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UNIT THREE: Matter, Energy, and Earth


UNIT THREE: Matter, Energy, and Earth Chapter 8 Matter and Temperature Chapter 9 Heat Chapter 10 Properties of Matter Chapter 11 Earth s Atmosphere and ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: UNIT THREE: Matter, Energy, and Earth

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UNIT THREE Matter, Energy, and Earth
  • Chapter 8 Matter and Temperature
  • Chapter 9 Heat
  • Chapter 10 Properties of Matter
  • Chapter 11 Earths Atmosphere and Weather

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Chapter Eleven Earths Atmosphereand Weather
  • 11.1 Earths Atmosphere
  • 11.2 Weather Variables
  • 11.3 Weather Patterns

11.2 Learning Goals
  • Explain the causes of weather.
  • Discuss the role of convection in moving air
    through Earth s atmosphere.
  • Describe the characteristics of Earths major
    climate regions.

Investigation 11B
Observing the Weather
  • Key Question
  • How can you use weather data to make predictions?

11.2 Weather Variables
  • Weather is a term that describes the condition of
    the atmosphere in terms of temperature, wind, and
    atmospheric pressure.
  • There are many conditions on earth that affect
    how and why weather changes.

11.2 Convection, pressure, and wind
  • Convection occurs naturally in Earths atmosphere
    due to the heating and cooling of air.
  • A thermal is a small, upward flow of warm air
    caused by convection.

Gliding birds like hawks often ride a thermal as
they hunt.
11.2 Convection
  • Heated air near a hot surface is less dense than
    the colder air above it.
  • The heated air rises, forcing the colder air to
    move aside and sink toward the ground.
  • Then this colder air is warmed by the surface,
    and it rises.
  • Wind is created.

11.2 Wind
  • An air mass is a large body of air with
    consistent temperature and moisture content
  • Wind is the horizontal movement of air that
    occurs as a result of a pressure difference
    between two air masses.

11.2 Convection in the atmosphere
  • Convection near coastlines causes sea breezes
    during the day and land breezes at night.

11.2 Global Convection
  • The combination of global convection and Earths
    rotation sets up a series of wind patterns called
    convection cells.

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11.2 Global patterns
  • Three important global wind patterns exist in
    each hemisphere
  • Trade winds
  • Prevailing westerlies
  • Polar easterlies

11.2 Coriolis effect
  • The bending of currents of air due to the Earths
    rotation is called the Coriolis effect.

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11.2 Polar fronts
  • At a boundary called the polar front, the dense,
    polar air forces the warmer, westerly air upward.
  • During the winter, polar fronts slide toward the
    equator and during the summer they retreat

11.2 Air and water vapor
  • Water in gas form is called water vapor.
  • Like a soggy sponge, air reaches a point and
    cant hold anymore vapor.
  • The vapor turns back into liquid and form

Use these pictures to explain how the cycle can
11.2 Precipitation
  • Rain is the result of a cooling air mass.
  • Cooling an air mass is like wringing out a wet
  • Tiny droplets form a cloud or fog.
  • Larger droplets fall as rain.

11.2 Precipitation
  • Tiny water droplets are suspended in the
  • Whether the particles are liquid water or water
    vapor depends changes in pressure and temperature.

11.2 Precipitation
  • When the rate of evaporation is greater than the
    rate of condensation, we see clearing skies.
  • When the rate of condensation exceeds the rate of
    evaporation, it rains.

11.2 Snow
  • Snow usually forms when both ice crystals and
    water droplets are present in the sky.
  • The water droplets attach to ice crystals and
  • When the ice crystals are large enough, they will
    fall to the ground.

11.2 Relative Humidity
  • Relative humidity is a measure of how much water
    vapor an air mass contains.

11.2 Climate and biomes
  • Climate is the type of weather that a place has,
    on average, over a long period of time.
  • Climate depends on many factors
  • latitude,
  • precipitation,
  • elevation,
  • topography, and
  • distance from large bodies of water.

11.2 Climate and biomes
  • Scientists divide the planet into climate regions
    called biomes.
  • Earth has six main biomes deserts, grasslands,
    temperate deciduous forests, rainforests, taiga,
    and tundras.
  • Each biome has a unique set of plants and animals
    that thrive in its climate.

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11.2 Climate and biomes
  • The Serengeti is a home to thousands of predators
    species and 1.6 million herbivores.

11.2 Climate and biomes
  • Humidity is related to plant and animal
  • From the poles to the equator, humidity and the
    diversity of plants and animal increases.

11.2 Biomes and temperature
  • At the equator, sunlight is direct and intense.
  • As a result, the average yearly temperature at
    the equator is 27 C (80 F), while at the North
    Pole it is -18 C (0 F).

11.2 Biomes and elevation
  • Elevation is another important factor in
    determining the type of biome.

11.2 Biomes and temperature
  • Compare the data below for Portland, OR and
    Minneapolis, MN.
  • If these cities are about the same latitude, why
    dont they have the same climate?

11.2 Biomes and temperature
  • The differences in temperature between the two
    cities have to do with water.
  • Water warms up and cools down slowly.
  • Regions near waterlike Portland, ORdo not have
    extremely hot or cold weather, even though they
    are farther north.

11.2 Plants and animals in biomes
  • A biome consists of plant and animal communities.
  • The plants and animals in a community survive in
    a shared environment.

11.2 Plants and animals in biomes
  • Within a biome, there are many interrelated
  • An ecosystem is made up of the plants and animals
    that live there, plus nonliving things like soil,
    air, water, sunlight, and nutrients.

11.2 Plants and animals in biomes
  • What features of this jackrabbit help it survive
    in its desert biome?
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