) are about as different as British
    English and American English. ---On the other
    hand, Chinas two mutually-unintelligible main
    languages, Mandarin and Cantonese, are often
    referred to as dialects since they are spoken in
    the same country and share an alphabet.
  • ---How about Cajun?

Which word is correct?
  • Regional dialects may differ in the words people
    use for the same object, as illustrated by the
  • Do you call it a pail or a bucket? Do you draw
    water from a faucet or a spigot? Do you pull down
    the blinds, the shades, or the curtains when it
    gets dark? Do you wheel the baby, or do you ride
    it or roll it? Is it a baby carriage, a buggy, a
    pram, a coach, or a cab?
  • People take a lift to the first floor in England,
    but an elevator to the second floor in the United
    States. They get five gallons of petrol (not gas)
    in London in Britain, a public school is
    private (you have to pay), and if a student
    showed up there wearing pants instead of trousers
    he would be sent home to get dressed.
  • If you ask for a tonic in Boston you will get a
    drink called soda or soda-pop in Los Angeles. A
    freeway in Los Angeles is a thruway in New York,
    a parkway in New Jersey, a motorway in England,
    and an expressway or turnpike in other dialect
  • Language, like an alphabet, is ARBITRARY.

Banned Languages You cant say that!
  • Because of the belief that some languages are
    better or more desirable than others, from time
    to time languages have been banned.
  • Cajun English and French were banned in Louisiana
    by practice until the 1980s. People report being
    punished in school for using these languages.
  • For many years, American Indian languages were
    banned in federal and state schools on
  • A ban on speaking Korean in Korea was imposed by
    the Japanese during their occupation of Korea
    between 1910 and 1945.
  • As recently as 2001, the New York Times reported
    that Singapore wanted its citizens to speak
    English, not Singlish, a form of English with
    elements of Malay, Tamil, Mandarin Chinese and
    other Chinese dialects.
  • A number of years ago in France, where an academy
    of scholars determined what constitutes the
    official French language, they enacted a law
    forbidding the use of Franglais (combination of
    French and English).

Revived Languages Oh, yes I can!
  • Some languages have come back from the dead or
  • Quebec speaks almost entirely French although the
    rest of Canada speaks English.
  • Gaelic, or Irish, is making a comeback in
    hundreds of schools in Ireland and Northern
    Ireland after being nearly gone from regular use.
  • The Academy of the Hebrew Language in Israel
    undertook the most massive revival of a language
    ever in history. They sought to resuscitate an
    ancient written language to serve the daily
    everyday needs of the people. Twenty-three
    lexicologists worked with the Bible and the
    Talmud to add new words to the language.

Pidgin Creole
  • When people from different-speaking countries
    want to trade and need to communicate, they use
    elements of both languages and create a PIDGIN
    language, sometimes called a trade language.
  • Usually, a pidgin language takes on the
    grammatical rules of one or the other of the two
  • Although pidgin languages are used to
    communicate, they are generally not good at
    expressing fine distinctions of meaning
  • I include pidgin English even though I am
    referred to in that splendid language as Fella
    belong Mrs. Queen. Prince Philip, husband of
    Queen Elizabeth II
  • When a pidgin language is adopted by a community,
    forms its own lexicon, grammatical structures and
    rules, and children learn it as their first
    language, it is called a CREOLE language.

Be A Grammarian
  • Follow the link below where you will find a
    website that has several articles about dialects
    and language.
  • Choose one article. Print it if you need to.
  • Identify the main purpose of the article.
  • Identify all the main points of the article.
  • Comment on the contents of the article.
  • Compile your analysis in a logical, easy-to-read
  • http//

Be A Linguist
  • Listen to the NPR report.
  • DARE online.
  • A portion of the Dictionary of Regional American
    English (DARE) is online. The majority of the
    dictionary is only available in print, to which
    we do not have access.
  • You will be given a word/term that can be
    researched online. Your task is to discover and
    report on the words meaning and its origin. Tell
    the first known origin and the current usage,
    including dialect region(s) involved. Include
    pertinent information or interesting stories
    about the word. Present your material in a
    logical, understandable manner. This report
    should be logical and informative. Include it in
    your Linguistics portfolio.

Ozark Dialect
  • Shakespeares English
  • Appalachia to
  • The Ozark Hills
  • Be a Linguist

Ozark Dialect Origins
  • Who was Vance Randolph, and why did he care?
  • Communicative Isolation is the key to
    understanding the development of Ozark dialect.
  • Good luck, bad luck omens
  • Superstitions
  • Hidden in the Hills

Be A Linguist Ozark Dialect
  • In pairs, you will compile a list of Ozark words
    that you can identify.
  • Use family members, friends, others who might
    know about how it used to sound around here.
  • Note the common modern word that is now used in
    its place, and tell whether it has changed in
  • Present in an informative, understandable format.
    Each person needs his or her own copy.

Acquiring Language
  • Stages of Language Acquisition
  • Theories of Language Acquisition
  • Be a Linguist

Stages of Language Acquisition
  • COOING Appears about 6 months or so. All infants
    coo using all the sounds from every language.
    Even congenitally deaf children coo.
  • BABBLING Appears around 9-10 months. Infants are
    starting to selectively use the sounds from their
    native language
  • HOLOPHRASES One-word utterances. At around 12
    months, children start using words.
  • TELEGRAPHIC SPEECH Children start making
    multi-word utterances that lack function words at
    about 2 years of age.
  • NORMAL SPEECH By about 5 or 6 years of age,
    children have almost normal speech.

Theories of Language Acquisition Nature v.
Nurture Critical Period Hypothesis Second
Language Acquisition, Universal Grammar
Hypothesis Theory Imitation and Modeling Theory
  • Hypothesis Theory
  • As children are exposed to language, they form
    hypotheses. Then, they modify language
  • Imitation and Modeling Theory
  • Children will sound like the adults around them.
    They will share the same accents and idioms.
    Adults use child-directed speech to make
    themselves understood to children. Motherese is
    child-directed speech.

Theories of Language Acquisition Hypothesis
Theory Imitation and Modeling TheoryCritical
Period Hypothesis Second Language Acquisition
Nature v. Nurture NATURE
  • Humans perceive speech sounds better than other
  • Congenitally deaf children learn sign language at
    about the same rate that other children learn
    spoken language, and they go through roughly the
    same stages.
  • Parts of the brain seem to be specialized for
    language processing. (Brain Scanning Techniques
    and Basics of Brain Imaging)
  • Our larynx seems to have no other purpose except
    to facilitate speech.

Theories of Language Acquisition Hypothesis
Theory Imitation and Modeling Theory Second
Language Acquisition Universal Grammar
Nature v. Nurture NURTURE
  • Critical Period Hypothesis
  • The Critical Period Hypothesis explains the
    Nurture argument.
  • Case studies have indicated that if children are
    not exposed to language by their early teens,
    they will never be able to fully learn it.
  • Much of this information refers to children who
    were born deaf to hearing parents who were not
    aware the child was deaf.
  • Children exposed to ASL before age 6 did much
    better with complex signs than those not exposed
    until after age 12.

Theories of Language Acquisition Hypothesis
Theory Imitation and Modeling Theory Nature v.
Nurture, Critical Period Hypothesis Universal
Grammar Second Language Acquisition
  • Children exposed to a new language before the age
    of 3 will be able to learn that language and
    speak without an accent. However, if a person
    learns the new language later, he or she can
    learn to speak it, but with an accent.
  • Theres something about puberty, researchers
    think, that changes the way a person acquires a
    new language.

Theories of Language Acquisition 2 Noam Chomsky,
LAD, and Universal Grammar
  • Born in 1928, Noam Chomsky is a 30-year
    linguistics professor at MIT and a
    widely-respected linguistic scholar and author.
    He is still alive.
  • He says that humans are hard-wired for language.
    He also says that humans have in their brains a
    built-in system called a Language Acquisition
    Device to facilitate their learning of language.
    Within this LAD is all the information that is
    common to all languages in the world, and when
    children learn a language they only learn how to
    speak the specific words they already innately
    know the constructions. NOTE PET (Positron
    Emission Tomography) scans confirm the presence
    of an area in the brain that appears to govern

Theories of Language Acquisition Noam Chomsky,
LAD, and Universal Grammar
  • To support his hard-wired theory, Chomsky says
    that it is impossible for humans to acquire
    language through imitation or through any other
    known method other than an innate ability.
    Chomsky developed this theory that includes
    Universal Grammar.
  • Universal Grammar states that every language has
    common properties, e.g., nouns, verbs, a way to
    modify, a way to ask a question or negate. Those
    qualities, he says, are innate to all humans and
    play a key role in language acquisition.

Be A Linguist Acquiring Language
  • OPTION 1
  • Test a baby or child 2 months to 3 years to see
    how many words that child recognizes.
  • Your task is to first make a list of at least 30
    words you want to test for make them age
  • Next, make a device and/or a design a procedure
    to test for word recognition. Design a chart to
    record results.
  • Chart your results using at least one, or two,
  • In a report, describe the stage of language
    acquisition and its characteristics that were
  • OPTION 2
  • Write an essay that compares, contrasts, and
    discusses the at least two theories of
    language acquisition.

Sounds and Sound Production
  • Physical structures
  • International Phonetic Alphabet
  • Be a Linguist

Saying and Seeing Sounds
  • The shape of your mouth, whether or not you have
    all your teeth (especially front ones) or whether
    you have nasal congestion all affect the way you
    speak. Every structure in your mouth as well as
    some in your throat govern your speech.
  • All those various sounds that you make have been
    isolated, and an alphabet based on those sounds
    has been developed called the International
    Phonetic Alphabet (IPA).

All sounds are produced in your head --
specifically your mouth, throat, and nasal cavity.
(No Transcript)
IPA The International Phonetic Alphabet is a set
of symbols that represent sounds produced in the
English language. Other sounds are produced in
other languages which are not represented here.
  • Chart 1 Chart 2

Be A Linguist
  • Using the IPA, write your name, the name of your
    favorite song or band, and a sentence about
    yourself. Remember, use only IPA symbols in your

Do Animals Have Language?
  • Language Review
  • Animal Communication
  • Animal Research
  • Be a Linguist

Seven Characteristics of Language
  • Use these to decide whether something is a
  • It can change and adapt as required.
  • You can speak to and be understood by others who
    know that language.
  • It relates sounds or gestures to meanings.
  • It can negate, ask questions, and refer to the
    past or future.
  • It is acquired without external instruction.
  • It is used creatively rather than in response to
    internal or external stimuli.
  • It has symbols that have discrete meanings.

Be A Linguist
  • Read what linguists and researchers had to say
    about language in animals using the link below.
    Then visit the website below and see what
    researchers are doing today in this interesting
    field. You decide do animals have the capacity
    for language? Why or why not? Write a paper that
    explains your considered opinion, and give
    support for your conclusions.
  • Linguists say
  • New research says

Linguistics Portfolio
  • Gather all your projects, quizzes, assignments
    and notes. Put them in order. Design a
    linguistically-themed cover page. Bind them
    together and turn your portfolio in to me.