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Title: Japansk produktionsfilosofi - lean manufacturing


1
Japansk produktionsfilosofi- lean manufacturing
  • Johann Packendorff

2
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3
Definition of Lean
  • Half the hours of human effort in the factory
  • Half the defects in the finished product
  • One-third the hours of engineering effort
  • Half the factory space for the same output
  • A tenth or less of in-process inventories

Source The Machine that Changed the World
Womack, Jones, Roos 1990
4
Lean Manufacturing
  • is a manufacturing philosophy which shortens the
    time line between the customer order and the
    product shipment by eliminating waste.

Business as Usual
Customer Order
Waste
Time
Lean Manufacturing
Customer Order
Waste
Time (Shorter)
5
APICS Definition of Lean Manufacturing
  • A philosophy of production that emphasizes the
    minimization of the amount of all the resources
    (including time) used in the various activities
    of the enterprise. It involves
  • identifying and eliminating non-value-adding
    activities,
  • employing teams of multi-skilled workers,
  • using highly flexible, automated machines
  • American Production and Inventory Control Society
    (APICS) is an organization for professionals
    working in the field of Operations Management

6
New Paradigm Non-Blaming Culture
  • Management creates a culture where
  • Problems are recognized as opportunities
  • Its okay to make legitimate mistakes
  • Problems are exposed because of increased trust
  • People are not problems - they are problem
    solvers
  • Emphasis is placed on finding solutions instead
    of who did it

SOLUTIONS
PROBLEMS
7
What makes a manufacturing system Lean?
8
What makes a manufacturing system Lean?
9
5S Programs
  • Seiri (sort, necessary items)
  • Seiton (set-in-order, efficient placement)
  • Seison (sweep, cleanliness)
  • Seiketsu (standardize, cont. improvement)
  • Shitsuke (sustain, discipline)

10
Visual Factory
  • Ability to understand the status of a production
    area in 5 minutes or less by simple observation
    without use of computers or speaking to anyone.
  • 5-S
  • 1S Sift and Sort (Organize)
  • 2S Stabilize (Orderliness)
  • 3S Shine (Cleanliness)
  • 4S Standardize (Adherence)
  • 5S Sustain (Self-discipline)

11
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12
What makes a manufacturing system Lean?
13
The Pull System
14
Kanban Production Control
  • At the core of JIT manufacturing at Toyota is
    Kanban, an amazingly simple system of planning
    and controlling production
  • Kanban, in Japanese, means card or marquee
  • Kanban is the means of signaling to the upstream
    workstation that the downstream workstation is
    ready for the upstream workstation to produce
    another batch of parts

15
Kanbans and Other Signals
  • There are two types of Kanban cards
  • a withdrawal card (W-Kanban)
  • a production card (P-Kanban)
  • Signals come in many forms other than cards,
    including
  • an empty crate
  • an empty designated location on the floor

16
How Kanban Operates
  • When a worker at downstream Work Center 2 needs
    a
  • container of parts, she does the following
  • She takes the W-Kanban from the container she
    just emptied
  • She finds a full container of the needed part in
    storage
  • She places the W-Kanban in the full container and
    removes the P-Kanban from the full container and
    places it on a post at Work Center 1
  • She takes the full container of parts with its
    W-Kanban back to Work Center 2

17
Kanban Cards
Withdrawal Kanban Card
Part number to produce M471-36 Part
description Valve Housing Lot size needed
40 Container type RED Crate Card number
2 of 5 Retrieval storage location
NW53D From work center 22 To work center
35
18
Kanban Cards
Production Kanban Card
Part number to produce M471-36 Part
description Valve Housing Lot size needed
40 Container type RED crate Card number
4 of 5 Completed storage location
NW53D From work center 22 To work center
35 Materials required Material no.
744B Storage location NW48C Part no.
B238-5 Storage location NW47B
19
Flow of Kanban Cards and Containers
P-Kanban and empty container
W-Kanban and empty container
Full container and P-Kanban
Full container and W-Kanban
In-process storage
Upstream Work Center 1
Downstream Work Center 2
Parts Flow
20
Containers in a Kanban System
  • Kanban is based on the simple idea of replacement
    of containers of parts, one at a time.
  • Containers are reserved for specific parts, are
    purposely kept small, and always contain the same
    standard number of parts for each part number.
  • At Toyota the containers must not hold more than
    about 10 of a days requirements.
  • There is a minimum of two containers for each
    part number, one at the upstream producing work
    center and one at the downstream using work
    center.

21
What makes a manufacturing system Lean?
22
Reducing Inventoriesthrough Setup Time Reduction
  • Central to JIT is the reduction of production lot
    sizes so that inventory levels are reduced.
  • Smaller lot sizes result in more machine setups
  • More machine setups, if they are lengthy, result
    in
  • Increased production costs
  • Lost capacity (idle machines during setup)
  • The answer is REDUCE MACHINE SETUP TIMES

23
SMED-metoden
  • Mät hela omstället och identifiera alla enskilda
    moment i omstället.
  • Bestäm vilka steg som kan utföras innan- och
    efter att maskinen måste stannas (ej producerar).
    Dessa steg benämns externa steg.
  • Minska tiden maskinen måste stå stilla genom att
    flytta de externa stegen innan- och efter
    maskinen står stilla.
  • Förbättra verktyg, jiggar detaljer i maskinen
    samt arbetssätt för att förbättra de steg som
    bara kan utföras när maskinen står stilla,
    interna steg.
  • Förbättra de externa stegen.
  • Skriv ned de nya standarderna i
    arbetsinstruktioner och försäkra att att alla
    arbetar enligt det nya arbetssättet.

24
What makes a manufacturing system Lean?
25
Effective Facility Layouts
  • Workstations in close physical proximity to
    reduce transport movement
  • Streamlined flow of material
  • Often use
  • Cellular Manufacturing (instead of process focus)
  • U-shaped lines (allows material handler to
    quickly drop off materials pick up finished
    work)

26
Traditional Process Focused Layout
  • Jumbled flows, long cycles, difficult to schedule

27
JIT Cellular Manufacturing
  • Product focused cells, flexible equipment, high
    visibility, easy to schedule, short cycles

28
What makes a manufacturing system Lean?
29
INTRODUCTION
  • Total Productive Maintenance (TPM) is an approach
    to managing physical assets that emphasizes the
    importance of operator involvement in making
    equipment reliable
  • Management has always held an operator
    accountable for production output. More than
    ever, that person is also responsible now for
    product quality
  • Many factors affect how well that can be
    achieved, including the way in which the
    workplace is organized as well as the equipments
    effectiveness. When several people are involved,
    producing quality depends on teamwork

30
  • In its broadest sense, TPM is based on the idea
    of autonomous operator maintenance, including
    three sets of principles.
  • Maintenance Engineering Seeks to manage the
    equipment life cycle, from strategic asset
    planning, through design and construction, to
    operation, maintenance, and disposal. Several
    techniques characterize the proactive nature of
    maintenance engineering including
  • Preventive (or planned) maintenance Planned and
    scheduled maintenance activities to find and
    correct problems that could lead to failure
  • Predictive and condition-based maintenance
    Reducing fixed-time maintenance and relying on
    the condition of equipment to determine
    maintenance activity

31
  • The prime objectives of TPM are to
  • Maximize equipment effectiveness and productivity
    and eliminate all machine losses
  • Create a sense of ownership in equipment
    operators through a program of training and
    involvement
  • Promote continuous improvement through
    small-group activities involving production,
    engineering, and maintenance personnel
  • Each enterprise has its own unique definition and
    vision for TPM, but in most cases there are
    common elements in any TPM program. These have
    been summarized in the TPM wheel in Figure 8-1

32
Elements
  • Themes
  • Training
  • Decentralization
  • Maintenance prevention
  • Multi-skilling

Figure 8-1 The TPM Wheel
33
  • TPM puts the power in the employees hand. It
    grants workers autonomy, along with
    responsibility
  • At the same time TPM recognizes that employees
    in one area have much to teach and learn from
    others The entire organization gains strength and
    ideas from motivated continuous improvement teams
  • A TPM environment encourages a skills between
    operators and maintenance, and multi-skill
    training in the various crafts
  • It can provide increase job satisfaction for
    operations, trades, engineering, and supervision
    alike

34
Figure 8-4 Tools and Techniques for TPM
35
What makes a manufacturing system Lean?
36
What Is Value?
  • "Value" is what the customer is buying
  • Always think first about the end-customer
  • Who is the customer?
  • What are they buying?
  • Describe value using the customers' words

37
What Is Value Stream Analysis?
  • Planning tool to optimize results of eliminating
    waste

future state VSM
current state VSM
Lean Basics



38
Value Steam Mapping Steps
Next Future State
Future State
Current State
Original State
39
Value Stream Scope
Extended Value Stream Concept Launch Order Deliv
ery In-use Recycle
Action
Action
40
Apply Five Simple Principles
  • Specify value from the standpoint of end customer
  • Identify the value stream for each product family
  • Make the product flow
  • So the customer can pull
  • As you manage toward perfection

41
What is the Value that Flows?
  • Specify value from the standpoint of the end
    customer
  • Ask how your current products and processes
    disappoint your customers value expectation
  • price?
  • quality?
  • reliable delivery?
  • rapid response to changing needs?
  • ???

42
What Flows?
  • "ITEMS" flow through a value stream
  • In manufacturing, materials are the items
  • In design development, designs are the items
  • In service, external customer needs are the items
  • In admin., Internal customer needs are the items
  • Analysis begins with part of a total value
    stream,
  • That part of the value stream has customers too

43
Material Flow Icons
Inventory
44
Information Flow Icons
General Icons
45
TAKT TIME
Takt Time
Synchronizes pace, evenly applying customer
demand across the work day.
Takt Time is "Beat Time"? "Rate Time" or Heart
Beat" Lean Production uses Takt Time as the rate
or time that a completed product is finished. If
you have a Takt Time of two minutes that means
every two minutes a complete product, assembly or
machine is produced off the line.
(http//www.isixsigma.com/dictionary/Takt_Time-455
.htm)
46
Implementing lean
47
Benefits of Lean Manufacturing
  • 50 - 80 Waste reduction
  • WIP
  • Inventory
  • Space
  • Personnel
  • Product lead times
  • Travel
  • Quality, costs, delivery

48
Setting the Foundation
  • Evaluating your organization
  • Management culture
  • Manufacturing culture
  • Lean Manufacturing Analysis
  • Value stream (from customer prospective)
  • Headcount
  • WIP
  • Inventory
  • Capacity, new business, supply chain

49
Tools of Lean Mfg/Production
  • Waste reduction
  • Full involvement, training, learning
  • Cellular mfg
  • Flexible mfg
  • Kaikaku (radical change)
  • Kaizen (continuous improvement) standard work
  • 5S
  • Jidoka (autonomation)
  • Poka-yoke (visual signals)
  • Shojinka (dynamic optimization of of workers)
  • Teien systems (worker suggestions)

50
Tools (cont.)
  • Continuous Flow (10 - 25)
  • SMED (Shingo)
  • Andon
  • Takt time
  • Line balancing
  • Nagara (smooth production flow)

51
Tools (cont.)
  • Customer pull (10- 25)
  • Just-in-time
  • Kanban

52
Henry Ford - Standards
  • To standardize a method is to choose out of the
    many methods the best one, and use it.
    Standardization means nothing unless it means
    standardizing upward.
  • Todays standardization, instead of being a
    barricade against improvement, is the necessary
    foundation on which tomorrows improvement will
    be based.
  • If you think of standardization as the best
    that you know today, but which is to be improved
    tomorrow - you get somewhere. But if you think of
    standards as confining, then progress stops.
  • Henry Ford, 1926
  • Today Tomorrow

53
Standardized Work
  • Captures best practices
  • Posted at the work station
  • Visual aid
  • Reference document
  • work sequence
  • job layout
  • time elements
  • safety
  • Developed with operators
  • Basis for Continuous Improvement

54
Other Tools
  • Visual Factory
  • Error Proofing
  • Quick Change-over
  • Total Productive Maintenance

55
What makes a manufacturing system Lean?
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