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A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e


A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e Chapter 2 Introducing Operating Systems * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * A+ Guide to Managing and ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e

A Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e
  • Chapter 2
  • Introducing Operating Systems

  • Learn how an OS interfaces with users, files and
    folders, applications, and hardware
  • Learn what happens when you first turn on a PC
    before the OS is loaded
  • Learn about the Power System.

  • A computer comprises hardware and software
  • Physical devices are the visible component
  • The controlling software component is not visible
  • Computer technicians need to master both parts

Operating Systems Past and Present
  • What an operating system (OS) does
  • Manages hardware
  • Runs applications
  • Provides an interface for users
  • Retrieves and manipulates files
  • The OS can be analogized to a middleman
  • A computer needs only one operating system
  • Operating systems have evolved to a complex form

Figure 2-1 Users and applications depend on the
OS to relate to all applications and hardware
DOS (Disk Operating System)
  • The first OS used by IBM computers/compatibles
  • Where DOS can still be found
  • Specialized systems using older applications
  • On troubleshooting disks or CDs
  • Used by some diagnostic applications on UBD_CD
  • Windows 3.x and DOS
  • Windows 3.x provided a graphical interface
  • Underlying OS functions were performed by DOS
  • Windows 9x/Me uses DOS in the underlying OS
  • Windows XP/2000/Vista/Win7 run DOS emulation

Figure 2-3 Windows 3.x was layered between DOS
and the user and applications to provide a
graphics interface for the user and a
multitasking environment for applications
Windows 9x/Me
  • Refers to Windows 95, Windows 98, Windows Me
  • Combine a DOS core with graphical user interface
  • Designed to bridge legacy and newer technologies
  • Backward-compatible with older systems
  • Able to accommodate new technologies
  • Cautionary note on minimum requirements
  • May differ for upgrades and new installations
  • May differ for installation and run-time

Figure 2-5 Windows 9x/Me is the bridge from DOS
to Windows NT
Windows NT
  • Two versions of Windows NT (New Technology)
  • Windows NT Workstation for desktops
  • Windows NT Server to control a network
  • Best known feature new OS core replacing DOS
  • First Microsoft product which did not rely on DOS
  • Avoid installing Windows NT
  • Windows NT introduced many new problems
  • Security
  • Compatibility to most gaming s/w
  • Did not support Direct x
  • Problems only solved in later versions of Windows

Windows 2000
  • Upgrades Windows NT (both desktop and server)
  • Improvements over Windows NT
  • A more stable environment
  • Support for Plug and Play
  • Device Manager, Recovery Console
  • Active Directory
  • Central security authentication authorization
  • Better network support
  • Features specifically targeting notebook
  • OS includes only qualified hardware and software.
  • Windows 2000 is being phased out.

Windows XP
  • Integrates Windows 9x/Me and Windows 2000
  • Two main versions Home Edition and Professional
  • Noteworthy new features
  • Allows two users to logon and open applications
  • Incorporates Windows Messenger and Media Player
  • Adds advanced security, such as Windows Firewall
  • Hardware requirements
  • 64 MB RAM (128 MB recommended)
  • 1.5 GB free hard drive space (2 GB recommended)
  • Typical installs consume 3 GB
  • 233-MHz CPU speed (300-MHz recommended)

Windows Vista
  • Next generation of Windows operating systems
  • Noteworthy new features
  • New graphical interface
  • Harder to use?
  • Targeted a less computer literate user
  • Supported a consumer electronic paradigm
  • Revamped engine
  • Faster
  • Too security conscious for typical users.
  • A new interface between it and applications.
  • Some s/w must be upgraded.
  • Many hidden features.

Windows 7
  • Basically an updated Vista
  • Features
  • Performance enhancements.
  • Better support for touch screens
  • Better handwriting speech recognition
  • More user centric, users have more control over
    the look and feel as well as performance tweeks
  • Many backward compatible look and feel
    enhancements which vista had are now a free
    download from MS, e.g. classic menu.
  • H/W resources
  • 32 bit, same as vista
  • 64 bit, considerably more, almost double.

Windows Server 2003
  • Refers to a suite of Microsoft operating systems
  • Windows Small Business Server 2003
  • Storage Server 2003
  • Server 2003 Web Edition
  • Server 2003 Standard Edition
  • Server 2003 Enterprise Edition
  • Server 2003 Datacenter Edition
  • Not designed for use in a PC
  • Not covered in this text

  • Comprises a class of operating systems
  • UNIX versions referred to as flavors or
  • Chief uses
  • Controlling networks
  • Supporting Internet-based applications
  • Each maker of Work Stations had their own UNIX
  • SunOS, Irix (SGI)

  • Variation on UNIX created by Linus Torvalds
  • OS kernel and source code are freely distributed
  • Popular distributions
  • SuSE (www.novell.com/linux/suse)
  • RedHat (www.redhat.com)
  • TurboLinux (www.turbolinux.com)
  • Used as both a server and a desktop
  • X Windows GUI shells for UNIX and Linux

  • Jointly developed by IBM and Microsoft
  • Chiefly used in certain types of networks
  • Part of OS/2 was incorporated into Windows NT
  • OS/2 is not covered in this book

Mac OS
  • First introduced in 1984 with Macintosh computers
  • Current version Mac OS X (10.7.1)
  • Mac OS X can work on some Intel-based computers
  • Markets education, desktop publishing, graphics
  • Noteworthy features
  • Support for graphics and multimedia capabilities
  • Use of the Finder program to provide the desktop
  • Superior Plug and Play capabilities
  • Excellent support for multitasking
  • Unix based.

Figure 2-10 The Mac OS X desktop is intuitive and
easy to use
What an Operating System Does
  • Four functions common to all operating systems
  • Providing a user interface
  • Managing files
  • Managing applications
  • Managing hardware
  • All OSs can have similar core components.
  • All do the same job
  • Some better then others.

Operating System Components
  • Components common to all OSs shell and kernel
  • The shell exposes functions to users and
  • Example 1 enables user to select a CD
  • Example 2 enables application to print a
  • The kernel (core) interacts with hardware devices
  • Example passes a print request to a printer
  • Registry database and initialization files
  • Used to store configuration information in

Figure 2-11 Inside an operating system, different
components perform various functions
An OS Manages Hardware
  • OS interacts with hardware using drivers or BIOS
  • Software falls into three categories
  • Device drivers, Main BIOS or component BIOS
  • Operating system
  • Application software

Figure 2-23 An OS relates to hardware by way of
BIOS and device drivers
How an OS Uses Device Drivers to Manage Devices
  • Device drivers specify how to interact with a
  • Example a driver links a computer to a digital
  • Drivers are provided by OS and device
  • Three kinds of drivers (corresponds to a mode)
  • 16-bit real, 32-bit protected, and 64-bit long
  • Device drivers in Windows
  • Before installation, verify Microsoft has tested
  • Registry stores information about 32-bit device
  • Updated drivers are available at manufacturers

How an OS Uses System BIOS to Manage Devices
  • System BIOS contains device information
  • Instructions enable CPU to communicate with
  • Example keyboard activated at startup using BIOS
  • Configure BIOS device interaction in CMOS setup
  • The OS may use system BIOS to access devices
  • Disadvantage of using BIOS device management
  • BIOS does not operate as fast as device drivers
  • Device drivers are faster
  • Reside in Memory
  • BIOS is Firmware, which is slow.
  • Maybe limited in functionality.
  • Supports only basic operations.

Understanding the Boot Process
  • Key learning objectives
  • Know how to boot a PC
  • Understand what happens first when a PC is turned
  • Understand how an operating system is loaded

Booting a Computer
  • Process that drives a computer to a working state
  • Hard (cold) boot turn the power switch on
  • Soft (warm) boot allow the OS to reboot
  • How to soft boot Windows XP
  • Click Start
  • Click Turn Off Computer
  • Click Restart
  • Some utilities that direct the OS to warmboot.

Choosing Between a Hard Boot and a Soft Boot
  • Hard boots are more stressful on machines
  • Power surges through system when PC is turned on
  • Reasons to choose a soft boot over hard boot
  • Less stressful on the machine
  • Faster due to skipping initial steps
  • Some computers have a soft and hard power switch
  • Soft power switch shuts down and restarts Windows
  • Hard power switch cuts power and restarts machine

The Startup BIOS Controls the Beginning of the
  • The startup BIOS gets a system up and running
  • Four phases of the boot process
  • BIOS runs the POST and assigns system resources
  • POST power-on self test
  • BIOS searches for and loads an OS
  • OS configures system and completes its own
  • Application software is loaded and executed

Figure 3-40 Boot Step 1 The ROM BIOS startup
program surveys hardware resources and needs and
assigns system resources to satisfy those needs
Changing the Boot Sequence
  • BIOS looks to CMOS RAM to locate the OS
  • Boot sequence order of drives checked for an OS
  • Change boot sequence using CMOS setup utilities
  • Access CMOS setup utilities when PC is turned on
  • Example press F8 before Windows screen appears

Figure 3-42 Numbered steps show how BIOS searches
for and begins to load an operating system (in
this example, Windows NT/2000/XP is the OS)
How to Troubleshoot a PC Problem
  • Assume the attitude of an investigator
  • Do not compound the problem by your own actions
  • Look at the problem as a learning opportunity
  • Ask questions until you understand the problem
  • Believe that you can solve the problem

Steps to Solving a PC Problem
  • Key advice
  • Ask good questions
  • Document the process
  • Four-step problem solving process
  • Step 1 Interview the user
  • Step 2 Back up data
  • Step 3 Solve the problem
  • Step 4 Verify the fix and document the solution

Figure 3-44 General approach to troubleshooting
Troubleshooting a Failed Boot
  • It takes time to acquire troubleshooting skills
  • Hands-on training troubleshooting a failed boot

My Computer Wont Boot
  • First step maintain your calm
  • Second step develop a game plan
  • Figure 3-45 provides a procedure
  • Plan is driven by a set of yes-no questions
  • Example Does the PC boot properly?
  • If no, troubleshooter is directed to another
  • If yes, troubleshooter is directed to stop (for

Figure 3-45 Use this flowchart when first facing
a computer problem
Troubleshooting Major Subsystems Used For Booting
  • Categories of troubleshooting steps in Figure
  • The electrical subsystem
  • Essential hardware devices
  • The motherboard, memory, and the CPU
  • Video
  • Reading from the hard drive
  • Key aides tables identifying error codes

Table 3-4 Beep codes and their meanings
  • Some PC repair tools recovery CDs, screwdrivers,
    POST, cleaning pads and solutions, diagnostic
  • Preventive maintenance plans extend the life of a
  • Follow an organizations preventive maintenance
    plan, or develop one if it does not exist
  • Computers present chemical and electrical hazards
  • Protect components in case from ESD by grounding
    yourself and the PC

Summary (continued)
  • Assembling and reassembling a PC prepares the
    technician for actual repair work
  • Startup BIOS controls when the boot process
  • Four step boot process POST, loading the OS, OS
    initializing itself, loading and executing
  • Expert troubleshooters ask good questions
  • Before tackling a problem, develop a game plan
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