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## UNIT THREE: Matter, Energy, and Earth

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### UNIT THREE: Matter, Energy, and Earth Chapter 8 Matter and Temperature Chapter 9 Heat Chapter 10 Properties of Matter Chapter 11 Earth s Atmosphere and ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: UNIT THREE: Matter, Energy, and Earth

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UNIT THREE Matter, Energy, and Earth
• Chapter 8 Matter and Temperature
• Chapter 9 Heat
• Chapter 10 Properties of Matter
• Chapter 11 Earths Atmosphere and Weather

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Chapter Eleven Earths Atmosphereand Weather
• 11.1 Earths Atmosphere
• 11.2 Weather Variables
• 11.3 Weather Patterns

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11.2 Learning Goals
• Explain the causes of weather.
• Discuss the role of convection in moving air
through Earth s atmosphere.
• Describe the characteristics of Earths major
climate regions.

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Investigation 11B
Observing the Weather
• Key Question
• How can you use weather data to make predictions?

7
11.2 Weather Variables
• Weather is a term that describes the condition of
the atmosphere in terms of temperature, wind, and
atmospheric pressure.
• There are many conditions on earth that affect
how and why weather changes.

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11.2 Convection, pressure, and wind
• Convection occurs naturally in Earths atmosphere
due to the heating and cooling of air.
• A thermal is a small, upward flow of warm air
caused by convection.

Gliding birds like hawks often ride a thermal as
they hunt.
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11.2 Convection
• Heated air near a hot surface is less dense than
the colder air above it.
• The heated air rises, forcing the colder air to
move aside and sink toward the ground.
• Then this colder air is warmed by the surface,
and it rises.
• Wind is created.

10
11.2 Wind
• An air mass is a large body of air with
consistent temperature and moisture content
throughout.
• Wind is the horizontal movement of air that
occurs as a result of a pressure difference
between two air masses.

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11.2 Convection in the atmosphere
• Convection near coastlines causes sea breezes
during the day and land breezes at night.

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11.2 Global Convection
• The combination of global convection and Earths
rotation sets up a series of wind patterns called
convection cells.

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11.2 Global patterns
• Three important global wind patterns exist in
each hemisphere
• Prevailing westerlies
• Polar easterlies

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11.2 Coriolis effect
• The bending of currents of air due to the Earths
rotation is called the Coriolis effect.

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11.2 Polar fronts
• At a boundary called the polar front, the dense,
polar air forces the warmer, westerly air upward.
• During the winter, polar fronts slide toward the
equator and during the summer they retreat
northward.

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11.2 Air and water vapor
• Water in gas form is called water vapor.
• Like a soggy sponge, air reaches a point and
cant hold anymore vapor.
• The vapor turns back into liquid and form
droplets.

Use these pictures to explain how the cycle can
continue.
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11.2 Precipitation
• Rain is the result of a cooling air mass.
• Cooling an air mass is like wringing out a wet
sponge.
• Tiny droplets form a cloud or fog.
• Larger droplets fall as rain.

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11.2 Precipitation
• Tiny water droplets are suspended in the
atmosphere.
• Whether the particles are liquid water or water
vapor depends changes in pressure and temperature.

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11.2 Precipitation
• When the rate of evaporation is greater than the
rate of condensation, we see clearing skies.
• When the rate of condensation exceeds the rate of
evaporation, it rains.

22
11.2 Snow
• Snow usually forms when both ice crystals and
water droplets are present in the sky.
• The water droplets attach to ice crystals and
freeze.
• When the ice crystals are large enough, they will
fall to the ground.

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11.2 Relative Humidity
• Relative humidity is a measure of how much water
vapor an air mass contains.

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11.2 Climate and biomes
• Climate is the type of weather that a place has,
on average, over a long period of time.
• Climate depends on many factors
• latitude,
• precipitation,
• elevation,
• topography, and
• distance from large bodies of water.

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11.2 Climate and biomes
• Scientists divide the planet into climate regions
called biomes.
• Earth has six main biomes deserts, grasslands,
temperate deciduous forests, rainforests, taiga,
and tundras.
• Each biome has a unique set of plants and animals
that thrive in its climate.

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11.2 Climate and biomes
• The Serengeti is a home to thousands of predators
species and 1.6 million herbivores.

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11.2 Climate and biomes
• Humidity is related to plant and animal
diversity.
• From the poles to the equator, humidity and the
diversity of plants and animal increases.

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11.2 Biomes and temperature
• At the equator, sunlight is direct and intense.
• As a result, the average yearly temperature at
the equator is 27 C (80 F), while at the North
Pole it is -18 C (0 F).

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11.2 Biomes and elevation
• Elevation is another important factor in
determining the type of biome.

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11.2 Biomes and temperature
• Compare the data below for Portland, OR and
Minneapolis, MN.
• If these cities are about the same latitude, why
dont they have the same climate?

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11.2 Biomes and temperature
• The differences in temperature between the two
cities have to do with water.
• Water warms up and cools down slowly.
• Regions near waterlike Portland, ORdo not have
extremely hot or cold weather, even though they
are farther north.

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11.2 Plants and animals in biomes
• A biome consists of plant and animal communities.
• The plants and animals in a community survive in
a shared environment.

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11.2 Plants and animals in biomes
• Within a biome, there are many interrelated
ecosystems.
• An ecosystem is made up of the plants and animals
that live there, plus nonliving things like soil,
air, water, sunlight, and nutrients.

35
11.2 Plants and animals in biomes
• What features of this jackrabbit help it survive
in its desert biome?