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Title: KETAHANAN LINGKUNGAN


1
KOMPENDIUM KAJIAN LINGKUNGAN DAN
PEMBANGUNAN KETAHANAN LINGKUNGAN Dikoleksi
oleh Prof Dr Ir Soemarno MS PM-PSLP PDKLP PPSUB
APRIL 2012
2
Environmental security is the proportional public
safety from environmental dangers that results
from natural or human processes due to ignorance,
accident, mismanagement or design. Environmental
security is treated as a branch of the study of
national security. Environmental security
examines the threat posed by environmental events
and trends to national security and elements of
national power.
Environmental restoration refers to the process
by which the risk caused by hazardous effluents
are removed or minimized to a prescribed and safe
level by environmental cleanup. This ensures that
the risks to environment and also to human beings
are reduced. Environmental restoration is also
termed ecological restoration or environmental
remediation.
Sumber http//definitions.uslegal.com/e/environ
mental-security/ diunduh 30 Maret 2012
3
KETAHANAN LINGKUNGAN
Environmental security is the relative public
safety from environmental dangers caused by
natural or human processes due to ignorance,
accident, mismanagement or design and originating
within or across national borders.
Environmental security is the state of
human-environment dynamics that includes
restoration of the environment damaged by
military actions, and amelioration of resource
scarcities, environmental degradation, and
biological threats that could lead to social
disorder and conflict.
Environmental security is the cycling of natural
resources to products, to wastes, to natural
resources in ways that promote social stability.
Sumber http//www.acunu.org/millennium/es-2def.ht
ml diunduh 30 Maret 2012
4
KETAHANAN LINGKUNGAN
Environmental security is the maintenance of the
physical surroundings of society for its needs
without diminishing the natural stock.
Environmental security is the freedom from social
instability due to environmental degradation.
Environmental security is the proactive
minimization of anthropogenic threats to the
functional integrity of the biosphere and thus to
its interdependent human component. (Barnett,
J, 1997, 'Environmental Security Now What?',
seminar, Department of International Relations,
Keele University, December 4 1997.)
Sumber http//www.acunu.org/millennium/es-2def.ht
ml diunduh 30 Maret 2012
5
Definitions of Environmental Security
  • Environmental security is a term used by scholars
    and practitioners to posit linkages between
    environmental conditions and security interests.
    Although competing notions of environmental
    security abound, they generally fall into three
    sets of claims
  • States and non-state actors should guard against
    environmental degradation for the same reason
    they guard against organized violence both kinds
    of threats can harm human, material, and natural
    resources on a large and disruptive scale.
  • Local and regional environmental degradation
    and/or resource scarcities (exacerbated by
    population growth, inequitable wealth
    distribution, and global environmental changes)
    are an important contributing factor to
    sub-national political instability and violent
    conflict.
  • Military and security institutions (including
    intelligence agencies) can and should play a
    greater role in environmental protection. The
    rise in popularity of environmental security
    slogans has accompanied the increasingly
    prominent calls for new definitions of security
    to replace Cold War concepts predominantly rooted
    in Realism.

Environmental Security is a state of the target
group, either individual, collective or national,
being systematically protected from environmental
risks caused by inappropriate ecological process
due to ignorance, accident, mismanagement or
design.
Sumber http//www.acunu.org/millennium/es-2def.ht
ml diunduh 30 Maret 2012
6
Definitions of Environmental Security
  • The term environmental security refers to a range
    of concerns that can be organized into three
    general categories
  • Concerns about the adverse impact of human
    activities on the environment - the emphasis here
    is on the security of the environment as a good
    in itself, for the sake of future generations, as
    the context for human life.
  • Concerns about the direct and indirect effects of
    various forms of environmental change (especially
    scarcity and degradation) which may be natural or
    human-generated on national and regional
    security. Here the focus is on environmental
    change triggering, intensifying or generating the
    forms of conflict and instability relevant to
    conventional security thinking. Research suggests
    that interstate war is less likely than diffuse
    civil violence. A subsidiary question is what
    can conventional security resources do to address
    these threats? Suggestions include using
    intelligence data gathering and analysis assets,
    promoting technology transfer and dialogue
    through military to military contact programs,
    using the army corps of engineers to help tackle
    specific environmental problems, etc. A related
    question is, can military training, testing and
    war fighting activities be made less harmful to
    the environment.
  • Concerns about the insecurity individuals and
    groups (from small communities to humankind)
    experience due to environmental change such as
    water scarcity, air pollution, global warming,
    andso on. Here the focus is on the material
    well-being of individuals and there is no
    presumption that this is a traditional security
    issue or that traditional security assets will be
    useful.

Sumber http//www.acunu.org/millennium/es-2def.ht
ml diunduh 30 Maret 2012
7
Definitions of Environmental Security
Environmental security is the relative public
security from environmental dangers caused by
natural or human processes due to ignorance,
accident, mismanagement, weak management (actor
pursuing private benefit so as to translate
public environment capital into private economic
and social capital), or by design and originating
within or across national borders.
Environmental security is the concept that social
(and thus political and economic) stability
controls, as is controlled by, the abundance and
distribution of natural resources.
Environmental security is the relative public
safety from environmental dangers caused by
natural causes, economic activity or military
actions it includes the amelioration of resource
scarcities, environmental degradation and
biological threats that could lead to conflict.
Sumber http//www.acunu.org/millennium/es-2def.ht
ml diunduh 30 Maret 2012
8
Definitions of Environmental Security
Environmental security addresses the consequences
of environmental degradation, broadly defined to
include depletion or degradation of natural
resources such as air, water, land unwise
development or land use practices that may
contribute to societal, political or economic
instability or conflict.
  • Environmental Security is comprised of
    restoration, compliance, conservation, pollution
    prevention, environmental security technology,
    and international activities, which are
    explained, as follows
  • Restoration is identification, evaluation,
    containment, treatment, and/or removal of
    contamination so that it no longer poses a threat
    to public health and the environment.
  • Compliance is meeting applicable statutory,
    Executive Order, and regulatory standards for all
    environmental security functions, including FGS
    or the Overseas Environmental Baseline Guidance
    Document, as appropriate.
  • Conservation is planned management, use, and
    protection continued benefit for present and
    future generations and prevention of
    exploitation, destruction, and/or neglect of
    natural and cultural resources.
  • Pollution prevention is source reduction as
    defined in 42 U.S.C 13101-13109 (reference (nn)),
    and other practices that reduce or eliminate the
    creation of pollutants through increased
    efficiency in the use of raw materials, energy,
    water, or other resources or protection of
    natural resources by conservation.
  • Safety is a multifaceted program designed to
    prevent accidental loss of human and material
    resources and protects the environment from the
    potentially damaging effect of DoD mishaps.
  • Occupational health protects personnel from
    health risks, and includes occupational medicine
    e, illness and injury tend analysis,
    epidemiology, occupational health nursing,
    industrial hygiene, and radiological health.

Sumber http//www.acunu.org/millennium/es-2def.ht
ml diunduh 30 Maret 2012
9
Definitions of Environmental Security
Environmental security addresses the consequences
of environmental degradation, broadly defined to
include depletion or degradation of natural
resources such as air, water, land unwise
development or land use practices that may
contribute to societal, political or economic
instability or conflict.
  • Environmental Security is comprised of
    restoration, compliance, conservation, pollution
    prevention, environmental security technology,
    and international activities, which are
    explained, as follows
  • Fire and emergency services enhance combat
    capability by preserving life and DoD property
    through fire suppression, fire prevention, fire
    protection engineering, and emergency resources.
  • Explosives safety protects personnel, property,
    and military equipment from unnecessary exposure
    to the hazards associated with DoD ammunition and
    explosives and protects the environment from
    potentially damaging effects of DoD ammunition
    and explosives.
  • Pest management is the prevention and control of
    disease vectors and pests that may adversely
    affect the DoD mission or military operations
    the health and well-being of people structures,
    material, or property.
  • Environmental security technology consists of
    research, development, tests and evaluation, and
    regulatory certification of innovative
    technologies responsive to user needs.
  • International environmental activities include
    bilateral or multilateral agreements, information
    exchanges, cooperative agreements, and specific
    actions, consistent with the responsibilities
    identified in subsection E.3, above, to bring DoD
    resources to bear on international
    military-related environmental matters or as
    otherwise appropriate in support of national
    defense policy interests.

Sumber http//www.acunu.org/millennium/es-2def.ht
ml diunduh 30 Maret 2012
10
KETAHANAN LINGKUNGAN
Environmental security, a relatively new and
still somewhat contentious concept, may be
defined as the intersection of environmental and
national security considerations at a national
policy level. It may be understood as a result
of several important trends. One, of course, is
the breakdown of the bipolar geopolitical
structure that characterized the cold war. A
second, less visible to many in the policy
community, is the shift of environment from
compliance and remediation to strategic for
society. This process is occurring at many
different scales, from implementation of Design
for Environment methodologies within firms, to
integration of environmental and trade
considerations in the World Trade Organization
(WTO).
Taken together, these trends suggest that
environmental security may be an important
evolution of national state and international
policy systems. If this is to occur, however, the
concept must be defined with sufficient rigor to
support an operational program.
Sumber http//www.jstor.org/discover/10.2307/1
601426?uid3738224uid2129uid2uid70uid4sid
21100693627371 diunduh 30 Maret 2012
11
KETAHANAN LINGKUNGAN
Environmental security examines the threat posed
by environmental events and trends to
individuals, communities or nations. It may focus
on the impact of human conflict and international
relations on the environment, or on how
environmental problems cross state borders. The
Millennium Project did a global assessment of the
definitions of environmental security and created
a synthesis definition Environmental Security is
environmental viability for life support, with
three sub-elements preventing or repairing
military damage to the environment, preventing or
responding to environmentally caused conflicts,
and protecting the environment due to its
inherent moral value. Environmental security is
an important concept in two fields international
relations and international development. Within
international development, projects may aim to
improve aspects of environmental security such as
food security or water security.
Targets for MDG 7 about environmental
sustainability show international priorities for
environmental security. Target 7B is about the
security of fisheries on which many people depend
for food. Fisheries are an example of a resource
that cannot be contained within state borders. A
conflict before the International Court of
Justice between Chile and Peru about maritime
borders and their associated fisheries is a case
study for environmental security.
Sumber http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Environmental
_security diunduh 30 Maret 2012
12
KETAHANAN PANGAN (SUMBER http//en.wikipedia.org/
wiki/Food_security)
Food security refers to the availability of food
and one's access to it. A household is considered
food-secure when its occupants do not live in
hunger or fear of starvation. According to the
World Resources Institute, global per capita food
production has been increasing substantially for
the past several decades. In 2006, MSNBC
reported that globally, the number of people who
are overweight has surpassed the number who are
undernourished the world had more than one
billion people who were overweight, and an
estimated 800 million who were undernourished.2
According to a 2004 article from the BBC, China,
the world's most populous country, is suffering
from an obesity epidemic. In India, the
second-most populous country in the world, 30
million people have been added to the ranks of
the hungry since the mid-1990s and 46 of
children are underweight. Worldwide around 925
million people are chronically hungry due to
extreme poverty, while up to 2 billion people
lack food security intermittently due to varying
degrees of poverty (source FAO, 2010). Six
million children die of hunger every year
17,000 every day. As of late 2007, export
restrictions and panic buying, US Dollar
Depreciation, increased farming for use in
biofuels, world oil prices at more than 100 a
barrel, global population growth, climate
change, loss of agricultural land to residential
and industrial development, and growing consumer
demand in China and India are claimed to have
pushed up the price of grain. However, the role
of some of these factors is under debate. Some
argue the role of biofuel has been overplayed as
grain prices have come down to the levels of
2006. Nonetheless, food riots have recently taken
place in many countries across the world. The
ongoing global credit crisis has affected farm
credits, despite a boom in commodity prices. Food
security is a complex topic, standing at the
intersection of many disciplines.
Sumber diunduh 30 Maret 2012
13
KETAHANAN PANGAN (SUMBER http//en.wikipedia.org/
wiki/Food_security)
A direct relationship exists between food
consumption levels and poverty. Families with the
financial resources to escape extreme poverty
rarely suffer from chronic hunger, while poor
families not only suffer the most from chronic
hunger, but are also the segment of the
population most at risk during food shortages and
famines. Two commonly used definitions of food
security come from the UN's Food and Agriculture
Organization (FAO) and the United States
Department of Agriculture (USDA) Food security
exists when all people, at all times, have
physical, social and economic access to
sufficient, safe and nutritious food to meet
their dietary needs and food preferences for an
active and healthy life. Food security for a
household means access by all members at all
times to enough food for an active, healthy life.
Food security includes at a minimum (1) the ready
availability of nutritionally adequate and safe
foods, and (2) an assured ability to acquire
acceptable foods in socially acceptable ways
(that is, without resorting to emergency food
supplies, scavenging, stealing, or other coping
strategies). (USDA) The stages of food
insecurity range from food secure situations to
full-scale famine. "Famine and hunger are both
rooted in food insecurity. Food insecurity can be
categorized as either chronic or transitory.
Chronic food insecurity translates into a high
degree of vulnerability to famine and hunger
ensuring food security presupposes elimination of
that vulnerability. Chronic hunger is not
famine. It is similar to undernourishment and is
related to poverty, existing mainly in poor
countries.
Sumber diunduh 30 Maret 2012
14
KETAHANAN AIR (SUMBER http//en.wikipedia.org/wik
i/Water_security)
Water security is the capacity of a population to
ensure that they continue to have access to
potable water. It is an increasing concern
arising from population growth, drought, climate
change, oscillation between El Nino and La Nina
effects, urbanisation, salinity, upstream
pollution, over-allocation of water licences by
government agencies and over-utilisation of
groundwater from artesian basins. Water security
is rapidly declining in many parts of the
world.1 According to the Pacific Institute,
"While regional impacts will vary, global climate
change will potentially alter agricultural
productivity, freshwater availability and
quality, access to vital minerals, coastal and
island flooding, and more. Among the consequences
of these impacts will be challenges to political
relationships, realignment of energy markets and
regional economies, and threats to security".
It impacts regions, states and countries.
Tensions exist between upstream and downstream
users of water within individual jurisdictions.
During history there has been much conflict over
use of water from rivers such as the Tigris and
Euphrates Rivers. Another highly politicized
example is Israel's control of water resources in
the Levant region since its creation, where
Israel securing its water resources was one of
several drivers for the 1967 Six Day War. Water
security is sometimes sought by implementing
water desalination, pipelines between sources and
users, water licences with different security
levels and war. Water allocation between
competing users is increasingly determined by
application of market-based pricing for either
water licenses or actual water.
Sumber diunduh 30 Maret 2012
15
APAKAH KETAHANAN LINGKUNGAN ITU?
The Institute for Environmental Security (IES) is
an international non-profit non-governmental
organisation established in 2002 in The Hague, in
order to increase political attention to
environmental security as a means to help
safeguard essential conditions for peace and
sustainable development. The relation between
the environment and the security of humans and
nature has been the subject of much research in
recent decades, and is now becoming an important
focus of international environmental policy.
Sumber diunduh 30 Maret 2012
16
Introduction to the Concepts of Environmental
Security and Environmental Conflict (Michael
Renner )
Introduction Since the late 1970s and 1980s,
there has been an ongoing discourse with regard
to the connections between environment,
resources, security, conflict, and
peacemaking. These connections gradually became
more accepted among academics and NGOs, but were
met with greater reservation by policymakers. By
the mid-1990s, Robert Kaplan still felt compelled
to lament Mention the environment or
diminishing natural resources in foreign-policy
circles and you meet a brick wall of scepticism
or boredom. During the latter years of the
1990s, environmental issues did begin to find a
place in the arena of practical foreign and
security policy-making. Then, new difficulties
arose in the wake of the attacks of 11 September
2001. In the United States, where policy-makers
had begun to embrace notions of environmental
security in the 1990s, the war on terror has
taken centre stage, and largely brought these
early efforts to a halt. The study of how
environmental issues and peace and security
concerns interact is far from a monolithic
undertaking. Different writers have focused on
different aspects within the spectrum of
connections. Some have focused fairly narrowly
(i.e., limiting their inquiry to the connections
between environment and the incidence of violent
conflict) others have drawn far broader
boundaries (i.e., adopting a broader environment
and security approach). Some of the writing has
focused on the impact of environmental change on
the national security of a particular state,
whereas other efforts have been primarily
concerned with the consequences for global
security. Different schools of thought exist
side by side, and the disagreements among
proponents of different views and interpretations
have at times been very pronounced and in a few
cases even quite vehement.3 And at least some
analysts question the conceptual merits of
notions like environmental security and
environmental conflict.
Sumber diunduh 30 Maret 2012
17
Introduction to the Concepts of Environmental
Security and Environmental Conflict (Michael
Renner )
Introduction This introduction is not intended
to engage the different schools of thought.
Rather, its purpose is to provide a brief
overview of the various dimensions in which
environment intersects with conflict and
security. In broad terms, these connections can
be grouped in four categories 1. The impact of
environmental change on conflict formation.
Conflicts may emerge from situations of resource
and environmental scarcity (overuse and depletion
of resources), mediated and sometimes exacerbated
by the social and economic repercussions of
environmental degradation. 2. On the other hand,
tensions and violence can also arise out of a
context of contested resource wealth. This is
only partially about access to and control over
lucrative resources. Resource extraction often
leads to severe environmental and other impacts
on local communities. If the benefits and burdens
of extractive projects such as oil production,
mining, logging, and large-scale dam construction
are distributed unequally, the result may be
protracted conflict. 3. The environmental impact
of armed conflicts, arms production, maintaining
military forces, and preparations for warfare.
Closely related are environmental considerations
in the cleanup of military bases and in the
dismantlement of obsolete or surplus weapons.
4. Opportunities for environmental
peacemaking that may arise out of
common interests among different countries or
communities in safeguarding resources
and ecosystems, as well as shared vulnerabilities
where ecosystems are heavily degraded.
Sumber diunduh 30 Maret 2012
18
Introduction to the Concepts of Environmental
Security and Environmental Conflict (Michael
Renner )
Defining Conflict, Redefining Security Before
discussing these connections in some detail, it
is useful to consider the broader context the
effort to broaden and redefine the definition of
security. The terms conflict and security are
often used in very different ways by different
analysts. a. Conflict Conflict is the more
easily defined of the two terms, though not
without its own set of challenges. A basic
distinction needs to be made between armed
conflict and disputes that are largely carried
out by non-violent means. This is not an absolute
distinction non-violent struggles may at some
point turn violent, and vice versa. And conflicts
often do not have a well-defined start and end
point, as formal declarations of war and even
formal peace agreements are becoming rare. The
Heidelberg Institute for International Conflict
Research in Germany has identified 249 political
conflicts around the world that were active in
2005. Of these, 24 involved a high level of armed
violence and 74 some occasional violence. The
remainder 86 manifest conflicts and 65 latent
conflicts were carried out without resort to
weapons. Within the narrower category of armed
conflict, peace researchers have developed a
range of definitions and methodologies.6 Put in
simple terms, war and armed conflict require the
following elements there has to be use of armed
force (and there has to be some continuity of
violence rather than sporadic fighting) the
fighting has to be between organized groups and
at least one of the conflict parties has to be a
government and there have to be battle deaths
(with different thresholds established for minor,
intermediate, and major conflicts (or equivalent
terminologies) in terms of deaths per year or for
the duration of the conflict). While such
criteria are necessary for a systematic,
scientific assessment of conflict trends and
developments, they are increasingly in danger of
being too narrowly drawn, with the consequence
that certain types of armed violence fail to be
captured in data sets.
Sumber diunduh 30 Maret 2012
19
Introduction to the Concepts of Environmental
Security and Environmental Conflict (Michael
Renner )
Defining Conflict, Redefining Security The
methodological focus on battlefield deaths, for
instance, means that some conflicts are recorded
at a lower level of intensity than appears
warranted. In most contemporary armed conflicts,
the number of people killed on the battlefield is
usually quite small compared with those who
perish because fighting and looting shred public
infrastructures, displace civilians, disrupt
harvests and halt other economic activity, and
prevent delivery of vital health and other
services. In many cases, there is a severe lack
of reliable data. But a recent study found that
for every battle-related death in the Democratic
Republic of the Congo, there are 62 non-violent
deaths related to the conflict in the country,
with malnutrition and a variety of diseases the
leading causes. An estimated 3.9 million people
have died there since 1998, and about 38,000
civilians continue to die every month.
. The increase in the flows of energy and
materials together with climate and ecological
changes are exacerbating conflicts over access to
environmental resources and are also creating new
waste disposal conflicts. Understanding the
causes of conflicts requires a multi-disciplinary
approach. Environmental conflicts,
environmental security, or eco-violence are
often used interchangeably in the literature. In
this article environmental conflict research
designates scholarly contributions that portray
or discuss the natural environment as a cause of
violent conflict. There is no widely accepted
definition of what constitutes an environmental
conflict or environmental security.
Sumber diunduh 30 Maret 2012
20
Introduction to the Concepts of Environmental
Security and Environmental Conflict (Michael
Renner )
b. Security Security is a rather vague term
without a generally-agreed definition.
Traditionally, it is seen as closely related to
the threat or use of violence, and military means
are regarded as central to the provision of
security. This may once have made sense, when
conflicts took place predominantly between
different countries, when territorial control was
a key objective, and when uniformed soldiers were
the combatants. But over the last several
decades, this type of conflict has become more
the exception than the norm. A number of efforts
were launched to challenge this narrow approach
in the 1970s and 1980s, but gained momentum after
the end of the cold war. Several high-profile
international commissions, NGOs, and academics
developed a range of innovative concepts refining
and redefining security by including social,
economic, and environmental dimensions. These
became known under headings such as common
security, comprehensive security, and
environmental security. Human security, the
most encompassing of these concepts, was first
spelled out in detail in the 1994 edition of the
Human Development Report. The gathering
discourse raised a number of critical questions
Who is to be protected? What are the
threats? Who is to provide security? And by
what means? The unfolding discourse challenged
orthodox assumptions about national security,
deepening it upwards (from national to global
security) and downwards (from territorial
security focused on states and governments to
people security individuals and communities),
and widening it by arguing that non-military
dimensions, such as social wellbeing and
environmental integrity, are important
prerequisites for ensuring security. There is
now growing recognition of the important
inter-connections between environment,
development, and security.
Sumber diunduh 30 Maret 2012
21
  • The core insights emerging from this discussion
    can be summarized as follows
  • Weapons do not necessarily provide security and
    may even heighten insecurity. This is true for
    adversarial states armed with weapons of such
    destructive power that no defense is possible. It
    is true in civil wars, where the easy
    availability of weapons empowers the ruthless but
    offers little defence for civilians.
  • Real security in a globalizing world cannot be
    provided on a purely national basis, or even on
    basis of limited alliances. A multilateral and
    even global approach is needed to deal
    effectively with a multitude of transboundary
    challenges.
  • The traditional focus on state (or regime)
    security is inadequate and needs to encompass
    safety and well-being for the states population.
    If individuals and communities are insecure,
    state security itself can be extremely fragile.
    Democratic governance and a vibrant civil
    society may ultimately be more imperative for
    security than an army.
  • Non-military dimensions have an important
    influence on security and stability.
  • Nations around the world, but particularly the
    weakest ones, confront a multitude of
  • pressures. They face a debilitating combination
    of rising competition for resources, severe
    environmental breakdown, the resurgence of
    infectious diseases, poverty and growing wealth
    disparities, demographic pressures, and
    joblessness and livelihood insecurity.

The human security concept has been criticized by
a number of analysts as being too sweeping and
analytically unfocused. Critics have charged
that the inclusion of a wide array of social,
economic, and environmental ailments makes it
difficult to set priorities and translate the
concept into specific policies
Sumber diunduh 30 Maret 2012
22
ENVIRONMENTAL SECURITY Andree Kirchner
The relationship between environment and security
has been under consideration since the 1980s
mainly by two groups (1) the environmental
policy community, addressing the security
implications of environmental change and
security, and (2) the security community, looking
at new definitions of national security,
particularly in the post-Cold War era. It was
soon acknowledged that global impacts of for
example environmental change, the depletion of
the ozone layer and transboundary pollution, have
clear security implications. This in turn made
the military authorities to re-evaluate the
security dimension of environmental
issues. Security was traditionally seen as a
synonym for national security with two main
objectives (1) to preserve the territorial
integrity of the State and (b) to maintain the
preferred form of government, by political and
military means. When political scientists took
up the environmental aspect of security, they
defined environment impacts as being part of the
security issue. This approach attempted to
re-define the concept of national security
completely. In the early 1980s the Independent
Commission on Security and Disarmament Issues
(ICSDI) developed and introduced the concept of
common security, giving the idea of national
security a broader perspective.
Additional to the traditional security aspects,
other non-traditional threats to security, e.g.
economic decline, social and political
instability, ethnic rivalries and territorial
dispute, international terrorism, money
laundering and drug trafficking as well as
environmental stress, have been incorporated.
Sumber Fourth UNEP Global Training Programme on
Environmental Law and Policy diunduh 30 Maret
2012
23
ENVIRONMENTAL SECURITY Andree Kirchner
The World Commission on Environment and
Development2 clearly linked security with
environment in its 1987 Brundtland
Report Humankind faces two great threats. The
first is that of a nuclear exchange. Let us hope
that it remains a diminishing prospect for the
future. The second is that of environmental ruin
world-wide and far from being a prospect for the
future, it is a fact right now. Following this
inter-linkage the General Assembly officially
introduced the concept of security and
environment at its 42nd Session. In recent
years environmental security has been understood
extensively, including human, physical, social
and economic well being, giving the scope hardly
any limitation for interpretations. At present,
however, there is no consensus on a clear
definition of environmental security. The scope
of the issue is limited on how environmental
impacts may affect conflicts, rather than
security as such.
In this respect, environmental security has
basically two dimensions Environmental stress
may be a cause as well as a result of a conflict.
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ENVIRONMENTAL STRESS AS CAUSE OF A CONFLICT
Environmental stress, i.e. global impacts of for
example environmental change, the depletion of
the ozone layer and transboundary pollution, may
lead to a conflict. History has shown a large
variety of examples of conflicts caused by global
impacts with environmental roots.6 The following
brief description of four cases from South
America/Caribbean, Africa and Asia are examples
of a clear relationship between environment and
security The main sectors of employment on the
Philippines are agriculture, forestry and
fishery. The natural resources have been widely
depleted through deforestation, soil erosion,
watershed abuse, overfishing and coral reef
destruction. An ever-growing population shares
the decreased natural resources.
Anti-government rebels, e.g. the New Peoples
Army, take advantage of these declining
conditions. They control a large part of the
territory. Governmental campaigns against the
rebels often do not reflect the minds of the
rural communities disenchanted with the
degradation of the environmental basis of their
livelihood. The result is a lack of security and
may even result in open conflict.
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25
DEFORESTATION IN ETHIOPIA AND SOMALIA
In the 1960s, as a result of deforestation and
favoured by improper agricultural practices and
population increase, there was a widespread soil
erosion in Ethiopias Highlands. The result was
decline of farmland, inefficiency of agriculture,
food shortages and exploding prices leading to
urban riots. The neighbouring Somalia had to face
similar problems. Most of Somalias rivers rise
in Ethiopia, and Somalis worried that Ethiopian
migrants might divert water for irrigation. In
1977 the two countries went to war until 1979.
Supported by the late superpowers with supply of
arms, the region could not yet recover
properly. Deforestation in the Caribbean The
problem of deforestation as described above is
quite similar in Haiti. Already in 1978 the
Presidents Council on Environmental Quality
warned that in Haiti deforestation was almost
complete and that resulting firewood shortages
and cultivation of marginal soil would promote
social disruption and instability. The depletion
of forests, soils and water supplies in El
Salvador and a population density of six times
that of neighbouring Honduras, are possible
factors of future instability.
Conflicts are common in forest management. They
exist in practically all countries. However,
forest related conflicts can be observed at
different levels and with varying dimensions and
intensities. The reasons behind forest conflicts
is inherent in forest management being
multi-objective and therefore with many
stakeholders (local forest users, different
government agencies in-and outside the forest
administration, civil society, and the private
sector) often having competing interests.   In
addition, forest management is usually fragmented
and often subject to unclear, overlapping,
competing or contradictory legal frameworks.
Economic liberalization, decentralization and
privatization affects forest users in diverse and
unexpected ways. Whereas they offer new
possibilities for benefit sharing, not all people
necessarily gain from them, hence, these
conditions sometimes generate new tensions, or
serve to revive long-standing or latent
conflicts. Conflicts of lower intensity do not
lead directly to violent death, but may play a
role in fuelling structural violence such as
impeded development, disease, famine, forced
migration etc. The detrimental impact of such
'low intensity' conflicts that involve only
minimal or sporadic violence should therefore,
not be underestimated. Forest resources are so
close to livelihoods, identities and security in
many parts of the world, that conflicts over
their control, management and use, merit our
support. Rising tensions and disputes can
undermine institutions- and rules that govern
resource use. Escalated conflicts increase the
vulnerability of poor forest users and often
result in human suffering, economic decline and
environmental degradation.
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DEFORESTATION IN ETHIOPIA AND SOMALIA
Water in the Middle East In the 1950s there was
a comprehensive plan for the co-operative use of
the Jordan River waters (the Johnston Plan),
which failed because of mistrust among the four
bordering states (Israel, Jordan, Lebanon and
Syria). Since then each state has tended to
follow its own water policies. The
militarisation of water conflicts is not of
recent nature. On numerous occasions, Israel and
its neighbouring Arab states have feuded over
access to Jordan River waters. Former Israeli
Minister for Agriculture Rafael Eitan stated in
November 1990 that Israel must never relinquish
the West Bank because a loss of its water
supplies would threaten the Jewish State.
Water conflict is a term describing a conflict
between countries, states, or groups over an
access to water resources. The United Nations
recognizes that water disputes result from
opposing interests of water users, public or
private. A wide range of water conflicts appear
throughout history, though rarely are traditional
wars waged over water alone. Instead, water has
historically been a source of tension and a
factor in conflicts that start for other reasons.
However, water conflicts arise for several
reasons, including territorial disputes, a fight
for resources, and strategic advantage. These
conflicts occur over both freshwater and
saltwater, and between international boundaries.
However, conflicts occur mostly over freshwater
because freshwater resources are necessary, yet
limited, they are the center of water disputes
arising out of need for potable water. As
freshwater is a vital, yet unevenly distributed
natural resource, its availability often impacts
the living and economic conditions of a country
or region. The lack of cost-effective water
desalination techniques in areas like the Middle
East, among other elements of water crises can
put severe pressures on all water users, whether
corporate, government, or individual, leading to
tension, and possibly aggression. Recent
humanitarian catastrophes, such as the Rwandan
Genocide or the war in Sudanese Darfur, have been
linked back to water conflicts
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WHAT IS ENVIRONMENTAL SECURITY?
  • The relation between the environment and the
    security of humans and nature has been the object
    of much research and the subject of many
    publications in recent decades, but it is only
    recently becoming an important focus of
    international environmental policy.
  • A recent comprehensive overview of the
    environmental security field observes that
  • The environment is the most transnational of
    transnational issues, and its security is an
    important dimension of peace, national security,
    and human rights that is just now being
    understood
  • Over the next 100 years, one third of current
    global land cover will be transformed, with the
    world facing increasingly hard choices among
    consumption, ecosystem services, restoration, and
    conservation and management
  • Environmental security is central to national
    security, comprising the dynamics and
    interconnections among the natural resource base,
    the social fabric of the state, and the economic
    engine for local and regional stability and
    that,
  • While the precise roles of the environment in
    peace, conflict, destabilisation and human
    insecurity may differ from situation to situation
    and as such are still being debated in relation
    to other security and conflict variables, there
    are growing indications that it is increasingly
    an underlying cause of instability, conflict and
    unrest.
  • Economic security or financial security is the
    condition of having stable income or other
    resources to support a standard of living now and
    in the foreseeable future.
  • It includes
  • probable continued solvency
  • predictability of the future cash flow of a
    person or other economic entity, such as a
    country
  • employment security or job security
  • Financial security more often refers to
    individual and family money management and
    savings.
  • Economic security tends to include the broader
    effect of a society's production levels and
    monetary support for non-working citizens.

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MENGAPA KETAHANAN LINGKUNGAN PENTING?
To the extent humankind neglects to maintain the
globe's life-supporting eco-systems generating
water, food, medicine, and clean air, current and
future generations will be confronted with
increasingly severe instances of environmentally
induced changes. Such events will test our
traditional concepts, boundaries, and
understandings of national security and alliance
politics and, if taken for granted, may lead to
conflict, including violent conflict, from the
global to the regional, national, local or human
level. Environmental security, broadly defined,
affects humankind and its institutions and
organizations anywhere and at anytime.
Environment and Human Security Environmental
degradation and the exploitation of natural
resources are recognized as important drivers of
violence between and within states, contributing
to poverty and state failure. This paper charts
our evolving understanding of the complex
relationship between environmental change and
security, a debate that has developed
considerably since the UN Conference on the Human
Environment, held in Sweden in 1972. It
attempts to outline the major theoretical
approaches and to arrive at some conclusions as
to what we do know about the links between the
environment and our security. Finally, the paper
makes some suggestions for practical policies
that can ensure environmental management is
supportive of both peace and sustainable
development.
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hat_is_Environmental_Security.pdf diunduh 30
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KALAU KETERSEDIAAN SUMBERDAYA TERBATAS
Environmental scarcity is determined by
environmental change, population size and growth,
and unequal distribution (or access to)
resources. Of these factors, unequal access to
resources is not bound by physical limits alone.
It is also a reflection of societies'
preferences, beliefs and norms. Leading examples
of emerging environmental change are depletion
and pollution of fresh water supplies, depletion
of fisheries, degradation and disappearance of
biodiversity, degradation and loss of agriculture
lands, food and health safety, stratospheric
ozone depletion, and global warming. Of these
major environmental changes facing humankind, the
first five are now, or will likely be, growing
threats to environmental security in the near
term the latter two will increasingly affect
human security in the coming 50 years. The
interaction among and between the determinants of
environmental scarcity sets the stage for
addressing the environmental security challenges
humankind will be confronted with. Our ability
(or lack thereof) to make innovative
institutional arrangements and/or technological
advances for managing the environmental security
challenges we face, will increase or decrease
global environmental security.
  • Environmental Scarcities
  • There are three types of environmental scarcity
  • Demand-induced scarcity is caused by population
    growth or increased per capita resource
    consumption
  • Supply-induced scarcity is caused by degradation
    and depletion of environmental resources and
  • Structural scarcity, the type most often stressed
    by political analysts, is caused by an unbalanced
    distribution of resources that severely affects
    less powerful groups in the society
  • (sumber http//faculty.washington.edu/pnhoward/pu
    blishing/articles/mexico.pdf)

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KALAU SUMBERDAYA BERLIMPAH
The basic framework for understanding the
relationship between environment and security is
the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment which looks
at all the functions of ecosystems and the
services they deliver to people and
nature. Conceptually one may make a difference
between environmental services and natural
resources such as minerals, oil and gas. They
also may lead to conflicts - and very often do!
But then it is not scarcity, but abundance, and
the motives are not need, but greed. In practice,
mining the minerals and exploiting the oil, coal
and gas, can lead to serious environmental
degradation through pollution, infrastructure,
corruption and violent conflicts - in short to a
decrease of environmental security.
What Is Species Abundance? Species abundance is
the study of how common a particular species is
in a given community. This kind of research is
popular in the field of macroecology.
Environmental researchers use studies on the
abundance of a species to help build a picture of
overall biodiversity in an area. Scientists
refer to the idea of species populations as
relative species abundance because they are
studying species population in a community or
habitat relative to other species and other
habitats. Species abundance is applied to mammal
species as well as birds, insects, and other
creatures. It can even be applied to plants.
Looking at species abundance and other aspects of
biodiversity help scientists to figure out what
is going on within a particular ecological
environment. In practical terms, studies on
species abundance might lead to a particular type
of animal being labeled as an endangered species.
If the population estimates are low enough, the
species might be labeled a critically endangered
species. This will generate some specific laws in
many nations protecting the remaining population
from hunting, poaching or even habitat
encroachment. (sumber http//www.wisegeek.com/w
hat-is-species-abundance.htm)
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ENVIRONMENT CONFLICT AND COOPERATION
Another important aspect in the relationship
between environment and security is the impact of
conflict on the environment. Violent conflict,
war, displaced persons, etc. may lead to a
decrease of environmental security and spiral up
a vicious circle of scarcity and further
conflict. On the other hand, as stated recently
by Adelphi Research, the sustainable use of
natural resources and joint efforts to protect
the environment across national borders and
social divisions can contribute to conflict
prevention and peace building. For example, the
predictions of future wars over access to water
have thus far failed to come true. On the
contrary, various forms of cross-border water
cooperation are contributing to stability and
peace in regions of latent conflict.
Environmental Governance UNEP has a rich
history assisting governments in obtaining
environmental information for decision-making,
enhancing global and regional environmental
cooperation, developing and applying national and
international environmental law, advancing
national and regional implementation of
environmental objectives, and bridging major
groups and governments in policy development and
implementation processes. (sumber
http//hqweb.unep.org/environmentalgovernance/)
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hat_is_Environmental_Security.pdf diunduh 30
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The Sociocultural System a Model for Change
Sumber http//resweb.llu.edu/rford/courses/spol55
4/syllabus.html diunduh 30 Maret 2012
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KONSEP KETAHANAN LINGKUNGAN
The global environment is connected to the
security, economic prosperity and social
well-being of both states and individuals. Until
recently, the concept of security has only been
associated with national security which
emphasised armed conflict as the means to attain
security through state power. The concept of
environmental security broadens this definition
by focussing on the transnational nature of the
global environment which disregards
human-constructed borders . Because of this the
environment should replace the traditional
realist idea of security as the key issue in
global contemporary politics.
The challenges to the global environment in the
century ahead include global warming, ozone
depletion, and the loss of tropical rainforests
and marine habitats. These challenges are as much
a threat to humanity as the threat of nuclear
warfare. However, because the threat of nuclear
warfare focuses on mutually assured destruction
more focus is given to this threat because of its
perceived and tangible reality. On the other
hand the threats to the global environment are
more difficult to perceive because one cannot see
ozone depletion or see the immediate effects of
global warming. Rainforest destruction happens
far away from the major cities in which much of
the global population, and so does the loss of
marine habitats.
Sumber http//janetthomas.wordpress.com/2012/01/1
0/the-global-environment-must-replace-military-sec
urity-as-the-key-issue-in-global-politics/
diunduh 30 Maret 2012
35
HUMAN SECURITY
The horizontal axis represents different types of
security while the vertical axis represents
levels of analysis. What all definitions of human
security agree on, is the level of analysis. The
level of analysis is fundamental to human
security and separates it from more other
perspectives of security. Traditionally security
has been viewed from the state level. Many
confuse national security and human security, and
for good reason. There is much overlap between
the concepts and often national security policies
are indistinguishable from human security
policies. Often, but not always.
Sumber http//peace-building.blogspot.com/
diunduh 30 Maret 2012
36
Environment and Security
Environmental security refers to the protection
of important ecosystem services and assurance of
a supply of natural resources, including water,
soil, energy, and minerals, in order to enable
continued economic and social well being."
Sumber http//www.environmentandsecurity.org/arti
cles/view/167611/ diunduh 30 Maret 2012
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THE EXPANDING DEFINITION OF NATIONAL SECURITY
This broader view of national security reflects
the fact that new global pressures now threaten
the well being and resilience of both human
society and the natural environment. These
pressures include population growth, increased
demand for energy and materials, and competition
for access to land, water, minerals, and other
vital natural resources. The resulting impacts
include changes in global climate and degradation
of clean air and water, soil, forests, and
wetlands, all of which have the potential to
compromise energy security, food security, supply
chain security, and other domestic and
international concerns. Today the vitality of our
ecosystems is already seriously threatened.
Future global ecosystems will be under even
greater pressure when by 2050 global population
will reach about 9 billion, some 30 percent
higher than the 2000 population. Poverty
alleviation and rising affluence in developing
nations will inevitably increase the demand for
natural resources. The boom in Asian economies is
well under way, while in Africa another billion
people are ready and eager for economic
expansion.
The essence of global security is acquisition
of economic well-being and social justice for
all. Hence, the challenge ahead is to create
global conditions that foster economic growth and
human well being in a sustainable manner. How
can society address these growing social and
environmental pressures in ways that sustain
economic growth, assure an adequate supply of
natural resources, protect human health and
safety, and avoid domestic and international
conflicts?
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TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY CHALLENGES
In 2001, at the start of the Administration of
George W. Bush, environment and security were
further linked to social well being. The 2002
National Security Strategy stated, A world where
some live in comfort and plenty, while half of
the human race lives on less than 2 a day, is
neither just nor stable. Including all of the
worlds poor in an expanding circle of
development and opportunity is a moral
imperative and one of the top priorities of U.S.
international policy. Events in the decade from
2000 to 2010 were dominated by the 9/11 attack
and subsequent war on terrorism. The events of
9/11 have sharpened the national debate on the
meaning of security and on the root causes and
means of preventing terrorism. Before 9/11, while
there was prosperity in the West, there were
warnings of dissatisfaction and instability in
the rest of the world. In Africa, particularly
in sub-Saharan Africa, development had failed to
improve the quality of life for 300 million
people. Health, education, and social services in
much of Africa were deteriorating. One of his
recommendations (Carlucci et al 2000) goes to the
heart of the issues of environment and security
"A host of new global challenges may soon require
imaginative and sustained responses. These
nontraditional challenges include uncontrolled
migration across borders, international crime,
pandemics like AIDs and malaria, and
environmental degradation. However, in this era,
Developed nations have the resources and
opportunity to ask themselves whether they want
to live in a world where such problems continue
to fester, or whether they will try to make a
difference. This is primarily a matter of
leadership and forming alliances between
like-minded, relatively wealthy countries to
begin a new ethos for the future that is not
based solely on a short-term national model but
that embraces a long-term global vision.
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Dynamics of Environmental Security
Today societies exist in a complex and
interconnected world, in which industrial and
social development are closely linked to the use
and protection of environmental resources.
Capturing the linkages of economic development,
environmental and social well-being, and national
security is not easy. The figure shows how the
three pillars of sustainability are linked to
each other domestically, and also shows important
linkages to the international community. There
are a variety of international relationships that
keep this dynamic system in balancetrade and
tourism, foreign investment, mutual aid and
alliances, and education and migration. National
security involves assuring the smooth functioning
of these relationships, and avoiding disruptions
due to natural or anthropogenic causes.
PERUBAHAN LINGKUNGAN Perubahan lingkungan
mempengaruhi berbagai aspek kehidupan. Perubahan
yang terjadi pada lingkungan hidup manusia
menyebabkan adanya gangguan terhadap keseimbangan
karena sebagian dari komponen lingkungan menjadi
berkurang fungsinya. Perubahan lingkungan dapat
terjadi karena campur tangan manusia dan dapat
pula karena faktor alami. Dampak dari
perubahannya belum tentu sama, namun akhirnya
manusia juga yang mesti memikul serta
mengatasinya. Perubahan lingkungan karena
campur tangan manusia contohnya penebangan hutan,
pembangunan pemukiman, dan penerapan
intensifikasi pertanian. Penebangan hutan yang
liar mengurangi fungsi hutan sebagai penahan air.
Akibatnya, daya dukung hutan menjadi berkurang.
Selain itu, penggundulan hutan dapat menyebabkan
terjadi banjir dan erosi. Akibat lain adalah
munculnya harimau, babi hutan, dan ular di tengah
pemukiman manusia karena semakin sempitnya
habitat hewan-hewan tersebut. (SUMBER
http//kambing.ui.ac.id/bebas/v12/sponsor/Sponsor-
Pendamping/Praweda/Biologi/003820Bio201-8c.htm)
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Dynamic resource flows related to environmental
security
We use Figure 2 as a base upon which to highlight
the impact of emerging economic and social
drivers, and government and societal responses,
which follow in Figures 3 and 4. Figure 3
identifies three major drivers that threaten the
continuity of both environmental resources and
national security Population growth, Economic
growth, and Scarcity of resources, including
energy, water, land, and minerals. These drivers
are already placing stress upon the natural
resource base, and the pressure of 9 billion
people in 2050 will only increase the threats to
global security and human well-being. The overall
ecological burdens of growth can be understood
from the following equation, which isderived from
the well-known IPAT equation(Chertow,
2001). Total burden population (GDP /
capita) (resources / GDP) (burden / resource
unit) The above equation holds whether the
resources are fossil fuels and the burdens are
greenhouse gas emissions, or whether the
resources a
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