Greek and Roman Theatre - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – Greek and Roman Theatre PowerPoint presentation | free to view - id: 3d8542-MzAwZ



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

Greek and Roman Theatre

Description:

Greek and Roman Theatre SENECA Roman philosopher, orator, dramatist and statesman Nine extant tragedies, five adapted from Euripides:The Trojan Women, Medea, Oedipus ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:486
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 51
Provided by: facultySc
Category:
Tags: delphi | greek | roman | theatre

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Greek and Roman Theatre


1
Greek and Roman Theatre
2
Greek Theatre
3
Greek Festivals
  • Festivals honored Olympian gods
  • Ritual Competitions
  • Olympics Apollo
  • Athletics
  • Lyric Poetry
  • Drama Dionysos
  • Dithyrambic Choruses
  • Tragedy
  • Comedy

4
Greek Theatre
  • 6th - 4th century bce
  • Originated in festivals honoring Dionysos
  • Tragedy
  • Aeschylus (524-456 bce)
  • Sophocles (496-406 bce)
  • Euripides (480-406 bce)
  • Comedy
  • Old Comedy bawdy and satiric
  • Aristophanes (c. 485-c.385 bce)
  • New Comedy social situations
  • Menander (342-292 bce)

5
Theatre Festivals
  • The Greater Dionysia took place at the end of
    March or the beginning of April
  • Three days were given over to theatrical
    competition.
  • Three playwrights each took part in each contest
  • Each tragedian put on a trilogy in the morning
    and each comic writer put on one comedy in the
    afternoon.
  • The festival at Lenaes,staged at the end of
    January or the beginning of February, placed its
    emphasis on comedy

6
(No Transcript)
7
(No Transcript)
8
Theatre at Epidaurus
9
Curved seats may have aided acoustics
10
ACTORS
  • No tragedy used more than 3 actors
  • All actors were male
  • Costumes included character masks, and, in later
    years, raised boots
  • Acting must have more expressive than realistic

11
Greek TheatreMasks
12
THE CHORUS the voice of the citizens
13
ORIGINS of TRAGEDY
  • Tragedy, derived from the Greek words tragos
    (goat) and ode (song), told a story that was
    intended to teach religious lessons
  • Arose from dithyrambic choruses The dithyramb
    was an ode to Dionysus. It was usually performed
    by a chorus of fifty men dressed as satyrs --
    mythological half-human, half-goat servants of
    Dionysus. They played drums, lyres and flutes,
    and chanted as they danced around a statue of
    Dionysus.
  • In the 6th c. bce Thespis of Attica added an
    actor who interacted with the chorus. This actor
    was called the protagonist.
  • In 534 BC, the ruler of Athens, Pisistratus,
    changed the Dionysian Festivals and instituted
    drama competitions. Thespis won the first
    competition in 534 BC.

14
Dionysus and Satyr
15
Tragic Tetralogies
  • Each tragic dramatist had to present a trilogy
    of tragedies connected narratively or
    dramatically
  • The entire trilogy was performed in one day.
  • The trilogy was followed by a satyr play -
    mocking and lightening the seriousness of the
    tragedies
  • A Tetralogy, then, is a series of 4 plays 3
    tragedies and one satyr play

16
TRAGIC STRUCTURE
PROLOGOS Introductory
scene
PARADOS Entry of chorus
EPISODEION
STASIMON
4-5 alternating scenes and choral odes,
including the
PAEAN a hymn of praise to the gods
EXODOS final scene
EPODE final ode.
17
ARISTOTLESTHREE UNITIES
  • Aristotles On Tragedy is usually considered the
    first piece of Western dramatic criticism. In
    it, he proclaimed that tragedy must follow the 3
    unities
  • UNITY OF TIME one day
  • UNITY OF PLACE one setting
  • UNITY OF ACTION one plot

18
Melpomene, the Muse of Tragedy
19
AESCHYLUS 525-456 bce
  • General in Persian Wars -- fought at Marathon,
    Salamis, Platea
  • Fierce proponent of Athenian ideals
  • The first of the great Athenian dramatists, was
    also the first to express the agony of the
    individual caught in conflict.
  • Credited with adding the second actor
  • Only extant trilogy The Oresteia
  • Agamemnon
  • The Libation Bearers
  • The Eumenides

20
SOPHOCLES 496 - 406 bce
  • Wrote over 100 plays, but only seven survive
  • Credited with adding the third actor
  • Known as actor as well as dramatist
  • Most interested in human dynamics
  • THEBAN PLAYS
  • Oedipus the King
  • Antigone
  • Oedipus at Colonnus

21
EURIPIDES c.480-406 bce
  • The last of the thee great Greek tragic
    dramatists -- 17 plays survive including Medea,
    The Trojan Women, The Bacchae
  • Explored the theme of personal conflict within
    the polis and the depths of the individual
  • Disgust with events of Peloponnesian War
    brought about disillusionment with Athens
  • Men and women bring disaster on themselves
    because their passions overwhelm their reason

22
TRAGIC ACTION
ARETE, ARISTEIA excellence
HUBRIS arrogance
HAMARTIA fatal mistake
PERIPETEIA reversal of fortune
ANAGNORISIS understanding
KATHARSIS
23
Roman mosaic of Aeschylus and Satyr play cast
24
The Oresteia
Orestes Pursued by the Furies (1862)Adolphe-Willi
am Bouguereau (1825-1905)Chrysler Museum of Art,
Norfolk, Virginia
25
The OresteiaThe Curse Blood Grudge
26
Pompeian wall painting Sacrifice of Iphigenia
with Agamemnon and Calchas
27
Clytemnestras Revenge
28
Orestes and Electra at Delphi
29
TheVengeance of Orestes
30
The Erinyes
Orestes Pursued by the Furies (1862)Adolphe-Willi
am Bouguereau (1825-1905)Chrysler Museum of Art,
Norfolk, Virginia
31
The Judgement of Athena the substitution of
trial by jury for vengeance in Athenian law
32
The Eumenides
  • The Furies are made "honorary citizens" of Athens
  • Athena agrees to have her people, the Athenians,
    celebrate the Furies
  • The Furies turn their stygian black cloaks
    inside out to reveal a scarlet inner lining
  • Aeschylus creates a bold theatrical vision of
    peace and divine justice bestowed for its mercy
    upon a deserving land.

33
Ancient Comedy
Scene from Lenaian Festival c. 490-480 bce
34
ORIGINS of GREEKOLD COMEDY
  • Arose from komos songs of revelry, charms to
    avert evil, prayers for fertility sung to
    Dionysus
  • Chorus dressed ludicrously
  • Audience responded to choral komos and were
    gradually admitted into chorus
  • Chorus became two-part group with antiphonal
    song
  • Invention of comic chorus is attributed to
    Susarion
  • Dorian and Sicilian farces were precursors of
    Old Comedy

35
CONVENTIONS of OLD COMEDY
  • Scene set on Athenian street
  • Events seldom occur they are merely talked
    about
  • Masks and fantastic costumes
  • Satiric of contemporary events and public
    figures
  • Bawdy

36
Scene from Aristophanes The Frogs
37
(No Transcript)
38
COMIC STRUCTURE
Prologos introductory scene
Parados entry of 24 member chorus dressed in
fantastic costume
Agon argument just prior to the agon, the
leader of the chorus always asks one contender to
present his argument, and it is this contender
who always loses
Parabasis choruss great song
4-5 alternating scenes and choral odes
illustrating the outcome of the agon
Episodeion Stasimon
Komos final choral song and exit in wild revelry
39
ARISTOPHANESc. 448 - 380 BCE
  • 30 plays 11 extant 6 first prizes
  • Plays include
  • Clouds
  • Wasps
  • Birds
  • Lysistrata
  • Frogs
  • Critiques of Euripides Socrates reactionary
    conservative social critic
  • Plato's epitaph for Aristophanes The Graces,
    seeking a shrine that could not fall, discovered
    the soul of Aristophanes.

40
The Birds
41
New Comedy
  • By 317 BC, a new form had evolved that resembled
    modern farces mistaken identities, ironic
    situations, ordinary characters and wit.
  • Basic plot Boy meets girl, complications arise,
    boy gets girl ends with betrothal or marriage.
  • 5 act structure acts divided by interludes
    performed by the chorus
  • Stock characters young lovers, parasite,
    lecherous old men, clever servants, etc.
  • Social rather than political satire

42
(No Transcript)
43
Terracotta figurines of New Comedy actors
44
MENANDER 342-292 bce
  • 1905 a manuscript was discovered in Cairo that
    contained pieces of five Menander plays, and in
    1957 a complete play, Diskolos (The Grouch, 317
    BC), was unearthed in Egypt.
  • Menanders comedy with its emphasis on mistaken
    identity, romance and situational humor, became
    the model for subsequent comedy, from the Romans
    to Shakespeare to Broadway.

45
Mosaic of Menanders Samia
46
  • Parts of Menanders comedies found their way
    into plays by
  • Roman playwrights Plautus and Terence
  • Shakespeare's Comedy of Errors
  • Stephen Sondheim's A Funny Thing Happened on the
    Way to the Forum.

47
Roman Theatre
48
ROMAN THEATRE
  • Drama flourished under the Republic but declined
    into variety entertainment under the Empire
  • Roman festivals Held in honor of the gods, but
    much less religious than in Greece
  • Ludi Romani Became theatrical in 364 B.C. Held
    in September (the autumn)and honored Jupiter. By
    240 B.C., both comedy and tragedy were performed.
  • Five others Ludi Florales (April), Plebeii
    (November), Apollinares (July), Megalenses
    (April), Cereales (no particular season).

49
Under the Empire, these festivals afforded "bread
and circuses" to the masses many performances.
including a series of plays or events. Acting
troupes (perhaps several a day) put on theatre
events.
50
ROMAN THEATRE
  • Encompassed more than drama acrobatics,
    gladiators, jugglers, athletics, chariots races,
    naumachia (sea battles), boxing, venationes
    (animal fights)
  • Entertainment tended to be grandiose,
    sentimental, diversionary
  • Actors / performers were called histriones

Fresco with theatre masks
51
INFLUENCES on Roman Theatre
  • Greek Drama borrowed plots and stories less
    philosophical
  • Etruscan influences emphasized circus-like
    elements
  • Fabula Atellana Atellan farces (town near
    Naples).
  • Short improvised farces, with stock characters,
    similar costumes and masks
  • based on domestic life or mythology burlesqued,
    parodied
  • popular during the 1st century B.C., then
    declined
  • may have influenced commedia dell Arte

52
(No Transcript)
53
Roman Theatre Design
  • First permanent Roman theatre built 54 ce (100
    years after the last surviving comedy)So
    permanent structures came from periods after
    significant writing
  • More that 100 permanent theatre structures by
    550 ce.
  • Built on level ground with stadium-style seating
    (audience raised)
  • Could seat 10-15,000 people
  • Awning over the audience to protect them from
    the sun
  • During the Empire around 78 ce, cooling system
    installed air blowing over streams of water

54
Artists Impression of the Roman Theatre of
Verulamium Britaincirca CE 180, excavated in
1847by Alan Sorrell
55
Roman Theatre Design
  • Skene becomes scaena joined with audience to
    form one architectural unit
  • S tages raised to five feet, 20-40 feet deep,
    100-300 feet long,
  • 3-5 doors in rear wall and at least one in the
    wings
  • scaena frons façade of the stage house had
    columns, niches, porticoes, statues painted
  • stage was covered with a roof
  • trap doors were common
  • Orchestra becomes half-circle
  • Paradoi become vomitorium into orchestra and
    audience

56
Theatre of Marcellus (drawing)
57
Theatre of Pompeii (model)
58
TYPES of Roman Theatre
  • Roman Drama 2nd c. bc - 4th c. ce
  • Livius Andronicus 240 204 B.C. wrote,
    translated, or adapted comedies and tragedies,
    the first important works in Latin. Little is
    known, but he seems to have been best at tragedy.
  • Gnaeus Naevius 270-201 B.C. excelled at comedy,
    but wrote both
  • Both helped to "Romanize" the drama by
    introducing Roman allusions into the Greek
    originals and using Roman stories.

59
(No Transcript)
60
ROMAN COMEDY
  • Chorus was abandoned
  • No act or scene divisions
  • Songs
  • Everyday domestic affairs Boy meets girl,
    complications, boy gets girl marriage
  • Action placed in the street
  • Bawdy
  • Stock characters
  • Only two playwrights' material survives
  • Plautus (c. 254-184 bce)
  • Terence (195 or 185-159 bce)

61
Thalia,the Muse Of Comedy
62
STOCK CHARACTERS
  • Senex old man in authority
  • Pappas foolish old man
  • Bucco braggart, boisterous
  • Miles gloriosus braggart soldier
  • Dossenus swindler, drunk, hunchback
  • Shrew sharp-tongued woman
  • Courtesan
  • Clever servant
  • Young Lovers

63
PLAUTUS Titus Maccius Plautus c. 254-184 B.C.E.
  • 21 extant plays including Pot of Gold, The
    Menaechmi, Braggart Warrior -- probably between
    205-184 B.C.
  • All based on Greek New Comedies
  • Added Roman allusions, Latin dialog, varied
    poetic meters, witty jokes
  • Some techniques
  • Stychomythia dialog with short lines, like a
    tennis match
  • Slapstick
  • Songs

64
TERENCE Publius Terenius Afer (195 or 185-159
B.C.E.)
  • Born in Carthage, came to Rome as a boy slave,
    educated and freed
  • The Afer in his name may indicate that he was an
    African, and therefore he may have been the first
    major black playwright in western theater.
  • Six plays, all of which surviveincluding The
    Brothers, Mother-in-Law, etc.
  • More complex plots combined stories from Greek
    originals.
  • Character and double-plots were his forte
    contrasts in human behavior
  • Less boisterous than Plautus, less episodic,
    more elegant language.
  • Less popular than Plautus.

65
Roman Tragedy
  • None survive from the early period, and only one
    playwright from the later period Seneca
  • 5 act structure later adopted by Elizabethans
  • Elaborate speeches -- rhetorical influence
  • Interest in morality expressed in sententiae
    (short pithy generalizations about the human
    condition)

Medea, Herculaneum c. 70 bce
66
SENECA
  • Roman philosopher, orator, dramatist and
    statesman
  • Nine extant tragedies, five adapted from
    EuripidesThe Trojan Women, Medea, Oedipus,
    Agamemnon
  • Suicide in 65 A.D. at the orders of Nero
  • Seneca had a strong effect on later dramatists.
  • Uncertain whether Seneca's plays were actually
    performed or simply intended for recitation
    before a small private audience closet dramas

Lucius Annaeus Seneca (5 or 4 B.C.E. 65 C.E.)
67
Contemporary performance of Medea
68
Senecan Conventions
  • Violence and horror onstage (Jocasta rips open
    her womb, for example)
  • Characters dominated by a single passion such
    as revenge drives them to doom known as
    Senecan Revenge tragedies during Renaissance.
  • Technical devices
  • Soliloquies and asides
  • Confidants take the place of the chorus
  • Ghosts interest in supernatural and human
    connections

69
Roman Spectacle
  • Gladiatorial combats
  • Chariot races
  • Naumachia Naval battles in a flooded Coliseum
  • Real-life theatricals
  • Decadent, violent and immoral
  • All theatrical events banned by Church when Rome
    became Christianized

70
The End
About PowerShow.com