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Chapter 1 Introduction to Multimedia Mr. Nael A. Aburas


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Title: Chapter 1 Introduction to Multimedia Mr. Nael A. Aburas

Chapter 1Introduction to Multimedia
  • Mr. Nael A. Aburas

  • What is Multimedia?
  • Where to use multimedia?
  • Multimedia and Hypermedia
  • World Wide Web
  • Overview of Multimedia Software Tools

1.1 What is Multimedia?
  • When different people mention the term
    multimedia, they often have quite different, or
    even opposing, viewpoints.
  • A PC vendor a PC that has sound capability, a
    DVD-ROM drive, and perhaps the superiority of
    multimedia-enabled microprocessors that
    understand additional multimedia instructions.
  • A consumer entertainment vendor interactive
    cable TV with hundreds of digital channels
    available, or a cable TV-like service delivered
    over a high-speed Internet connection.
  • A Computer Science (CS) student applications
    that use multiple modalities, including text,
    images, drawings (graphics), animation, video,
    sound including speech, and interactivity.
  • Multimedia and Computer Science
  • Graphics, HCI, visualization, data compression,
    graph theory, networking, database systems.
    Multimedia and Hypermedia, all of these have
    important contributions to make in multimedia at
    the present time.

1.1 What is Multimedia?
  • Multimedia is everything you can hear or see
    texts, books, pictures, music, sounds, CDs,
    videos, DVDs, Records, Films, and more.
  • Multimedia is the design, implementation,
    manipulation, storing, and proper delivery of
    various types of media to interested users
  • Multimedia is divided into three major types
    interactive multimedia where users control the
    delivery of the integrated elements, hypermedia
    where users are presented with navigational
    capabilities, and liner multimedia such as TV or
    radio where users have no control over the flow
    of information and have no interaction.

Components of Multimedia
  • Multimedia involves multiple modalities of text,
    audio, images, drawings, animation, and video.
  • Examples of how these modalities are put to use
  • Video conferencing.
  • Distributed lectures for higher education.
  • Co-operative work environments, that allow
    business people to edit a shared document, or
    school children to share a single game.
  • Searching in (very) large video and image
    databases for target visual objects.
  • Augmented reality placing real-appearing
    computer graphics and video objects into scenes.

Components of Multimedia
  • Making multimedia components editable, allow the
    user side to decide what components, video,
    graphics, etc., are actually viewed allow the
    client to move components around or delete them.
  • Using voice-recognition to build an interactive
    environment, say a kitchen-wall web browser.

Where to use multimedia?
  • Education
  • Broadcasting Entertainment
  • Research Development
  • Health

  • Computer Aided Learning
  • To assist student through simulation for better
  • Virtual Campus
  • Learning takes place in a virtual classroom
    using video conferencing and online lecture so
    that students all around the world can attend
  • Instructor support.
  • Resource materials for instructors.

Broadcasting Entertainment
  • Electronic catalogue
  • Product features and descriptions are advertises
    through web, CD and mobile devices.
  • On-demand News or movies
  • News, Movies and TV series can be watched on
    demand through web and mobile devices

Broadcasting Entertainment
  • 3D or animation movies
  • Movies created through advance 3D technology
    and animation techniques.
  • Video Games
  • Advances in the field of multimedia have led
    to more attractive video and computer games being
    available now in the consumer market.

Broadcasting Entertainment
  • Virtual Reality
  • Virtual Reality refers to the use of a computer
    to immerse the user into a simulated experience
    that it seems real. Virtual Reality systems often
    use special hardware to enhance the experience,
    including visual displays.

Benefits of using multimedia in software
  • Ease of use
  • User friendly, increase users effectiveness.
  • Intuitive Interface
  • Allows user to determine functions of an
    application by their own intuition.
  • Immersive Experience
  • Software application takes over the
  • entire computer screen, allows user to
  • focus on application.

Benefits of using multimedia in software
  • Better understanding
  • Simultaneous presentation of different media
    provides richer broader range of information.
  • Cost effectiveness
  • Less training, less technical support.

Evaluating Multimedia Products
  • Evaluation can be done from two perspectives

Users perspective
  • Subject /content
  • Area of interest
  • Entertainment value multimedia game and sports
    related products
  • Education, training or learning objectives

Users perspective
  • Platform (Hardware and Software)
  • Focus on what type of equipment the user has, and
    if it is compatible with a specific product.
  • Criteria for evaluation
  • Hardware platforms
  • Computer processor speed and data bus
  • Memory sizing

Users perspective
  • Usability
  • Usability means that user can apply, learn, use
    the program efficiently.
  • The key criteria here are
  • Learning/training time how long dose it take to
    learn how to use the product.
  • Error rate how often mistakes made by the users
    and how severe is the mistake?
  • Task Time how long does it take to accomplish a
  • Retention how difficult is for the user to
    operate and how attractive is the product to use

Users perspective
  • Cost
  • The cost can be the first or the last factor
    considered by many people. Generally, users are
    willing to spend depending on how much is gained.

Developers Perspective
  • Developer must evaluate and aim to improve their
    product better than the last.
  • From the developers perspective, evaluation will
  • Content
  • Performance
  • Delivery
  • interface

Developers Perspective
  • Content
  • Product domain or subject matter-is the material
    useful for the user.
  • Message How does the product communicate the
    information? Will the users understand it?
  • Comparison to comparable products

Developers Perspective
  • Performance
  • Developer must consider that general users have
    equipment that has much less capabilities, so
    products should always be tested on a range of
    platforms before they are released.
  • Graphics, audio and video presentation should be
    use wisely not to slow down the application for
    slower machine

Developers Perspective
  • Delivery
  • Delivery means how fast user is able to use the
    product depending on the speed of the
    installation procedure, the configuration and
  • The instructions should be straightforward, easy
    to configure and documentation are through and

Developers Perspective
  • Interface
  • Ease-of-use for novice users
  • Depth for experience or expert users
  • Navigation features all work and are all useful
    and user-friendly

Multimedia Research Topics and Projects
  • To the computer science researcher, multimedia
    consists of a wide variety of topics
  • Multimedia processing and coding multimedia
    content analysis, content-based multimedia
    retrieval, multimedia security, audio/image/video
    processing, compression, etc.
  • Multimedia system support and networking
    network protocols, Internet, operating systems,
    servers and clients, quality of service (QoS),
    and databases.
  • Multimedia tools, end-systems and applications
    hypermedia systems, user interfaces, authoring

Current Multimedia Projects
  • Many exciting research projects are currently
    underway. Here are a few of them
  • Camera-based object tracking technology tracking
    of the control objects provides user control of
    the process.
  • Multiple views allowing photo-realistic
    (video-quality) synthesis of virtual actors from
    several cameras or from a single camera under
    differing lighting.
  • Digital fashion aims to develop smart clothing
    that can communicate with other such enhanced
    clothing using wireless communication.

Current Multimedia Projects
  • Electronic Housecall system an initiative for
    providing interactive health monitoring services
    to patients in their homes
  • Augmented Interaction applications used to
    develop interfaces between real and virtual
    humans for tasks such as augmented storytelling.

1.2 Multimedia and Hypermedia
  • History of Multimedia
  • Newspaper perhaps the first mass communication
    medium, uses text, graphics, and images.
  • Motion pictures conceived of in 1830s in order
    to observe motion too rapid for perception by the
    human eye.
  • Wireless radio transmission Guglielmo Marconi,
    at Pontecchio, Italy, in 1895.
  • Television the new medium for the 20th century,
    established video as a commonly available medium
    and has since changed the world of mass

1.2 Multimedia and Hypermedia
  • The connection between computers and ideas about
    multimedia covers what is actually only a short
  • 1969 Nelson and van Dam at Brown University
    created an early hypertext editor called FRESS.
  • 1989 Tim Berners-Lee proposed the World Wide
  • 1991 MPEG-1 was approved as an international
    standard for digital video led to the newer
    standards, MPEG-2, MPEG-4, and further MPEGs in
    the 1990s.
  • 1991 The introduction of PDAs in 1991 began a
    new period in the use of computers in multimedia.
  • 1992 JPEG was accepted as the international
    standard for digital image compression led to
    the new JPEG2000 standard

1.2 Multimedia and Hypermedia
  • 1994 Jim Clark and Marc Andreessen created the
    Netscape program.
  • 1995 The JAVA language was created for
    platform-independent application development.
  • 1996 DVD video was introduced high quality
    full-length movies were distributed on a single
  • 1998 XML 1.0 was announced as a W3C
  • 1998 Hand-held MP3 devices first made inroads
    into consumerist tastes in the fall of 1998, with
    the introduction of devices holding 32MB of flash
  • 2000 WWW size was estimated at over 1 billion

Hypermedia and Multimedia
  • A hypertext system meant to be read nonlinearly,
    by following links that point to other parts of
    the document, or to other documents (Fig. 1.1)
  • HyperMedia not constrained to be text-based,
    can include other media, e.g., graphics, images,
    and especially the continuous media sound and
  • The World Wide Web (WWW) the best example of a
    hypermedia application.

Hypermedia and Multimedia
Hypermedia and Multimedia
  • Examples of typical present multimedia
    applications include
  • Digital video editing and production systems.
  • Electronic newspapers/magazines.
  • World Wide Web.
  • On-line reference works e.g. encyclopedia,
    games, etc.
  • Home shopping.
  • Interactive TV.
  • Multimedia courseware.
  • Video conferencing.
  • Video-on-demand.
  • Interactive movies.

1.3 World Wide Web
  • The W3C (World Wide Web Consortium) has listed
    the following goals for the WWW
  • Universal access of web resources (by everyone
  • Effectiveness of navigating available
  • Responsible use of posted material.

1.4 Overview of Multimedia Software Tools
  • The categories of software tools briefly examined
    here are
  • Digital Audio
  • Graphics and Image Editing
  • Video Editing
  • Animation
  • Multimedia Authoring

Digital Audio
  • Digital Audio tools deal with accessing and
    editing the actual sampled sounds that make up
  • Sound Forge a sophisticated PC-based program for
    editing audioWAV files.
  • Cool Edit a very powerful and popular digital
    audio toolkit emulates a professional audio
    studio sound file editing including digital
    signal processing effects.

Graphics and Image Editing
  • Adobe Photoshop the standard in a graphics,
    image processing and manipulation tool.
  • Allows layers of images, graphics, and text that
    can be separately manipulated for maximum
  • Filter factory permits creation of sophisticated
    lighting-effects filters.
  • Macromedia Fireworks software for making
    graphics specifically for the web.
  • Macromedia Freehand a text and web graphics
    editing tool that supports many bitmap formats
    such as GIF, PNG, and JPEG.
  • Adobe Illustrator a powerful publishing tool
    from Adobe. Uses vector graphics graphics can be
    exported to Web.

Video Editing
  • Adobe Premiere an intuitive, simple video
    editing tool for nonlinear editing, i.e., putting
    video clips into any order
  • Video and audio are arranged in tracks.
  • Provides a large number of video and audio
    tracks, superimpositions and virtual clips.
  • A large library of built-in transitions, filters
    and motions for clips allows easy creation of
    effective multimedia productions with little
  • Adobe After Effects a powerful video editing
    tool that enables users to add and change
    existing movies. Can add many effects lighting,
    shadows, motion blurring layers.
  • Final Cut Pro a video editing tool by Apple
    Macintosh only.

  • Rendering Tools
  • 3D Studio Max rendering tool that includes a
    number of very high-end professional tools for
    character animation, game development, and visual
    effects production.
  • Softimage XSI a powerful modeling, animation,
    and rendering package used for animation and
    special effects in films and games.
  • Maya competing product to Softimage as well, it
    is a complete modeling package.
  • GIF Animation Packages a simpler approach to
    animation, allows very quick development of
    effective small animations for the web.

Multimedia Authoring
  • Macromedia Flash allows users to create
    interactive movies by using the score metaphor,
    i.e., a timeline arranged in parallel event
  • Macromedia Director uses a movie metaphor to
    create interactive presentations very powerful
    and includes a built-in scripting language,
    Lingo, that allows creation of complex
    interactive movies.

HTML (Hypertext Markup Language)
  • HTML a language for publishing Hypermedia on the
    World Wide Web.
  • A traditional hypertext documents is similar to a
    text file.
  • The different is that a hypertext document also
    contains special symbols called tags

HTML (Hypertext Markup Language)
  • HTML uses tags to describe document elements.
  • The tags are in the format lttoken paramsgt to
    define the start point of a document element and
    lt/tokengt to define the end of the element.
  • Some elements have only inline parameters and
    dont require ending tags.
  • The most two important tags are HEAD and BODY.
  • The head describes document definitions (page
    title, meta-information)
  • Body part describes the document structure and

Simple HTML page
  • ltHTMLgt
  • ltHEADgt
  • ltTITLEgt
  • A sample web page
  • lt/TITLEgt
  • lt/HEADgt
  • ltBODYgt
  • ltPgt
  • Here you can put any text you like, since this
    is a paragraph element.
  • lt/Pgt
  • lt/BODYgt
  • lt/HTMLgt

Stages of multimedia project
  • Planning
  • Design and production
  • Testing
  • Delivery

  • The needs of a project are analyzed by outlining
    its messages and objectives.
  • A plan that outlines the required multimedia
    expertise is prepared.
  • A graphic template, the structure, and
    navigational system are developed.
  • A time estimate and a budget are prepared.
  • A short prototype or proof-of-concept is prepared

Design and production
  • The planned tasks are performed to create a
    finished product.
  • The product is revised, based on the continuous
    feedback received from the client

Testing delivery
  • Testing
  • The program is tested to ensure that it meets the
    objectives of the project, works on the proposed
    delivery platforms, and meets the client
  • Delivery
  • The final project is packaged and delivered to
    the end user

Roles and responsibilities in a multimedia team.
  • The project manager is responsible for
  • The overall development, implementation, and
    day-to-day operations of the project.
  • The design and management of a project.
  • Understanding the strengths and limitations of
    hardware and software.
  • Ensuring people skills and organizational skills.
  • Conveying information between the team and the

Roles and responsibilities in a multimedia team.
  • Multimedia designer - This team consists of
  • Graphics designers, animators, and image
    processing specialists who deal with visuals,
    thereby making the project appealing and
  • Instructional designers, who make sure that the
    subject matter is presented clearly for the
    target audience.
  • Interface designers, who devise the navigational
    pathways and content maps.
  • Information designers, who structure content,
    determine user pathways and feedback, and select
    presentation media.
  • Building a user-friendly interface.

Roles and responsibilities in a multimedia team.
  • A multimedia writer is responsible for
  • Writing proposals and test screens.
  • Scripting voice-overs and actors' narrations