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SIMS 247: Information Visualization and Presentation Marti Hearst


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Title: SIMS 247: Information Visualization and Presentation Marti Hearst

SIMS 247 Information Visualization and
PresentationMarti Hearst
Feb 25, 2004    
  • Visualization for Analysis (Carlis Konstan)
  • Zooming
  • Focus Context / Distortion-based Views
  • The Information Visualizer (Card et al.)

Visualization for Analysis
  • Carlis Konstan, UIST 1998
  • For data that is both periodic and serial
  • Time students spend on different activities
  • Tree growth patterns
  • Time which year
  • Period yearly
  • Multi-day races such as the Tour de France
  • Calendars arbitrarily wrap around at end of month
  • Octaves in music
  • Problem How to find patterns along both

Analyzing Complex Periodic Data
Carlis Konstan, UIST 1998.
  • All 112 foods, alphabetical
  • Color corresponds to food type
  • Rings rather than blots to aid visibility
  • Carlis Konstan, UIST 1998.

Analyzing Complex Periodic Data
  • 12 most common foods
  • Consumption values for each month appear as
  • Each food has its own color
  • Boundary line (in black) shows when season

Carlis Konstan, UIST 1998.
Analyzing Complex Periodic Data
  • Different use of the viz in the chimp domain
  • 2 chimps (red and blue)
  • Length of line is size of the group they travel
  • Top spiral is average size
  • Bottom spiral is max size

Carlis Konstan, UIST 1998.
Analyzing Complex Periodic Data
Analyzing properties of sound
Carlis Konstan, UIST 1998.
Analyzing Complex Periodic Data
Carlis Konstan, UIST 1998.
Carlis Konstan
  • An excellent example of infoviz
  • Provides clarity about information that is not
    otherwise possible
  • Makes excellent use of visual principles
  • Color, size, position all used properly
  • Different features are easy to discriminate, do
    not interfere with one another
  • Applicable to many different types of problems
  • Different levels of complexity

Zooming, Focus Context, and Distortion
  • Large amount of data in small space
  • Maximize use of screen real estate
  • Allow examination of a local area in detail
    within context of the whole data set
  • Todays tools use one, two or all three of these

Do These Work?
  • The existing studies indicate that we dont yet
    know how to make the following work well for
    every-day tasks
  • Pan-and-Zoom
  • 3D Navigation

  • Zoom in ability to see a portion in detail while
    seeing less of the overall picture
  • Zoom out see more of overall picture, but in
    less detail
  • Animation (also provides FocusContext)

  • A toolkit
  • (superceded by Piccolo, nee Jazz)
  • http//
  • http//
  • An infinite 2D plane
  • Can get infinitely close to the surface too
  • Navigate by panning and zooming
  • Pan
  • move around on the plane
  • Zoom
  • move closer to and farther
  • from the plane

Semantic Zooming
  • Geometric (standard) zooming
  • The view depends on the physical properties of
    what is being viewed
  • Semantic Zooming
  • When zooming away, instead of seeing a
    scaled-down version of an object, see a different
  • The representation shown depends on the meaning
    to be imparted.

Examples of Semantic Zoom
  • Infinitely scalable painting program
  • close in, see flecks of paint
  • farther away, see paint strokes
  • farther still, see the wholistic impression of
    the painting
  • farther still, see the artist sitting at the easel

Examples of Semantic Zoom
  • Information Maps
  • zoom into restaurant
  • see the interior
  • see what is served there
  • maybe zoom based on price instead!
  • see expensive restaurants first
  • keep zooming till you get to your price range
  • Browsing an information service
  • Charge user successively higher rates for
    successively more detailed information

The Role of Portals
  • All this panning and zooming can get confusing
    (maybe even dizzying)
  • Portals allow for zooming a small piece of the
    dataset while keeping everything else in the same
  • Pad is one big stretchy sheet
  • A portal is more like a special window into a
    piece of the sheet
  • That window behaves independently of the rest

  • Graphical Multiscale Web Histories A Study of
    PadPrints, R. Hightower, L. Ring, J. Helfman, B.
    Bederson, J. Hollan, Proc. Hypertext '98,
    Pittsburg, PA, 1998.

PhotoMesa Interface
  • PhotoMesa A Zoomable Image Browser Using
    Quantum Treemaps and Bubblemaps, B. Bederson, UCM
    UIST 2001
  • Zooming is primary presentation mechanism
  • Zoom in, zoom out on levels of thumbnails
  • Quickly drill down to individual picture (at full
  • Outline shows area of next zoom level
  • History of views
  • Thumbnail zooms up when hover w/cursor
  • Export images
  • Cluster by filename

PhotoMesa Goals
  • Automatically lay out images
  • Use immediately little setup time
  • Large set of images in context
  • Default groupings are by directory, time, or
  • No hierarchy
  • Makes managing photos difficult can delete, but
    reorganization a problem
  • Can add metadata

  • Like Quantum Treemaps, elements guaranteed to be
    same size
  • Arbitrary shapes
  • No wasted space
  • May be harder to visually parse than QT

How to Pan While Zooming?
How to Pan While Zooming?
Navigation in Pad
  • How to keep from getting lost?
  • Animate the traversal from one object to another
    using hyperlinks
  • If the target is more than one screen away, zoom
    out, pan over, and zoom back in
  • Goal help user maintain context

Speed-Dependent Zooming
  • Speed-dependent Automatic Zooming for Browsing
    Large Documents, T. Igarashi, K. Hinckley, UIST
  • Navigation technique that integrates rate-based
    scrolling with automatic zooming.
  • Adjust zoom level automatically to prevent
    extreme visual flow
  • Automatically zoom out when going fast, zoom in
    when slowing down
  • Uses semantic zooming to provide context
  • Applied to
  • Large Documents (successful in a small
  • Image Collection (not successful)
  • Maps (mixed, needs work)
  • Dictionary (not successful)
  • Sound Editor (not successful)
  • Demo and Movie
  • http//

Is it useful?
  • Is panning and zooming useful?
  • Is it better to show multiple simultaneous views?
  • Is it better to use distortion techniques?
  • Would keeping a separate global overview help
    with navigation?

Study of Overview Detail
  • K. Hornbaek et al., Navigation patterns and
    Usability of Zoomable User Interfaces with and
    without an Overview, ACM TOCHI, 9(4), December
  • A study on integrating Overview Detail on a Map
    search task
  • Incorporating panning zooming as well.
  • They note that panning zooming does not do well
    in most studies.

Overview Detail
  • K. Hornbaek et al., Navigation patterns and
    Usability of Zoomable User Interfaces with and
    without an Overview, ACM TOCHI, 9(4), December

Overview Detail
  • K. Hornbaek et al., Navigation patterns and
    Usability of Zoomable User Interfaces with and
    without an Overview, ACM TOCHI, 9(4), December
  • Results seem to be
  • Subjectively, users prefer to have a linked
  • But they arent necessarily faster or more
    effective using it
  • Well-constructed representation of the underlying
    data may be more important.
  • More research needed as each study seems to turn
    up different results, sensitive to underlying
    test set.

Distortion-based Techniques
  • Leung Apperley
  • Unified theory of distortion techniques
  • Techniques aim to solve problems of presenting
    large amounts of data in a confined space.
  • stretchable rubber sheet mounted on a rigid
  • Stretching Magnification
  • Stretching one part must equal shrinkage in other

Piecewise Non-Continuous Magnification Functions
  • Bifocal Display, Perspective Wall

Bifocal Display
Perspective Wall
Bifocal Display
  • Combination of detail view and two distorted side
  • Can be applied in 2D
  • Since the corners are distorted by the same
    amount in x and y, its just scaled, not distorted

Perspective Wall
  • Similar to Bifocal, except demagnifies at
    increasing rate, while Bifocal is constant
  • Visualizes linear information such as timeline
  • Adds 3D but uses excess real estate on screen

Continuous Magnification Functions
  • Fisheye View, Polyfocal Display
  • Can distort boundaries because applied radially
    rather than x y

1D Fisheye
2D Polyfocal
Fisheye View
  • Thresholding
  • Information elements have numbers based on
    relevance and distance from point of focus
  • Value then determines what information is to
    presented or suppressed

Polar Fisheye View Image from Shishir
Shaw University of Texas, Austin
Fisheye Menu
  • Fisheye Menus, B. Bederson, in the Proceedings
    of ACM UIST 2000, pp. 217-226.
  • Dynamically change the size of a menu item to
    provide a focus area around the mouse pointer,
    while allowing all menu items to remain on screen
  • All elements are visible but items near cursor
    are full-size, further away are smaller
  • Bubble of readable items move with cursor

Fisheye Menu
Fisheye Menu
  • Distortion Function
  • Maximum font size
  • Focus length (number of items at full size)
  • Together these control the trade-off between the
    number of items at full size and the size of the
    smallest item
  • Focus length ? small items ? distortion ?
  • Alphabetic Index
  • Indexes can decrease search time
  • Index is positioned so that if cursor is aligned
    with it, the item will be the first one for that
  • Initial design had current position, but this was
    confusing because it moved

Focus Lock
  • Item are difficult to select because small mouse
    movements result in change of focus
  • Focus Lock allows user to freeze focused area
    and move mouse freely
  • If cursor moves outside focus area, the area will
    expand, and perhaps push ends off the screen

  • Small 10 person test, ½ programmers
  • Compared hierarchy, fisheye, scrollbar, and arrow
    bar (scrolling arrows)
  • Looking for trends
  • Results
  • Hierarchy was best for goal-directed task
  • Fisheye preferred for browsing
  • Not significantly though
  • Non-programmers rated it much lower than
  • Only one person discovered Focus Lock
  • Index was thought to be interactive

Polyfocal Display
  • Highest peak is focus of display
  • Distorts shape of boundaries
  • Troughs surrounding peaks are highly distorted
    and can effectively be shrunk to nothing

Bifocal View
Polyfocal View
Focus Context
  • Can go hand-in-hand with distortion like
  • Works with zooming if animated Photomesa
  • Allows dynamic interactive positioning of the
    local detail without severely compromising
    spatial relationships.
  • Leung Apperley
  • One challenge in navigating through any large
    dataspace is maintaining a sense of relationship
    between what you are looking at and where it is
    with respect to the rest of the data.
  • Bederson Hollan

Robertson, Card Mackinlay
  • The Information Visualizer
  • Pioneered many Infoviz concepts
  • Definition
  • Information Visualization is an attempt to
    display structural relationships and context that
    would be more difficult to detect by individual
    retrieval requests.

Information Workspace
  • Workspace for information access

Information Workspace
  • Low-cost, immediate access to stored objects
  • Exploits power of new computers
  • Intends to answer demand for information
    management applications
  • Informations cost structure

Large workspace
  • Add virtual screen space
  • Rooms
  • Extend the WIMP desktop metaphor
  • Increase density
  • Animation
  • 3D perspective
  • Increase real-time interaction between user and
  • Visual Abstractions
  • Shift cognitive load to application
  • Abstract information structures speed users
    ability to assimilate and retrieve information

3D Navigation
  • Walking Metaphor
  • Point of Interest Logarithmic Flight
  • Object of Interest Logarithmic Manipulation
  • Doors
  • Overview