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Greece The Golden Age Agenda 6.3 Outline Outline A. Philip

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Greece The Golden Age Agenda 6.3 Outline Outline A. Philip of Macedon 1. 359 B.C. he becomes king of Macedonia after being captive in Thebes as a youth. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Greece The Golden Age Agenda 6.3 Outline Outline A. Philip


1
Greece
  • The Golden Age
  • Agenda

6.3 Outline
2
Outline
A.  Philip of Macedon 1.     359 B.C. he becomes
king of Macedonia after being captive in Thebes
as a youth. 2.     recruited and organized the
best disciplined army in Macedonian
history 3.     organized his infantry into
phalanxes ( rows of soldiers standing shoulder to
shoulder) a.     they carried pikes or spears
that were about 18 feet long b.     phalanxes
were extremely effective vs. cavalry charges
3
Outline
  • A.  Philip of Macedon
  • 4. Goals
  • Restore order in Macedon
  • Control Athenian colonies in the north
  • Conquer all of Greece.

4
Outline (Continued)
  • 5.     Demosthenes spoke out against Philip II
  • a.     tried to get Athens to fight for liberty
    from Phillip
  • b.     his attempts failed because the other city
    states would not follow and were crushed by
    Phillip.
  • 6.     Philip defeated Thebes and Athens at the
    Battle of Chaeronea which united Greece under
    Phillips rule.
  • 7.     Philip was assassinated before he could
    invade Persia.
  • 8. Philips son Alexander took over for him
    after he died.

5
Outline (Continued)
  • B.  Alexander the Great (son of Phillip II of
    Macedon)
  • 1.     Alexander received the best training
    possible
  • a.     military training in the Macedonian army
  • b.     formal education from Aristotle
  • 2.     Alexander crushed local rebellions then
    set off to conquer the world
  • 3.     completely destroyed Persia by 331 B.C.
    and in the process conquered Asia Minor, Syria,
    Egypt, and Mesopotamia

6
Outline (Concluded)
  • 4.     His goal was to conquer India, but his
    troops fought for 4 yrs. and refused to go any
    farther
  • 5.     ATG split his army into two groups
  • a.  one sailed west exploring the Persian Gulf
  • b.  ATG led the other half across the desert
    (many of his troops died)
  • 6.  ATG contracted a fever and died in June of
    323 B.C. before he turned 33

7
Alexander the Great
  •   C. Beginnings of the Hellenistic World
  • 1.  ATG purposely spread the Greek founded
    cities where Greeks/Macedonians lived with the
    Persians
  • 2.  With the Greeks, Persians, and Macedonians
    working together ATG was able to rule much more
    efficiently
  • 3.  ATG married two Persian women and required
    his generals to marry royal Persian women

8
Alexander the Great
  • 4.  ATG also held a mass wedding where 10,000 of
    his troops married Persian women
  • 5.  Hellenistic culture combined ideas and values
    drawn from the Greek, Hellenic, Mediterranean,
    and Asia.
  • 6.  Hellenistic period lasted from ATG death to
    the Roman conquest in 146 BC

9
Alexander the Great
  • 7.  After ATGs death his generals competed for
    his empire
  • a.  3 generals divided the empire into 3 main
    kingdoms Macedon, Egypt, and Syria
  • b.  these kingdoms were often at war until they
    were conquered by the  Romans

10
The Spread of Hellenistic Culture
  • Learning and Commerce
  • Greek culture both affected and was affected by
    the cultures of those they conquered.
  • Alexandria, Egypt becomes the center of Greek
    trade, education and culture.
  • Education becomes more common.
  • Women have more rights.

11
Spread of Hellenistic Culture
  • B. Religion and Philosophy
  • Loss of identity with Polis leads to personal
    search for meaning and identity.
  • Ruler Worship and mystery religions take begin
    to replace traditional Greek religion.
  • Philosophy begins to focus on Ethics.

12
Religion and Philosophy
  • B. Religion and Philosophy (cont.)
  • 3. Four schools of philosophy.
  • Cynicism live simply and naturally. Dont worry
    about wealth, pleasure or status.
  • Skepticism nothing is certain. This should give
    peace of mind.
  • Stoicism (Zeno)
  • Divine Reason (God) directs the universe, so,
    accept your fate.
  • All people have a divine spark inside them
  • Influenced Roman/Christian thinking.

13
Religion and Philosophy
  • d. Epicureanism (Epicurus) seek pleasure and
    avoid pain BUT limit desires in order to avoid
    suffering.

14
Science in the Hellenistic Age
  • C. Mathematics and Physics
  • Euclid contributed to development of geometry.
    Elements is still the basis for modern geometry.
  • Archimedes inventor and scientist. Used math to
    explain how levers worked. Invented compound
    pulley and the Archimedes screw.

15
Science in the Hellenistic Age
  • D. Medicine
  • Alexandria, Egypt center for medical science
  • Egyptian practice of embalming led to exploration
    of parts of human body
  • Herophilus brain is the center of the nervous
    system.
  • Begin to perform delicate surgery.

16
Science in the Hellenistic Age
  • E. Astronomy and geography
  • Aristarchus believed earth and planets revolve
    around the sun (not accepted).
  • Hipparchus used trigonometry to predict
    eclipses and the sun and moon to calculate the
    length of the year.
  • Eratosthenes calculated the circumference of
    the earth (very accurate). Chosen to head the
    library of Alexandria.
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