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ANCIENT EGYPT and NUBIA Ch. 4 Sect. I

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Title: ANCIENT EGYPT and NUBIA Ch. 4 Sect. I


1
ANCIENT EGYPT and NUBIA Ch. 4 Sect. I
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HOME
First Age of Empires, 1570 B.C.200 B.C.
A series of empires, each one bigger than the
last, forges regional unity among the old
heartlands of civilization from the Nile to the
Iranian Plateau. Meanwhile, the Chinese Empire
emerges as a cultural and political unit.
3
HOME
First Age of Empires, 1570 B.C.200 B.C.
Time Line
206 B.C. The Qin Dynasty of China collapses.
Civil War follows.
1544 B.C. Egypts New Kingdom established.
751 B.C. Nubian kingdom of Kush conquers Egypt.
1570 B.C.
200 B.C.
850 B.C. Assyrian Empire begins its rise to power.
550 B.C. Persian Empire flourishes under Cyrus.
4
HOME
The Empires of Egypt and Nubia Collide
Key Idea
The New Kingdom forges a brilliant Egyptian
Empire, which is eventually conquered and ruled
by the Nubians of Kush. The Kushites later
establish an Egyptian-style kingdom of their own
farther south.
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Ancient Nubia
  • Kush, the Egyptian name for ancient Nubia, was
    the site of a highly advanced, ancient black
    African civilization that rivaled ancient Egypt
    in wealth, power and cultural development.

7
The Egyptian and Nubian Empires
Nomadic Invaders Rule Egypt
Invaders About 1640 B.C., Asian warriors, the
Hyksos, use chariots to conquer Egypt
Hebrews Migrate to Egypt Hebrews move to Egypt
from Canaan around 1650 B.C. Egyptians resent
the presence of Hebrews and Hyksos in Egypt
Expulsion and Slavery Egyptians drive out the
hated Hyksos Hebrews lose protection of Hyksos
are enslaved
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8
The New Kingdom of Egypt
Technological Changes About 1570 to 1075 B.C.
pharaohs create New Kingdom, a powerful
empire Army uses bronze weapons and chariots to
conquer other lands
Image
Image
Continued . . .
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9
Event 1 1472 B.C. Hatshepsuts Prosperous
Rule Hatshepsutpharaoh whose reign most noted
for her trade expeditions, not war Opened trade
in Punt (modern day Somalia)
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continued The New Kingdom of Egypt
Thutmose the Empire Builder Thutmose III,
Hatshepsuts stepson, expands Egypts
empire Invades Palestine, Syria, and
Nubiaregion around the upper Nile River Egypt
most powerful and wealthy during reign of New
Kingdom pharoahs
Image
Continued . . .
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Event 2 1285 B.C.
The Egyptians and the Hittites Around 1285 B.C.
Egyptians battle the Hittites in
Palestine Egypts pharaoh, Ramses II, and the
Hittite king sign a peace treaty
Image
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Event 3 1290-1224 B.C. An Age of Builders New
Kingdom pharaohs built great palaces,
magnificent temples Valley of the Kings near
Thebes is home to royal tombs Ramses II builds
impressive temples with enormous statues of
himself
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Ramses II
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  • Event 4 1200 B.C.

Invasion by Land and Sea Sea Peoples
(possibly Philistines) cause great destruction
in Egypt Libyan raids on villages and Palestine
rebellions weaken empire
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Event 6 950-730 B.C. Egypts Empire
Fades Weakened empire breaks into smaller
kingdoms From around 950 to 730 B.C. Libyan
pharaohs rule Egypt, erect cities
NEXT
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Kush Conquers Egypt, 730 BC
  • Around 730 B.C., Kush's warrior hordes turned the
    tables on a weakened Egypt and conquered it.
  • This event established the black Pharaohs from
    Kush.

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The Kushites Conquer the Nile Region
Egypt and Kush From 2000 to 1000 B.C., Egypt
dominates kingdom of Kush in Nubia, but as
Egypt fell into decline Kush began to emerge as a
regional power
Map
The People of Nubia Live south of Egypt near
division of Blue Nile and White Nile Nile River
is a great trade route for goods and
ideas Nubians link Egypt and Mediterranean to
African interior through trade
Continued . . .
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continued The Kushites Conquer the Nile Region
Image
Event 5 1200 B.C. The Interaction of Egypt and
Nubia Egyptian culture influences Nubia and
beyond to southern Africa About 1200 B.C.,
Nubia gains independence but keeps Egyptian
culture
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Event 7 751 B.C. Piankhi Captures the Egyptian
Throne In 751 B.C., Kushite king Piankhi
conquers Egypt, ousts Libyans Assyrians
overcome Kushites and take Egypt
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Gold from Nubia
  • For the next four centuries, the Egyptians
    exploited Kush as a colony.
  • Egypt's wealth in gold came from the desert mines
    of Kush. The Egyptian word for gold is nub, which
    is thought by some to be the origin of the name
    Nubia.
  • Model coffin of Tutankhamun, probably made from
    Nubian gold. Found in his tomb at Thebes. Egypt,
    Dynasty 18, ca. 1348-1338 BCE.

21
Piankhi
  • Piankhi, (d. 721 BC) was a Kushite king and
    founder of the Twenty-fifth dynasty of Egypt.
  • He ruled Egypt from the city of Napata, located
    deep in Nubia.

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Piankhis dynasty proved to be short lived. In
671B.C. the Assyrians, warlike people from
Southwest Asia, conquered Egypt.
  • Event 8
  • 671 B.C.

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The Golden Age of Meroë
Kushites settle Meroë join in trade with
Africa, Arabia, India
The Wealth of Kush Meroë becomes important
center for iron weapons and tools Iron
products transported to Red Sea, exchanged for
luxury goods
The Decline of Meroë Meroë thrives from about
250 B.C. to A.D. 150, then declines Aksum,
400 miles southeast, dominates North African
trade Has port on Red Sea, defeats Meroë in
A.D. 350
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25th Dynasty of Egypt
  • Black Pharoahs ruled an Egyptian-Nubian empire
    that extended from the Medi-terranean to the
    confluence of the Blue and White Niles for sixty
    years.
  • Historians would count their reign as Egypt's
    25th Dynasty.

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Ancient Egypt
  • Ancient Egypt was a civilization in eastern North
    Africa concentrated along the middle to lower
    reaches of the Nile River that reached its
    greatest extent in the second millennium BC
    during the New Kingdom.

27
Old Kingdom (2700 B.C.2184 B.C.)
  • The Old Kingdom (Dynasties 3 to 6) was a period
    of great prosperity and innovation whose most
    memorable feature was surely the pyramid.
  • Pyramids of Giza

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New Kingdom (1570 B.C.1070 B.C.)
  • Temple of Ramses II
  • Dynasty 18 through Dynasty 20, known as the New
    Kingdom, witnessed a time of international
    prestige and prosperity for Egypt.
  • The kings of this period conducted extensive
    military, diplomatic and trade relations with
    Nubians as far south as the Fourth Cataract in
    Nubia.

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HOME
The Empires of Egypt and Nubia Collide
Overview
Hyksos New Kingdom Hatshepsut Thutmose
III Nubia Ramses II Kush Piankhi Meroë
WHY IT MATTERS NOW
Two empires along the Nile, Egypt and Nubia,
forged commercial, cultural, and political
connections.
Neighboring civilizations participate in cultural
exchange as well as conflict.
Assessment
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HOME
The Empires of Egypt and Nubia Collide
1. Look at the graphic to help organize your
thoughts. List important events in the history of
Egypt and Kush.
1285 B.C. Battle of Kadesh
1200 B.C. People of the Sea attack Egypt.
950-730 B.C. Libyans rule Egypt.
1472 B.C. Hatshepsut makes herself pharaoh.
1290-1224 B.C. Ramses II rules.
1100 B.C. Kush regains independence.
671 B.C. Kushites lose Egypt to Assyrians.
continued . . .
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HOME
The Empires of Egypt and Nubia Collide
1
Section
Assessment
2. Read the temple inscription written by
Piankhi. Explain how an Egyptian might have
written the inscription differently. THINK ABOUT
what bias Piankhi had
ANSWER
how Egyptians benefited from Piankhis
invasion
why Egyptians might have disagreed with Piankhi
An Egyptian might have praised the Kushites for
restoring the Egyptian way of life or criticized
them for ruling in place of Egyptians.
Possible Response
continued . . .
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HOME
The Empires of Egypt and Nubia Collide
1
Section
Assessment
3. How did Egypt and Nubia strengthen each other
at various times in their histories? THINK ABOUT
the role of trade and the movement of goods
the impact of military movements
the influence of cultural developments
ANSWER
  • Under Thutmose III, Egyptians brought gold,
    cattle, ivory, and slaves from Nubia.
  • Under Egyptian control, Nubian princes adopted
    much of Egyptian culture.
  • When Nubians seized power over Egypt, they tried
    to restore the Egyptian way of life.

Possible Responses
End of Section 1
33
What Social class would you find at the top of
the pyramid?
34
Pharaoh
35
Pharaoh
Upper Class
Very small group. Made up of Priests, members of
the Pharaohs Court and Nobles
36
Pharaoh
Upper Class
Very small group. Made up of Priests, members of
the Pharaohs Court and Nobles
Merchants and skilled workers
Middle Class
37
Pharaoh
Upper Class
Very small group. Made up of Priests, members of
the Pharaohs Court and Nobles
Merchants and skilled workers
Middle Class
Not a very large class. They farmed and built
roads temples.
Peasants
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New Empire Semitic-speaking people who
exploited the use of iron weapons to build an
empire by 700 B.C.
Semitic-Speaking Spoke Semitic language
Included Territory From including Mesopotamia,
some of the Iranian Plateau, Asia Minor, Syria,
Palestine, and Egypt.
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Semitic Language
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Military Strength
The Assyrian military was one of the strongest in
the ancient world. They used fierce iron weapons
and psychological warfare.
The Assyrians would often attempt to get an area
to surrender before attack.
If people refused and were defeated they were
treated harshly. King Ashurnasirpal once stated
3,000 of their combat troops I felled with
weapons . . . Many I took alive from some of
these I cut off their hands to the writs, from
others I cut off their noses, ears and fingers I
put out the eyes of many of the soldiers. . . . I
burned their young men and women to death.
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Military Organization
  • Soldiers were well equipped for conquering.
  • They wore copper or iron helmets, padded
    loinclothes and leather skirts with metal scales
  • Iron swords and spears
  • Advanced planning used pontoons to support a
    bridge to cross over
  • They dug beneath the enemies city walls to weaken
    them.
  • Some soldiers would shoot arrows while the rest
    would hammer the citys gates.

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Assyrian Rulers Assyrian kings ruled with
absolute power. Kingdoms were well organized and
efficient. Kept direct contact with the people
who helped administer their empire
Transportation/Courier system They est. a system
where they could relay messages by horseback back
and forth in a weeks time.
Ashurbanipal Considered the greatest Assyrian
King. He collected the writings of Mesopotamia
and est. the great library of Nineveh
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Nineveh
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Nineveh an "exceeding great city", as it is
called in the Book of Jonah, lay on the eastern
bank of the Tigris in ancient Assyria, near the
modern-day major city of Mosul, Iraq which lies
across the river.
45
The Assyrian empire eventually fell and the
Chaldeans (Neo Babylonians) under king
Nebuchadnezzar made Babylon the most powerful
state in the region. Nebuchadnezzar is most
famous for the construction of the Hanging
Gardens of Babylon, considered one of the seven
wonders of the ancient world. Nebuchadnezzar is
also responsible for the destruction of the
Temple of Jerusalem and beginning the Babylonian
Captivity of the Jews and the first
Diaspora. Babylon is defeated and replaced by
the Persian Empire in 539 B.C.
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Assyria Dominates the Fertile Crescent
Overview
Assyria Sennacherib Nineveh
Ashurbanipal Medes Chaldeans Nebuchadnezzar
WHY IT MATTERS NOW
Assyria developed a military machine, conquered
an empire, and established imperial
administration.
Some leaders still use military force to extend
their rule, stamp out opposition, and gain wealth
and power.
Assessment
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Assyria Dominates the Fertile Crescent
1. Look at the graphic to help organize your
thoughts. Identify the causes of the rise and of
the decline of Assyrian power.
Need to defend against attacks
Hatred by conquered people
Use of iron-working technology
Overextension
Success at advanced planning
Unity among Assyrias foes
continued . . .
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Assyria Dominates the Fertile Crescent
2
Section
Assessment
2. The Assyrians relied almost exclusively on
military power in building, maintaining, and
ruling their empire. Explain whether you think
this was a good strategy. THINK ABOUT
the causes of Assyrian military power
the stability of the empire
the methods that empires use to become
stronger
ANSWER
Empires often rely on military power. Assyrians
relied on a technological advantage that other
countries could soon copy and that their brutal
methods made them unpopular rulers.
Possible Response
End of Section 2
51
Cyrus the Great Persian King who defeated Babylon
and ended the Jews captivity. Cyrus ruled from
559 to 530 B.C. and was a great leader, hence the
name Cyrus the Great.
Ruling Style He was very respectful of other
cultures. Not only did he free the Jews, but he
also treated conquered peoples fairly. He
allowed them to keep their own religions and
customs. This respect made the people who lived
under him respectful of his rule and less likely
to revolt.
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Cyrus' tomb lies in the ruins of Pasargadae, now
a UNESCO World Heritage Site (2006).
53
Expansion of Empire under Darius I
Ruled from 521-486 B.C. added western India to
the Persian Empire. Then added Thrace in Europe
and expanded the Empire to its greatest size. He
also brought the Persian Empire into conflict
with the Greeks.
Satrapies Darius divided him empire into
provinces called Satrapies to make it more
manageable. Each province was ruled by a
governor called a Satrap. This man was the
protector of the kingdom. They collected taxes,
provided justice and security, and got soldiers
for the army.
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The Royal Road The Royal road stretched from
Lydia to Susa, the chief capital of the empire.
It used a system of couriers similar to the
Assyrians. This allowed for efficient
communication in the empire
Persian Military The Persians had an elite
military. It contained people from all over the
Persian Empire. The Immortals The Elite
fighters of the Persian Empire. They were so
called because in battle their numbers were never
allowed to fall below 10,000 men. They were
constantly replaced from behind so they appeared
to never die.
55
Persian kings became greedy and so the empire
became weak.
Family spats and assassinations became the rule
of the day. The Empire was defeated by Alexander
the Great during the 330s B.C.
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Zoroastrianism Original Religion of the Persian
Empire Zoroaster Founder and Prophet of the
Religion. Also known as Zarathustra. Book Zend
Avesta, the recorded teachings of Zoroaster.
Monotheistic Taught belief in one universal,
all-powerful god. Ahura Mazda The god of
Zoroastrianism
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It is believed by many that Zoroastrianism
influenced Judaism, and later, Christianity. The
religion teaches about an all-powerful God. An
ultimate battle between good and evil. The idea
of an evil being, or Satan.
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Persia Unites Many Lands
GRAPH
Key Idea
Persian kings forge a multicultural empire
stretching from the Indus River to the Nile.
Persia pioneers enlighten tolerance in government
and support the Zoroastrian religion.
Overview
Assessment
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HOME
Persia Unites Many Lands
GRAPH
Overview
Cyrus Cambyses Darius satrap Royal Road
Zoroaster
WHY IT MATTERS NOW
The Persian Empire ruled with tolerance and wise
government.
Tolerance and wise government are characteristics
of the most successful methods of rule.
Assessment
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HOME
Persia Unites Many Lands
3
Section
Assessment
1. Look at the graphic to help organize your
thoughts. Explain the similarities and
differences between Cyrus and Darius.
Both
Both ruled fairly and expanded the empire.
Cyrus founded the Persian Empire and allowed the
Jews to return to Jerusalem.
Darius seized power and introduced coins of
standard value.
continued . . .
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HOME
Persia Unites Many Lands
GRAPH
3
Section
Assessment
2. Why do you think Persians and other peoples
were able to turn their thoughts to religion?
THINK ABOUT
past history of peoples in the Fertile
Crescent
living conditions in the Persian Empire
role of leaders in the Persian Empire
ANSWER
The tolerance displayed by Cyrus and other
Persian rulers probably encouraged people to
practice their religious beliefs.
Possible Response
continued . . .
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HOME
Persia Unites Many Lands
GRAPH
3
Section
Assessment
3. How did Dariuss methods of administration
give stability to his empire? THINK ABOUT
the structure of the empire
policy of tolerance
the role of the satrap
ANSWER
  • He divided the empire into 20 provinces.
  • He appointed a satrap for each province.
  • He tolerated other religions, languages, and
    local laws.
  • Road system and coinage also helped give
    stability to the empire.

Possible Responses
End of Section 3
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Unification of China Ch. 4 sect. 4
66
geography
Urumqi
Beijing
Xian
Lhasa
Shanghai
Kunming
Guangzhou
  • 9,573,000 square km

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  • Ancient civilization
  • 221-206BC Unification of China
  • 1800s Western imperialism
  • 1911 Republic founded
  • 1949-1976 Chairman Mao
  • 1966-1976 Cultural Revolution
  • 1997 Deng Xiaoping dies
  • 1997 Hong Kong returned to China
  • 1999 Macau returned to China

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The Unification of China
Confucius and the Social Order
Zhou Dynasty Lasted 1027 to 256 B.C. ancient
values decline near end of dynasty
Confucius Urges Harmony End of Zhou Dynasty is
time of disorder Scholar Confucius wants to
restore order, harmony, good government Stress
es developing good relationships, including
family Promotes filial pietyrespect for
parents and ancestors Hopes to reform society
by promoting good government
Continued . . .
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Confucius and the Social Order
Confucian Ideas About Government Thinks
education can transform people Teachings become
foundation for bureaucracy, a trained civil
service Confucianism is an ethical system of
right and wrong, not a religion Chinese
government and social order is based on
Confucianism
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Other Ethical Systems
Daoists Seek Harmony Laozi teaches that people
should follow the natural order of
life Believes that universal force called Dao
guides all things Daoism philosophy is to
understand nature and be free of
desire Daoists influence sciences, alchemy,
astronomy, medicine
Image
Legalists Urge Harsh Rule Legalism emphasizes
the use of law to restore order stifles
criticism Teaches that obedience should be
rewarded, disobedience punished
Continued . . .
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Laozi
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Other Ethical Systems (cont.)
I Ching and Yin and Yang I Ching (The Book of
Changes) offers good advice, common
sense Concept of yin and yangtwo powers
represent rhythm of universe Yin cold, dark,
soft, mysterious yang warm, bright, hard,
clear I Ching and yin and yang explain how
people fit into the world
Image
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Yin and Yang
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The Qin Dynasty Unifies China
The Qin Dynasty Qin Dynasty replaces Zhou
Dynasty in third century B.C.
A New Emperor Takes Control Emperor Shi Huangdi
unifies China, ends fighting, conquers new
lands Creates 36 administrative districts
controlled by Qin officials With legalist
prime minister, murders Confucian scholars,
burns books Establishes an autocracy, a
government with unlimited power
Image
Continued . . .
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Shi Huangdi
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The Qin Dynasty Unifies China
A Program of Centralization Shi Huangdi builds
highways, irrigation projects increases
trade Sets standards for writing, law,
currency, weights and measures Harsh rule
includes high taxes and repressive government
Great Wall of China Emperor forces peasants to
build Great Wall to keep out invaders
Image
The Fall of the Qin Shi Huangdis son loses
the throne to rebel leader Han Dynasty begins
NEXT
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