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One focus of Unit one is on the development and expansion of the world’s three major monotheistic religions.

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One focus of Unit one is on the development and expansion of the world s three major monotheistic religions. What is monotheism? The belief in just one God – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: One focus of Unit one is on the development and expansion of the world’s three major monotheistic religions.


1
One focus of Unit one is on the development and
expansion of the worlds three major monotheistic
religions.
  • What is monotheism?
  • The belief in just one God
  • So . . . What do you think polytheism is
    (remember your stem words!)
  • The belief in many godsas in all of the ancient
    civilizations such as Egypt and Sumer

Hale Bopp Comet over the Pyramids of Giza
2
Georgia Performance Standard SS7G8
  • The student will describe the diverse cultures of
    the people who live in Southwest Asia.

Jerusalem a holy city to all three religions
3
SS7G8c Compare and contrast the prominent
religions in Southwest Asia (Middle East)
Judaism, Islam, and Christianity.
  • Judaism is the oldest monotheistic religion, and
    its foundation lies in the original covenant made
    between Abraham and God, circa 1900 BCE, when
    Abraham was called to leave his home in Ur and
    travel to Cannan (later known as Palestine and
    Israel).
  • Abraham is regarded as the father of the Jewish
    people.

Abraham is the father of the Israelites. It is
with Abraham that God makes his covenant and
promise. This is a stained glass window at St.
Annes Belfast Cathedral in Northern Ireland.
4
SS7G8c Compare and contrast the prominent
religions in Southwest Asia (Middle East)
Judaism, Islam, and Christianity.
  • Jews believe God made a covenant with Abraham
    that his descendants would be Gods chosen
    people. In return they would have to keep Gods
    laws.
  • God gave the Jewish people the 10 Commandants and
    other rules to live by (contained in the Torah,
    the first five books of the Bible), marking the
    beginning of Judaism as a structured religion.
  • What is the Torah known as?
  • The main religious text of the Jewish religion.

The Torah scrolls that are read in a synagogue
are unpointed text, with no vowels or musical
notes, so the ability to read a passage from a
scroll is a valuable skill, and usually requires
a lot of practice
5
SS7G8c Compare and contrast the prominent
religions in Southwest Asia (Middle East)
Judaism, Islam, and Christianity.
  • Abrahams descendants multiplied as the twelve
    tribes of Israel and entered Egypt, where they
    were eventually enslaved.
  • Moses led the Jews out from captivity in Egypt.
  • Jewish civilization after the exodus prospered in
    the kingdoms of Israel and Judah, originally
    headed by powerful kings like Saul, David and
    Solomon, who built the first great temple in
    Jerusalem.

What it may have been like fishing with Moses. ?
6
SS7G8c Compare and contrast the prominent
religions in Southwest Asia (Middle East)
Judaism, Islam, and Christianity.
  • In 586 BCE, the Babylonians overran Jerusalem
    (the holy city of the Jews), taking many captives
    into exile and destroying the temple.
  • The Babylonians were from the region known as
    Mesopotamia which literally means the land
    between two rivers. Can you name the two rivers
    in modern day Iraq where Mesopotamia was located?
  • Do the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers sound
    familiar?
  • A second temple was built when the Jews returned
    about 538 BCE, to be destroyed by the Romans in
    70 CE.
  • The single wall that remains of the temple,
    called the Western Wall, is to this day the most
    sacred place of the Jews.

Jews gather at the Western Wall, all that remains
of the great temple at Jerusalem
7
Telling Time . . .
  • By the way, what does BCE stand for and what did
    it replace?
  • Before Common Era, which is the now politically
    correct term taking the place of BC (before
    Christ)
  • What does CE stand for?
  • You guessed itCommon Era which takes the place
    of AD.
  • Did you know that AD is the acronym for the Latin
    term anno domini, which means in the year of our
    Lord in English?

8
Telling Time . . .
  • So, with that in mind, how many years passed
    between 500 BCE and 100 BCE?
  • 400!
  • Ok, how about from 100 CE to 500 CE?
  • 400!
  • Hmmm. . . Ok, how about from 100 BCE to 500 CE?
  • Did you guess 600?
  • Youre right!
  • If you have any problems, think of the timeline
    of history as a number line where BCE years are
    negatives, and CE years are the positive numbers.

9
SS7G8c Compare and contrast the prominent
religions in Southwest Asia (Middle East)
Judaism, Islam, and Christianity.
  • Some of the Jews exiled to Babylon migrated along
    trade routes further eastwards into central Asia,
    even reaching India and China.
  • Under the Romans, Jews spread across the Roman
    Empire, and settled in many parts of Europe.
  • Does anyone know what these exiles of the Jews
    from their holy land were called?
  • The Diaspora

The Romans destroyed the Jewish Temple in 70
A.D., beginning the second diaspora.
10
Jewish beliefs cont.
  • The Torah consists of the five books revealed to
    Moses, also called the Pentateuch, and is the
    most important part of the Hebrew Bible.
  • It tells the story of creation, the covenant with
    Abraham and the Exodus from Egypt. It also
    contains the details of the laws given to Moses,
    the Ten Commandments
  • The name for a Jewish place of worship is a
    synagogue.
  • The Hebrew word for God is Yahweh.

The magnificent Great Synagogue of Budapest,
Hungary.
11
Has anyone heard of these Jewish Holidays?
  • Rosh Hashanah The beginning of the Jewish New
    Year
  • Yom Kippur The Day of Atonement, the last 10
    days of penitence which marks the opening of the
    New Year.
  • Hanukkah An eight day festival which
    commemorates the re-dedication of the temple in
    Jerusalem after expelling the occupying Syrians
    in 164 BCE
  • Passover (Pesach) Week long memorial retelling
    the Israelites release from Egypt
  • Bar Mitzvah Coming of age for boys aged 13. In
    liberal traditions, an equivalent ceremony (Bat
    Mitzvah) is carried out for girls
  • Shabbat (Sabbath) Day of rest, worship and
    fasting, from sunset Friday to sunset Saturday

At the age of 13, a Jewish boy reads the Torah
for the first time and promises to keep God's
commandments
12
SS7G8c Compare and contrast the prominent
religions in Southwest Asia (Middle East)
Judaism, Islam, and Christianity.
  • Christianity takes its name from the Greek word
    Christ, meaning Anointed One, whom Christians
    believe was Jesus, the son of God.
  • Jesus was born in Bethlehem, near Jerusalem (both
    considered holy cities by Christians) and grew up
    as a Jewish boy.
  • At about the age of 30 he began three years of
    traveling and teaching. He taught a new way of
    drawing upon the Jewish tradition.

13
SS7G8c Compare and contrast the prominent
religions in Southwest Asia (Middle East)
Judaism, Islam, and Christianity.
  • Jesus was a Jewish teacher and prophet who lived
    in Palestine in the first century CE.
  • He revealed himself to be the Son of God in
    fulfillment of Hebrew scripture, and taught that
    the Kingdom of God was imminent, bringing with it
    forgiveness and new life for all who believed.
  • His claim to be the Messiah roused opposition
    from religious and Roman authorities and he was
    imprisoned and crucified (executed on a cross).
    His followers believe that after his death, Jesus
    was resurrected before being taken up to heaven.

The yellow areas show the spread of Christianity
from 200 CE to 400 CE.
14
SS7G8c Compare and contrast the prominent
religions in Southwest Asia (Middle East)
Judaism, Islam, and Christianity.
  • After his crucifixion Jesus appeared to his
    disciples and told them to go out into the world
    and spread the word of God.
  • By around 60 AD Christianity had spread west and
    north to many parts of the Roman Empire.
  • When the pagan Roman empire conquered Jerusalem
    in 70 CE, Christianity attracted many Roman
    converts.
  • Although being a Christian under Roman rule was
    illegal, churches were slowly established
    throughout the Roman empire, including Europe and
    Africa.

Artist rendition of Jesus appearing to the 12
disciples.
15
SS7G8c Compare and contrast the prominent
religions in Southwest Asia (Middle East)
Judaism, Islam, and Christianity.
  • Christians were a persecuted minority in the
    Roman empire and many were executed for their
    faith.
  • A pivotal event in the early church was the
    conversion of the Roman Emperor Constantine in
    312 CE, who gave State approval to Christianity
    and gave it significant political and financial
    support.
  • In 300 AD Armenia became the first officially
    Christian country. At the same time Christianity
    also spread east through the Persian Empire as
    far as China.

Statue of Roman Emperor Constantine from York in
the United Kingdom
16
Have you heard of these Christian holidays and
festivals?
  • Advent The beginning of the Christian Year. Four
    Sundays before Christmas, Christians set aside
    time for reflection and preparation for recalling
    the coming of Christ.
  • Christmas (December 25) The celebration of
    Jesus birth
  • Lent The 40 days of preparation and penance
    which begins on Ash Wednesday and concludes at
    sundown on Holy (Easter) Saturday.
  • Easter The holiest period of the Christian
    calendar. It begins with Good Friday, which
    solemnly commemorates Jesus crucifixion, and
    continues until Easter Sunday which celebrates
    the resurrection of Jesus.
  • The holy book of Christianity is the Bible and
    the place of worship for Christians is a church.

17
SS7G8c Compare and contrast the prominent
religions in Southwest Asia (Middle East)
Judaism, Islam, and Christianity.
  • Islam means submission to Allah (God). Islam was
    revealed to the Prophet Muhammad (the founder of
    Islam) who lived from 570 CE to 632 CE in Mecca
    (a holy city for Islam along with Jerusalem) in
    modern-day Saudi Arabia.
  • Muhammad was called to prophethood when God
    dictated the Qur'an to him through the archangel
    Gabriel.
  • Although he gained a small following in his
    tribe, Muhammad was initially persecuted for his
    beliefs.

Location of the holy city of Mecca in Saudi Arabia
18
SS7G8c Compare and contrast the prominent
religions in Southwest Asia (Middle East)
Judaism, Islam, and Christianity.
  • In 622 CE he fled to what is now known as Medina,
    where the first Muslim political community was
    formed. The Muslim calendar dates from this
    journey, known as the Hijrah.
  • Enlisting the help of nomadic Arab clans,
    Muhammad returned to Mecca, stripping the city of
    all signs of pagan belief.
  • He was generous to those he defeated, however,
    and many converted to Islam. Two years later, in
    front of the Ka'ba in Mecca, he declared Islam
    the religion of the people.

The Kaaba at the Grand Mosque in Saudi Arabia
19
SS7G8c Compare and contrast the prominent
religions in Southwest Asia (Middle East)
Judaism, Islam, and Christianity.
  • Muhammad continued receiving messages from God
    throughout the later part of his life. He
    memorized these messages and passed them on to
    his followers. After his death they were
    collected and written down in the Quran (Koran).
  • The sayings and deeds of Muhammad were recorded
    in the Hadith. These two books are the source of
    guidance for all Muslims.

The Quran, holy text of Islam. Notice the
geometric design on the cover. That is a
trademark of Islamic art.
20
SS7G8c Compare and contrast the prominent
religions in Southwest Asia (Middle East)
Judaism, Islam, and Christianity.
  • Muhammad took political and spiritual control.
  • He led his followers into battle 80 times in 10
    years and eventually took control of Mecca two
    years before his death.
  • Mecca was established as the center of worship of
    Allah.

21
SS7G8d Explain the reason for the division
between Sunni and Shia Muslims.
  • Caliph Means successor, the title given to
    those who took over leadership of the Umma (the
    Muslim community) after the death of Muhammad.
    The practice of the caliphs is called the
    Caliphate.
  • Sunni Islam The followers of Sunni Islam make up
    the vast majority of Muslims, some 80 to 85
    percent. Sunnis believe that Mohammed did not
    appoint a successor, and therefore one had to be
    appointed by the Muslims themselves. This led to
    the establishment of the Caliphate, a series of
    men who took over Mohammad's worldly power, but
    who made no claim to be Mohammad's spiritual
    successor.
  • Shia Islam The Shiites believed that Mohammed
    had designated Ali as his successor and spiritual
    heir. There are two important aspects here.
    First, the idea that Mohammad's heir should be
    from Mohammad's family. Second, that unlike the
    Sunnis, the successor should be a religious and
    political leader.

22
SS7G8c Compare and contrast the prominent
religions in Southwest Asia (Middle East)
Judaism, Islam, and Christianity.
  • Muslim troops conquered all of Arabia north into
    Palestine, Syria, Iraq, and Iran and westward
    into Egypt and North Africa.
  • By 643, Muslims had conquered Egypt and the
    Persian Empire.

23
Empire in Damascus (Syria) The Umayyad
Caliphate, 661-750
  • After Alis death, the Umayyad dynasty
    established itself in Damascus.
  • They were a political and military power who
    expanded the Islamic empire.
  • After the Umayyad dynasty fell in Damascus in
    750, a different line of the Umayyad dynasty
    continued in Spain until 1492.

24
Umayyad Empire in Cordoba, Spain 755-1492
  • In 755 when the Umayyad Dynasty was ousted by the
    Abbasid dynasty (who made Baghdad the capital),
    the last Umayyad prince fled to Spain to take
    control there.
  • He wanted to show the world the greatness of his
    caliphate.
  • He recruited scholars by offering overwhelming
    gifts. Scholars, poets, philosophers,
    historians, and musicians soon made the trek to
    Cordoba.
  • An infrastructure of libraries, hospitals,
    research institutions, and centers of Islamic
    study became commonplace. The Islamic
    intellectual tradition and educational system
    made Spain a world leader in this regard for the
    next 400 years.

Inside the Great Mosque in Cordoba, Spain
25
The Abbasid Caliphate in Baghdad, 750-1258
  • In 750AD, Abo al Abbas was established in Baghdad
    as the first caliph of the Abbasid dynasty, which
    became an important commercial, cultural, and
    famous center of learning in the Middle Ages.
  • It was regarded in the tenth century, the
    intellectual center of the world.
  • As capital of the caliphate, Baghdad was also to
    become the cultural capital of the Islamic world.
    Baghdad became a center of power in the world,
    where Arab and Persian cultures mingled to
    produce a blaze of philosophical, scientific, and
    literary glory.

Abbasid Palace in Baghdad
26
The Abbasid Caliphate in Baghdad, 750-1258
  • During this time, Islamic art flourished, and the
    Sharia (Islamic law was developed).
  • Also, Arab control over Islam was broken. All
    Muslims were seen as equalArabs and non-Arabs.

27
The Crusades
  • From the 11th century on, armies of Christian
    soldiers (spurred on by the Pope) led Crusades to
    liberate the holy land from the Muslims.
  • Indiscriminate massive killings and death
    resulted, mostly by the Christians, with nothing
    really changing. As of 1250, Muslims still
    controlled Palestine.
  • The impression left on the Muslims was that of
    ruthless barbarism, a view that still influences
    Muslim understanding of the West today.

Painting Last Stand of the Knights Templar
28
SS7G8c Compare and contrast the prominent
religions in Southwest Asia (Middle East)
Judaism, Islam, and Christianity.
  • In Spain, Islamic civilization lasted until 1492
    when the Christian monarchs regained power.
  • After the collapse of the Empire, Islam remained
    the dominant religion in most Middle Eastern
    countries and significant pockets throughout
    North Africa and Asia.

29
SS7G8c Compare and contrast the prominent
religions in Southwest Asia (Middle East)
Judaism, Islam, and Christianity.
  • The practice of religious faith is also built on
    the five pillars of Islam
  • Shahadah (declaration of faith) "I bear witness
    that there is no god, but God I bear witness
    that Muhammad is the prophet of God." By reciting
    this, one enters Islamic faith.
  • Salaah (prayer) Muslims are required to pray
    five times a day and facing in the direction of
    Mecca while praying.
  • Zakat (charity) Muslims are required to give
    away a percentage of their earnings to those less
    fortunate, regardless of their religion.
  • Saum (fasting) Muslims fast for one lunar month
    each year, a period called Ramadan. During this
    time, Muslims reflect on their behavior and
    strive to purify their thoughts.
  • Hajj (pilgrimage) If it is financially possible,
    Muslims are required to travel to Mecca once in
    their lifetime.

30
SS7G8c Compare and contrast the prominent
religions in Southwest Asia (Middle East)
Judaism, Islam, and Christianity.
In this political cartoon, why is this mans
question silly?
Hey, Jack!Which way's Mecca?
31
Have you heard of any of these Islamic holidays
or festivals?
  • Ramadan Celebrates the gift of the Qur'an.
    During the month of Ramadan, Muslims must fast
    between sunrise and sunset.
  • Dhu Al-Hijja The month of pilgrimage during
    which all Muslims, at least once in their life,
    should try to make the pilgrimage to Mecca.
  • The first day of Muharram The Islamic New Year
    begins on the day Muhammad left Mecca to travel
    to Medina.

32
What century was that?
  • Judaism was started circa 1900 BCE. Christianity
    gets its start with the birth of Jesus somewhere
    between 4 BCE and 8 BCE thanks to some poor
    accounting by the monk Dionysius in 525 CE.
    Islam starts up circa 610 CE when the angel
    Gabriel appears before Muhammad.
  • In what century did Judaism begin? Remember, how
    many years in a century?
  • About the 20th century BCE.
  • Then what century did Christianity begin?
  • Technically, during the first century BCE, but it
    is commonly accepted as the first century CE.
  • How about Islam?
  • Thats right! 7th century CE.

33
Information and pictures courtesy of the
following sources
  • http//www.abc.net.au/religion/stories/s796551.htm
  • http//www.arcworld.org/faiths.asp?pageID8
  • http//www.arcworld.org/faiths.asp?pageID4
  • http//www.abc.net.au/religion/stories/s817468.htm
  • http//www.abc.net.au/religion/stories/s790151.htm
  • http//www.arcworld.org/faiths.asp?pageID6
  • http//www.guardians.net/egypt/
  • http//www.sacredsites.com/middle_east/israel/jeru
    salem.html
  • http//www.belfastcathedral.org/visitors/virtual-t
    our/item/41/nave-windows-abraham/
  • http//www.wellesley.mec.edu/wms/hamilton/Virtual_
    Synagogue/pages/the-Torah.htm
  • http//www.xerraireart.com/blog/2005/08/
  • http//www.thinkworks.com/history/history8.html
  • http//www.ite.sc.edu/dickey/Lowery/SallyLoweryWeb
    Page.htm
  • https//secure.uscj.org/bookservice/images/books/d
    iaspora1.jpg
  • http//lazerbrody.typepad.com/lazer_beams/prayer_a
    nd_meditation/index.html
  • http//www.heart-cry.com/love/Jesus_ws.jpg
  • http//i.a.cnn.net/cnn/services/presents.opk/after
    .jesus/images/hi_res/ascension_of_jesus.jpg
  • http//www.aarweb.org/syllabus/syllabi/a/altany/rs
    t305/rst305-0201.html
  • http//members.virtualtourist.com/m/6fb6c/49d7d/?f
    rdiryes
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