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SIMS 247: Information Visualization and Presentation Marti Hearst

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Title: SIMS 247: Information Visualization and Presentation Marti Hearst


1
SIMS 247 Information Visualization and
PresentationMarti Hearst
Feb 25, 2004    
2
Today
  • Visualization for Analysis (Carlis Konstan)
  • Zooming
  • Focus Context / Distortion-based Views
  • The Information Visualizer (Card et al.)

3
Visualization for Analysis
  • Carlis Konstan, UIST 1998
  • For data that is both periodic and serial
  • Time students spend on different activities
  • Tree growth patterns
  • Time which year
  • Period yearly
  • Multi-day races such as the Tour de France
  • Calendars arbitrarily wrap around at end of month
  • Octaves in music
  • Problem How to find patterns along both
    dimensions?

4
Analyzing Complex Periodic Data
Carlis Konstan, UIST 1998.
5
  • All 112 foods, alphabetical
  • Color corresponds to food type
  • Rings rather than blots to aid visibility
  • Carlis Konstan, UIST 1998.

6
Analyzing Complex Periodic Data
  • 12 most common foods
  • Consumption values for each month appear as
    spikes
  • Each food has its own color
  • Boundary line (in black) shows when season
    begins/ends

Carlis Konstan, UIST 1998.
7
Analyzing Complex Periodic Data
  • Different use of the viz in the chimp domain
  • 2 chimps (red and blue)
  • Length of line is size of the group they travel
    with
  • Top spiral is average size
  • Bottom spiral is max size

Carlis Konstan, UIST 1998.
8
Analyzing Complex Periodic Data
Analyzing properties of sound
Carlis Konstan, UIST 1998.
9
Analyzing Complex Periodic Data
Carlis Konstan, UIST 1998.
10
Carlis Konstan
  • An excellent example of infoviz
  • Provides clarity about information that is not
    otherwise possible
  • Makes excellent use of visual principles
  • Color, size, position all used properly
  • Different features are easy to discriminate, do
    not interfere with one another
  • Applicable to many different types of problems
  • Different levels of complexity

11
Zooming, Focus Context, and Distortion
  • Large amount of data in small space
  • Maximize use of screen real estate
  • Allow examination of a local area in detail
    within context of the whole data set
  • Todays tools use one, two or all three of these
    techniques

12
Do These Work?
  • The existing studies indicate that we dont yet
    know how to make the following work well for
    every-day tasks
  • Pan-and-Zoom
  • 3D Navigation

13
Zooming
  • Zoom in ability to see a portion in detail while
    seeing less of the overall picture
  • Zoom out see more of overall picture, but in
    less detail
  • Animation (also provides FocusContext)

14
Pad
  • A toolkit
  • (superceded by Piccolo, nee Jazz)
  • http//www.cs.umd.edu/hcil/piccolo/index.shtml
  • http//www.cs.umd.edu/hcil/piccolo/applications/in
    dex.shtml
  • An infinite 2D plane
  • Can get infinitely close to the surface too
  • Navigate by panning and zooming
  • Pan
  • move around on the plane
  • Zoom
  • move closer to and farther
  • from the plane

15
Semantic Zooming
  • Geometric (standard) zooming
  • The view depends on the physical properties of
    what is being viewed
  • Semantic Zooming
  • When zooming away, instead of seeing a
    scaled-down version of an object, see a different
    representation
  • The representation shown depends on the meaning
    to be imparted.

16
Examples of Semantic Zoom
  • Infinitely scalable painting program
  • close in, see flecks of paint
  • farther away, see paint strokes
  • farther still, see the wholistic impression of
    the painting
  • farther still, see the artist sitting at the easel

17
Examples of Semantic Zoom
  • Information Maps
  • zoom into restaurant
  • see the interior
  • see what is served there
  • maybe zoom based on price instead!
  • see expensive restaurants first
  • keep zooming till you get to your price range
  • Browsing an information service
  • Charge user successively higher rates for
    successively more detailed information

18
The Role of Portals
  • All this panning and zooming can get confusing
    (maybe even dizzying)
  • Portals allow for zooming a small piece of the
    dataset while keeping everything else in the same
    position
  • Pad is one big stretchy sheet
  • A portal is more like a special window into a
    piece of the sheet
  • That window behaves independently of the rest

19
PadPrints
  • Graphical Multiscale Web Histories A Study of
    PadPrints, R. Hightower, L. Ring, J. Helfman, B.
    Bederson, J. Hollan, Proc. Hypertext '98,
    Pittsburg, PA, 1998.

20
PhotoMesa
http//www.cs.umd.edu/hcil/photomesa
21
PhotoMesa Interface
  • PhotoMesa A Zoomable Image Browser Using
    Quantum Treemaps and Bubblemaps, B. Bederson, UCM
    UIST 2001
  • Zooming is primary presentation mechanism
  • Zoom in, zoom out on levels of thumbnails
  • Quickly drill down to individual picture (at full
    resolution)
  • Outline shows area of next zoom level
  • History of views
  • Thumbnail zooms up when hover w/cursor
  • Export images
  • Cluster by filename

22
PhotoMesa Goals
  • Automatically lay out images
  • Use immediately little setup time
  • Large set of images in context
  • Default groupings are by directory, time, or
    filename
  • No hierarchy
  • Makes managing photos difficult can delete, but
    reorganization a problem
  • Can add metadata

23
Bubblemaps
  • Like Quantum Treemaps, elements guaranteed to be
    same size
  • Arbitrary shapes
  • No wasted space
  • May be harder to visually parse than QT

24
How to Pan While Zooming?
25
How to Pan While Zooming?
26
Navigation in Pad
  • How to keep from getting lost?
  • Animate the traversal from one object to another
    using hyperlinks
  • If the target is more than one screen away, zoom
    out, pan over, and zoom back in
  • Goal help user maintain context

27
Speed-Dependent Zooming
  • Speed-dependent Automatic Zooming for Browsing
    Large Documents, T. Igarashi, K. Hinckley, UIST
    2000.
  • Navigation technique that integrates rate-based
    scrolling with automatic zooming.
  • Adjust zoom level automatically to prevent
    extreme visual flow
  • Automatically zoom out when going fast, zoom in
    when slowing down
  • Uses semantic zooming to provide context
  • Applied to
  • Large Documents (successful in a small
    study)
  • Image Collection (not successful)
  • Maps (mixed, needs work)
  • Dictionary (not successful)
  • Sound Editor (not successful)
  • Demo and Movie
  • http//www-ui.is.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp/takeo/research/
    autozoom/autozoom.htm

28
Is it useful?
  • Is panning and zooming useful?
  • Is it better to show multiple simultaneous views?
  • Is it better to use distortion techniques?
  • Would keeping a separate global overview help
    with navigation?

29
Study of Overview Detail
  • K. Hornbaek et al., Navigation patterns and
    Usability of Zoomable User Interfaces with and
    without an Overview, ACM TOCHI, 9(4), December
    2002.
  • A study on integrating Overview Detail on a Map
    search task
  • Incorporating panning zooming as well.
  • They note that panning zooming does not do well
    in most studies.

30
Overview Detail
  • K. Hornbaek et al., Navigation patterns and
    Usability of Zoomable User Interfaces with and
    without an Overview, ACM TOCHI, 9(4), December
    2002.

31
Overview Detail
  • K. Hornbaek et al., Navigation patterns and
    Usability of Zoomable User Interfaces with and
    without an Overview, ACM TOCHI, 9(4), December
    2002.
  • Results seem to be
  • Subjectively, users prefer to have a linked
    overview
  • But they arent necessarily faster or more
    effective using it
  • Well-constructed representation of the underlying
    data may be more important.
  • More research needed as each study seems to turn
    up different results, sensitive to underlying
    test set.

32
Distortion-based Techniques
  • Leung Apperley
  • Unified theory of distortion techniques
  • Techniques aim to solve problems of presenting
    large amounts of data in a confined space.
  • stretchable rubber sheet mounted on a rigid
    frame
  • Stretching Magnification
  • Stretching one part must equal shrinkage in other
    areas

33
Piecewise Non-Continuous Magnification Functions
  • Bifocal Display, Perspective Wall

Bifocal Display
Perspective Wall
34
Bifocal Display
  • Combination of detail view and two distorted side
    views
  • Can be applied in 2D
  • Since the corners are distorted by the same
    amount in x and y, its just scaled, not distorted

35
Perspective Wall
  • Similar to Bifocal, except demagnifies at
    increasing rate, while Bifocal is constant
  • Visualizes linear information such as timeline
  • Adds 3D but uses excess real estate on screen

36
Continuous Magnification Functions
  • Fisheye View, Polyfocal Display
  • Can distort boundaries because applied radially
    rather than x y

1D Fisheye
2D Polyfocal
37
Fisheye View
  • Thresholding
  • Information elements have numbers based on
    relevance and distance from point of focus
  • Value then determines what information is to
    presented or suppressed

Polar Fisheye View Image from Shishir
Shaw University of Texas, Austin www.adires.com/c
astleman/proj_02.html
38
Fisheye Menu
  • Fisheye Menus, B. Bederson, in the Proceedings
    of ACM UIST 2000, pp. 217-226.
  • Dynamically change the size of a menu item to
    provide a focus area around the mouse pointer,
    while allowing all menu items to remain on screen
  • All elements are visible but items near cursor
    are full-size, further away are smaller
  • Bubble of readable items move with cursor

39
Fisheye Menu
http//www.cs.umd.edu/hcil/fisheyemenu/fisheyemenu
-demo.shtml
40
Fisheye Menu
  • Distortion Function
  • Maximum font size
  • Focus length (number of items at full size)
  • Together these control the trade-off between the
    number of items at full size and the size of the
    smallest item
  • Focus length ? small items ? distortion ?
  • Alphabetic Index
  • Indexes can decrease search time
  • Index is positioned so that if cursor is aligned
    with it, the item will be the first one for that
    letter
  • Initial design had current position, but this was
    confusing because it moved

41
Focus Lock
  • Item are difficult to select because small mouse
    movements result in change of focus
  • Focus Lock allows user to freeze focused area
    and move mouse freely
  • If cursor moves outside focus area, the area will
    expand, and perhaps push ends off the screen

42
Evaluation
  • Small 10 person test, ½ programmers
  • Compared hierarchy, fisheye, scrollbar, and arrow
    bar (scrolling arrows)
  • Looking for trends
  • Results
  • Hierarchy was best for goal-directed task
  • Fisheye preferred for browsing
  • Not significantly though
  • Non-programmers rated it much lower than
    programmers
  • Only one person discovered Focus Lock
  • Index was thought to be interactive

43
Polyfocal Display
  • Highest peak is focus of display
  • Distorts shape of boundaries
  • Troughs surrounding peaks are highly distorted
    and can effectively be shrunk to nothing

44
Comparisons
Bifocal View
Polyfocal View
45
Focus Context
  • Can go hand-in-hand with distortion like
    fisheye
  • Works with zooming if animated Photomesa
  • Allows dynamic interactive positioning of the
    local detail without severely compromising
    spatial relationships.
  • Leung Apperley
  • One challenge in navigating through any large
    dataspace is maintaining a sense of relationship
    between what you are looking at and where it is
    with respect to the rest of the data.
  • Bederson Hollan

46
Robertson, Card Mackinlay
  • The Information Visualizer
  • Pioneered many Infoviz concepts
  • Definition
  • Information Visualization is an attempt to
    display structural relationships and context that
    would be more difficult to detect by individual
    retrieval requests.

47
Information Workspace
  • Workspace for information access

48
Information Workspace
  • Low-cost, immediate access to stored objects
  • Exploits power of new computers
  • Intends to answer demand for information
    management applications
  • Informations cost structure

49
Large workspace
  • Add virtual screen space
  • Rooms
  • Extend the WIMP desktop metaphor
  • Increase density
  • Animation
  • 3D perspective
  • Increase real-time interaction between user and
    system
  • Visual Abstractions
  • Shift cognitive load to application
  • Abstract information structures speed users
    ability to assimilate and retrieve information

50
3D Navigation
  • Walking Metaphor
  • Point of Interest Logarithmic Flight
  • Object of Interest Logarithmic Manipulation
  • Doors
  • Overview
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