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POETRY

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Title: POETRY


1
POETRY
  • Poetry and Prose. Sound Patterning. Prosody.
    Rhymes. Stanza Forms

2
Poetry and Verse
  • Poetry is one of the subcategories of literature
    along
  • with drama and fiction. In this sense by poetry
    lyric
  • poetry is meant.
  • Metrical poetry, i.e. verse, differs from prose
    in
  • that the former is rhythmically organized speech
  • down to the level of syllables, whereas the
    latter is
  • either orderless or follows ordering patterns
    other
  • than syllabic principles.

3
Rhythm
  • Prose rhythm may use repetitions, parallels of
  • words, syntactical units, grammar structures,
  • sentence length, semantic structures.
  • Prose rhythm does not follow any preset
  • pattern.

4
Jane Austen Pride and Prejudice(1813)from
Chapter 1
  • IT is a truth universally acknowledged, that a
    single man in
  • possession of a good fortune must be in want of a
    wife.
  • However little known the feelings or views of
    such a man may
  • be on his first entering a neighbourhood, this
    truth is so well
  • fixed in the minds of the surrounding families,
    that he is
  • considered as the rightful property of some one
    or other of
  • their daughters.
  • My dear Mr. Bennet,'' said his lady to him one
    day, have you
  • heard that Netherfield Park is let at last?''

5
Austen cont.
  • Mr. Bennet replied that he had not.
  • But it is,'' returned she for Mrs. Long has
    just been here,
  • and she told me all about it.''
  • Mr. Bennet made no answer.
  • Do not you want to know who has taken it?'
    cried his wife
  • impatiently.
  • You want to tell me, and I have no objection to
    hearing it.''
  • This was invitation enough.

6
Austen cont.
  • Why, my dear, you must know, Mrs. Long says
    that
  • Netherfield is taken by a young man of large
    fortune from the
  • north of England that he came down on Monday in
    a chaise
  • and four to see the place, and was so much
    delighted with it
  • that he agreed with Mr. Morris immediately that
    he is to take
  • Possession before Michaelmas, and some of his
    servants are to
  • be in the house by the end of next week.''
  • What is his name?''
  • Bingley.''
  • Is he married or single?''
  • Oh! single, my dear, to be sure! A single man
    of large fortune
  • four or five thousand a year. What a fine thing
    for our girls!''

7
GenesisKing James Bible
  • 1 In the beginning God created the heaven and
    the earth.
  • 2 And the earth was without form, and void and
    darkness was
  • upon the face of the deep. And the Spirit of God
    moved upon
  • the face of the waters.
  • 3 And God said, Let there be light and there
    was light.
  • 4 And God saw the light, that it was good and
    God divided the
  • light from the darkness.
  • 5 And God called the light Day, and the darkness
    he called
  • Night. And the evening and the morning were the
    first day.

8
Genesis cont.
  • 6 And God said, Let there be a firmament in the
    midst of the
  • waters, and let it divide the waters from the
    waters.
  • 7 And God made the firmament, and divided the
    waters which
  • were under the firmament from the waters which
    were above
  • the firmament and it was so.
  • 8 And God called the firmament Heaven. And the
    evening and
  • the morning were the second day.
  • 9 And God said, Let the waters under the heaven
    be gathered
  • together unto one place, and let the dry land
    appear and it
  • was so.

9
Genesis cont.
  • 10 And God called the dry land Earth and the
    gathering
  • together of the waters called he Seas and God
    saw that it was
  • good.
  • 11 And God said, Let the earth bring forth
    grass, the herb
  • yielding seed, and the fruit tree yielding fruit
    after
  • his kind, whose seed is in itself, upon the
    earth and it was so.
  • 12 And the earth brought forth grass, and herb
    yielding seed
  • after his kind, and the tree yielding fruit,
    whose seed was in
  • itself, after his kind and God saw that it was
    good.

10
Verse Rhythm
  • Verse is a patterned succession of syllables
  • some are strongly emphasized, some are not.
  • Rhythms of poetry, compared with prose
  • rhythms, are stylized and artificial, they fall
    into
  • patterns that are more repetitive and
  • predictable.
  • Poetic rhythms call attention to themselves.

11
Poetic Rhythm
  • Literature coded text
  • Poetic rhythm concentration and intensity
  • Primordial functions of poetry
  • naming
  • possession
  • healing
  • Incantatory rhythms, verse spells, healing charms
  • (an incantation or enchantment is a charm or
    spell
  • created using words)

12
An Old English medical verse-spellagainst poison
  • This herb is called Stime it grew on a stone,
  • It resists poison, it fights pain.
  • It is called harsh, it fights against poison.
  • This is the herb that strove against the snake
  • This has strength against poison, this has
    strength
  • against infection,
  • This has strength against the foe who fares
    through
  • the land.
  • (Anglo-Saxon Poetry. Sel. and trans. by R. K.
    Gordon, rev. ed., London J. M. Dent and Sons,
    1954, 93)

13
Verse Rhythm
  • Rhythm is based on orderly repetition.
  • Poetic rhythm is based on the regular
  • alternation of certain syllabic features of the
  • text.

14
SYLLABLE
  • A syllable commonly consists of a vocalic peak,
    which may be accompanied by a consonantal onset
    or coda. In some languages, every syllabic peak
    is indeed a vowel. But other sounds can also form
    the nucleus of a syllable. In English, this
    generally happens where a word ends in an
    unstressed syllable containing a nasal or lateral
    consonant.
  • CV / CVC / VC /CCV / CCVC / etc.
  • Diphtongs, triphtongs vowel sequences in which
    two or three components can be heard but which
    none the less count as a single vowel
  • BUT
  • one syllable hire, lyre, flour, cowered
  • two syllables higher, liar, flower, coward

15
Prosody(from Wikipedia)
  • In poetry, meter (metre in British English) is
    the basic
  • rhythmic structure of a verse or lines in verse.
    Many
  • traditional verse forms prescribe a specific
    verse meter, or
  • a certain set of meters alternating in a
    particular order.
  • The study of meters and forms of versification is
    known as
  • prosody. (Within linguistics, "prosody" is used
    in a more
  • general sense that includes not only poetical
    meter but also
  • the rhythmic aspects of prose, whether formal or
    informal,
  • which vary from language to language, and
    sometimes
  • between poetic traditions.)

16
Prosody
  • Prosodic features of speech
  • tone
  • stress / beat /accent
  • intonation
  • Chief phonetic correlates
  • pitch
  • duration
  • loudness

17
Pitch
  • is widely regarded in English as the most
  • salient determinant of prominence.
  • When a syllable or a word is perceived as
  • stressed or emphasized, it is pitch height or
    a
  • change of pitch, more than length or loudness,
  • that is likely to be mainly responsible.

18
Duration
  • The duration of syllables depends on both
  • segment type and the surrounding phonetic
  • context.
  • Duration is also constrained by biomechanical
  • factors part of the reason why the vowel in
  • English bat, for example, tends to be relatively
  • long is that the jaw has to move further than in
  • words like bit or bet.

19
Stress / Beat / Accent
  • Stress commonly is a conventional label for the
  • overall prominence of certain syllables relative
  • to others within a linguistic system.
  • In this sense, stress does not correlate simply
  • with loudness, but represents the total effect
  • of factors such as pitch, loudness and duration.

20
Stress in English
  • English, sometimes described as a stress
  • timed language, makes a relatively large
  • difference between stressed and
  • unstressed syllables, in such a way that
  • stressed syllables are generally much longer
  • than unstressed.

21
Accent
  • The term ACCENT is sometimes used loosely to
  • mean stress, referring to prominence in a
  • general way or more specifically to the
  • emphasis placed on certain syllables.
  • The term accent is also used to refer to
  • relative prominence within longer utterances.

22
Stress / Accent
  • The terms STRESS and ACCENT in particular are
  • notoriously ambiguous, and it would be
  • misleading to suggest that there are standard
  • definitions.

23
Beat
  • Beat denote stress with metrical relevance, i.e.
  • stressed syllables which count in metrical lines
  • are called beats.

24
English Versification
  • English poetic rhythm is based on the regular
    alternation of
  • stressed and unstressed syllables. (Duration and
    pitch are no
  • metre creating features.)
  • Stresses are that of words stresses and marked in
    dictionaries
  • by as in synecdoche /s?n?kd?k?/.
  • Scansion is the act of determining and
    graphically representing
  • the metrical character of a line of verse.
  • Stressed syllables are marked by the symbols / or
    .
  • Unstressed syllables /slacks are marked by the
    symbol X.

25
Scansion
  • When I consider how my light is spent
  • X / X / X / X / X
    /
  • (Milton)
  • Whose woods these are I think I know
  • X / X / X / X /
  • (Frost)
  • When my mother died I was very young
  • X X / X / X X / X
    /
  • (Blake)

26
Scansion
  • Down by the salley gardens my love and I did
    meet
  • X / X / X / X X /
    X / X /
  • (Yeats)
  • is a division marker or bar between repeated
    units of a line broken into sections by a caesura

27
Rhythm and Metre
  • Rhythm
  • The rhythmic structure of a poem is formed by
    repeating a
  • basic rhythmical unit of stressed and unstressed
    syllables
  • Metre
  • Metre grows out of the linguistic rhythms of the
    words, it is the
  • design formed by the rhythms, it is an abstract
    pattern.
  • The general metre and the actual rhythm of a
    specific line are
  • not always identical.

28
Metrical Systems in English1 Accentual/Stressed
Metre
  • In accentual/stressed metre the number of
  • accents/stressed syllables is fixed in a line.
  • However the number of unstressed syllables
  • is variable. In order to define the actual form
  • you have to count the number of accents per
  • line.

29
Metrical Systems in English1 Accentual/Stressed
Metre
  • Old English (Anglo-Saxon) Alliterative
    Versification
  • The basic metrical feature of the line is four
    strong stresses
  • / / / /
  • The spaces before and between the stress can be
    occupied by
  • zero, one, two or three syllables, e.g.
  • X / X X / X X X / /, or X X / X / / X X / X, etc.
  • Each full line is divided into two half-lines
    (hemistichs) by a
  • Caesura
  • X X / X X / X X / X X /

30
Anglo-Saxon Alliterative Versification cont.
  • The distinctive feature of this metrical form is
    its alliteration.
  • Alliteration is a figure speech, meaning the
    repetition of
  • consonant or vowel sounds at the beginning of
    words or
  • stressed syllables.
  • It is a very old device which often help create
    onomatopoeic
  • effects, i.e. effects imitating sounds.
  • Alliteration is a key organizing principle in
    Anglo-Saxon verse.

31
Alliteration
  • Alliteration is the principal binding agent of
    Old
  • English poetry.
  • Two syllables alliterate when they begin with
  • the same sound all vowels alliterate together,
  • but the consonant clusters st-, sp- and sc- are
  • treated as separate sounds (so st- does not
  • alliterate with s- or sp-).

32
Anglo-Saxon Alliterative Versification cont.
  • Formal requirements
  • A long-line is divided into two half-lines.
    Half-lines are also known as verses or hemistichs
  • A heavy pause, or cæsura, separates the two
    half-lines.
  • Each half-line has two strongly stressed
    syllables.
  • The first lift in the second half-line (i.e. the
    third stress) is always alliterated with either
    or both stressed syllables in the first
    half-line.
  • The second stress in the second half-line, i.e.
    the fourth stress does not alliterate.

33
Anglo-Saxon Alliterative Versification cont.
  • Thus there are the following variants
  • (A marks an alliterating syllable, X marks a
    non-alliterating
  • syllable)
  • A A A X
  • A X A X
  • X A A X

34
Beowulf Manuscript
  • Beowulf is the conventional title of an Old
    English
  • heroic epic poem consisting of 3182 alliterative
    long
  • lines.
  • Its composition by an anonymous Anglo-Saxon poet
    is
  • dated between the 8th and the early 11th century.
  • The poem appears in what is today called the
    Beowulf
  • manuscript or Nowell Codex (British Library MS
  • Cotton Vitellius A.xv), along with other works.

The poem is known only from this single
35
Beowulf Manuscript
36
Examples from Beowulf(translated by Michael
Alexander
  • 1. It is a sorrow in spirit for me to say to any
    man
  • A A
    A X
  • 2. Then spoke Beowulf, son of Edgeheow
  • A X
    A X
  • 3. A boat with a ringed neck rode in the haven
  • X A
    A X

37
Further examples
  • Alliterative stress within polisyllabic word
  • It was not remarked then if a man looked
  • X A
    A X
  • Vowel alliteration
  • To encompass evil, an enemy from hell
  • X A A
    X
  • The ample eaves adorned with gold
  • A A A
    X

38
Twentieth century example - Ezra Pound Canto
I(A free translation of the opening of Odyssey
11)
  • We set up mast and sail on that swart ship,
  • A A
    A X
  • Bore sheep aboard her, and our bodies also
  • A A
    A X
  • Heavy with weeping, so winds from sternward
  • X A
    A X
  • Bore us out onward with bellying canvas,
  • A X
    A X
  • Circe's this craft, the trim-coifed goddess.
  • A (?) A
    A X

39
Ezra Pound(1885-1972)
40
Significance of Sound Patterning
  • Cohesive and mnemonic function
  • Primordial and bardic poetry was transmitted
  • orally, repetitive formal components bound words
  • together and thus enhanced memorability.
  • The metrical frame creates a musical body for the
  • poem it may also contribute to a level of sound
  • symbolism, onomatopoeia, onomatopoeic words.

41
Stress-VerseNative Metre / Folk Metre
  • Sing a song of sixpence,
  • A pocket full of rye
  • Four and twenty blackbirds
  • Baked in a pie.
  • When the pie was opened,
  • They all began to sing.
  • Now, wasn't that a dainty dish
  • To set before the King?

42
Sixpence cont.
  • Sing a song of sixpence,
  • / /
  • A pocket full of rye
  • / /
  • Four and twenty blackbirds
  • / /
  • Baked in a pie.
  • / /
  • Or

43
Sixpence cont.
  • Sing a song of sixpence,
  • / / /
  • A pocket full of rye
  • / / (p)
  • Four and twenty blackbirds
  • / / /
  • Baked in a pie.
  • / / (p)
  • (p) pause

44
Stress-VerseBallad Metre
  • Ballad metre is a form of poetry that
  • alternates lines of four and three beats, often
    in
  • quatrains, rhymed abab.
  • The anonymous poem Sir Patrick Spens
  • demonstrates this well.
  • The alternating sequence of four and three
  • stresses is called common measure when used
  • for hymns.

45
Sir Patrick Spens
  • The king sits in Dumfermline town.
  • / / / /
  • Drinking the blude-red wine O
  • / / /
  • 'O whare will I get a skeely skipper,
  • / / / /
  • To sail this new ship of mine?'
  • / / /

46
Dunfermline Palace RuinDunfermline was
Scotlands capital in the 11th century
47
Foot-VerseSyllable-Stress Verse /
Accentual-Syllabic Metre
  • After the Norman Conquest, from the 12th century
    on
  • accentual-syllabic versification started to
    appear.
  • It went hand in hand with strophic construction
    and
  • rhyming line endings.
  • Out of stressed and unstressed syllables metrical
    feet
  • were created after the pattern of ancient Greek
    and
  • Latin poetry.
  • In accentual syllabic foot-verse both the number
    of
  • stressed and unstressed syllables are fixed, and
    also
  • their respective positions in the poetic line.

48
Foot VerseStressed / Accentual-Syllabic Metre
  • Ancient Greek and Latin prosody is quantitative,
    i.e.
  • the regular alternation of syllables is based on
    their
  • duration. Quantitative versification makes
    distinction
  • between long and short syllables.
  • A syllable is long if the vowel sound in it is
    long or if it
  • Is short but followed by more two or more
    consonants.
  • A syllable is short if the vowel sound in it is
    short and
  • Is followed by zero or one consonant sound.

49
Accentual-Syllabic Metre / Quantitative
Versification
  • English accentual-syllabic foot-verse is
    sometimes
  • called quantitative. It is, however, is
    inaccurate.
  • But quantitative versification is based on the
  • quantity, i.e. the duration of a syllable.
  • Apart from a few technical experiments, duration
    of
  • syllables is not a metre constitutive principle
    in English
  • verse.
  • Quantitative versification makes metrical feet
    using
  • short and long syllables.

50
Quantitative VersificationMetrical Feet
  • The foot is the basic metrical unit that
    generates a line
  • of verse in quantitative versification.
  • The foot is a purely metrical unit there is no
    inherent
  • relation to a word or phrase as a unit of meaning
    or
  • syntax.
  • A foot is composed of syllables, the number of
    which
  • is limited.
  • The feet are classified first by the number of
    syllables
  • in the foot (disyllabic feet have two,
    trisyllabic three,
  • And tetrasyllabic four syllables), and by the
    pattern of
  • vowel lengths.

51
Qualitative vs. quantitative metre(from the
Wikipedia entry on Prosody)
  • The meter of much poetry of the Western world and
  • elsewhere is based on particular patterns of
    syllables of
  • particular types. The familiar type of meter in
    English
  • language poetry is called qualitative meter, with
    stressed
  • syllables coming at regular intervals (e.g. in
    iambic
  • pentameter, typically every even-numbered
    syllable). Many
  • Romance languages use a scheme that is somewhat
  • similar but where the position of only one
    particular
  • stressed syllable (e.g. the last) needs to be
    fixed. The
  • meter of the old Germanic poetry of languages
    such as Old
  • Norse and Old English was radically different,
    but still was
  • based on stress patterns.

52
Qualitative vs. quantitative metre(from the
Wikipedia entry on Prosody)
  • Many classical languages, however, use a
    different
  • scheme known as quantitative metre, where
    patterns are
  • based on syllable weight rather than stress. In
    dactylic
  • hexameter of Classical Latin and Classical Greek,
    for
  • example, each of the six feet making up the line
    was either
  • a dactyl (long-short-short) or spondee
    (long-long), where a
  • long syllable was literally one that took longer
    to pronounce
  • than a short syllable specifically, a syllable
    consisting of a
  • long vowel or diphthong or followed by two
    consonants.
  • The stress pattern of the words made no
    difference to the
  • meter. A number of other ancient languages also
    used
  • quantitative meter, such as Sanskrit and
    Classical Arabic
  • (but not Biblical Hebrew).

53
Quantitative VersificationMost common feet
  • (symbols long syllable, ? short syllable)
  • iamb or iambic foot ?
  • trochee or trochaic foot ?
  • anapaest or anapaestic foot ? ?
  • dactyl of dactylic foot ? ?
  • spondee or spondaic foot
  • pyrrhic or pyrrhic foot ? ?
  • tribrach ? ? ?
  • molossus
  • minor ionic ? ?
  • choriamb ??

54
English Accentual-Syllabic Metre
  • English prosody is based on the regular
  • alternation of stressed and unstressed
  • syllables.
  • Consequently classical Greek and Latin
  • quantitative metrical feet are translated into
  • syllable stresses 'long' becomes 'stressed' (or
  • 'accented'), and 'short' becomes 'unstressed
  • (or 'unaccented').

55
English Accentual-Syllabic Metre
  • For example, an iamb, which is short-long in
    classical
  • meter, becomes unstressed-stressed, as in the
    English
  • word today a trochee is constituted of a
    stressed
  • and unstressed syllable, as in never a dactyl
    is
  • constituted of a stressed syllable followed by
    two
  • unstressed ones, as in yesterday while an
    anapaest
  • is constituted of two unstressed syllables
    followed by
  • a stressed one, as in interrupt. A spondee is
    made of
  • two successive stressed syllables, as in
    heartbreak
  • a pyrrhic is made of two successive unstressed
  • syllables and the phrase of the.

56
English metrical feet
  • iamb or iambic foot X /
  • trochee or trochaic foot / X
  • anapaest or anapaestic foot X X /
  • dactyl of dactylic foot / X X
  • spondee or spondaic foot / /
  • pyrrhic or pyrrhic foot X X
  • tribrach X X X
  • molossus / / /
  • minor ionic X X / /
  • choriamb / X X /

57
English Accentual-Syllabic Metre
  • For the scansion of an English poem the standard
  • Symbols are used (the symbol marks foot
    boundary)
  • Down by the salley gardens my love and I did meet
  • X / X / X / X X /
    X / X /
  • Whose woods these are I think I know.
  • X / X / X / X
    /

58
English Accentual-Syllabic Metre
  • Metrical feet add up to poetic lines, which
    consequently are
  • defined in terms of the number and type of poetic
    feet they
  • contain
  • Monometer one foot
  • Dimeter two feet
  • Trimeter three feet
  • Tetrameter four feet
  • Pentameter five feet
  • Hexameter six feet

59
English Accentual-Syllabic Metre
  • Thus we can discern
  • Iambic monometers (i.e. one-stress iambic lines)
  • Thus I
  • Pass by
  • And die
  • As one
  • Unknown
  • An gone
  • (Robert Herrick Upon His Departure Hence, 1648)

60
English Accentual-Syllabic Metre
  • Or anapaestic tetrameters (four-stress anapestic
    lines)
  • There's little Tom Dacre, who cried when his
    head,X / X X / X X /
    X X /
  • That curled like a lamb's back, was shaved so I
    said,
  • X / X X / X
    X / X X /
  • "Hush, Tom! never mind it, for when your head's
    bare,
  • X / X X / X X
    / X X /
  • You know that the soot cannot spoil your white
    hair.
  • X / X X / X X
    / X X /
  • (William Blake The Chimney Sweeper)

61
English Accentual-Syllabic Metre
  • Or iambic pentameters (five-stress iambic lines)
  • THERE was a roaring in the wind all night
  • X / X / X / X / X
    /
  • X
  • The rain came heavily and fell in floods
  • But now the sun is rising calm and bright
  • The birds are singing in the distant woods
  • Over his own sweet voice the Stock-dove broods
  • The Jay makes answer as the Magpie chatters
  • And all the air is filled with pleasant noise of
    waters.
  • (from William Wordsworth Resolution and
    Independence)

62
William Wordsworth(1770-1850)(from the National
Portrait Gallery)
63
English Accentual-Syllabic Metre
  • Iambic pentameter has a distinguished role in the
    history of
  • English poetry.
  • If unrhymed, it is called blank verse (e.g.
    Shakespeares plays)
  • Now is the winter of our discontent
  • Made glorious summer by this sun of York
  • And all the clouds that lour'd upon our house
  • In the deep bosom of the ocean buried.
  • (Shakespeare Richard III)

64
English Accentual-Syllabic Metre
  • If pair-rhymed, it is called heroic couplet (e.g.
    Alexander Popes
  • Essay on Criticism)
  • Of all the Causes which conspire to blind
  • Man's erring Judgment, and misguide the Mind,
  • What the weak Head with strongest Byass rules,
  • Is Pride, the never-failing Vice of Fools.
  • (from Alexander Pope Essay on Criticism)

65
English Accentual-Syllabic Metre
  • It is important to notice that the alternation of
    stressed and
  • unstressed syllable in accentual-syllabic metre
    is not entirely
  • rigid.
  • In iambic forms, e.g. a poet may use substitute
    feet. The
  • two syllabic spondee and pyrrhic are proper
    substitute feet for
  • iambs.
  • Sometimes poets add an extra unstressed syllable,
    thus
  • substituting an anapest for an iamb.

66
Substitution
  • A sudden blow the great wings beating still
  • X / X / X / /
    / X /
  • Above the staggering girl, her thighs caressed
  • X / X / X X / X /
    X /
  • By the dark webs, her nape caught in his bill,
  • X X / / X / /
    X X /
  • He holds her helpless breast upon his breast.
  • How can those terrified vague fingers push
  • The feathered glory from her loosening thighs?
  • X / X / X X X /
    X X /
  • And how can body, laid in that white rush,
  • But feel the strange heart beating where it lies?

67
Substitution cont.
  • A shudder in the loins engenders there
  • The broken wall, the burning roof and tower
  • And Agamemnon dead.
  • Being so caught up,
  • So mastered by the brute blood of the air,
  • Did she put on his knowledge with his power
  • Before the indifferent beak could let her drop?
  • (William Butler Yeats Leda and the Swan)

68
Leda and the Swan16th century copy after lost
painting by Michelangelo
69
English Accentual-Syllabic Metre
  • A metrical line has three levels
  • Oh, to vex me, contraryes meet in one (Donne)
  • (iambic pentameter)
  • 1. Abstract metrical pattern
  • X / X / X / X / X /
  • 2. Actual rhythm of the particular line
  • X X / X / X X / X /
  • 3. Speech rhythm
  • X X / X / X X \ X \
  • (where \ marks secondary stress)

70
Rough and Smooth Rhythms
  • If the three levels fall apart, as in the above
    excerpt of Donnes
  • poem, the rhythm is rough. If they tend to
    coalesce, as in this
  • line by Donnes contemporary, Edmund Spenser, the
    rhythm is
  • smooth
  • One day I wrote her name upon the strand
  • (Edmund Spenser Amoretti, Sonnet 75)

71
Edmund Spenser John
Donne(1552-1599)
(1572-1631)
72
English Accentual-Syllabic Metre
  • English accentual-syllabic poems may rhyme. Rhyme
    is the
  • identity of sound between words. Rhyme is not
    necessarily
  • based on identity of spelling. Pronunciation is
    the essence.
  • great rhymes with mate
  • whereas
  • bough does not rhyme with though
  • great and meat look alike, but pronounced
    differently, they are called eyes-rhymes

73
Sound Parallelism
  • Rhyme is only one aspect of sound-parallelism.
    Based on the
  • concept of the linguistic formula of a syllable,
    i.e. a cluster of
  • up to three consonants followed by a vowel
    nucleus followed
  • by a cluster of up to four consonants
    (C?³VC?4), Geoffrey
  • Leech set up the following chart of sound
    patterns

74
Sound Parallelism
  • from Geoffrey N. Leech A Linguistic Guide to
    English Poetry.
  • London Longman, 1969, 89

75
Rhyme
  • Consonance is often called half-rhyme
  • I have net them at close of day
  • Coming with vivid faces
  • From counter or desk among grey
  • Eighteenth-century houses.
  • (from W. B. Yeats Easter 1916)

76
Easter Rising, Dublin 1916
77
Internal Rhymes
  • By rhymes generally terminal rhymes are meant.
    However,
  • poets use internal rhymes within a line, usually
    followed by a
  • break (caesura)
  • And through the drifts the snowy clifts
  • Did send a dismal sheen
  • Nor shapes of men nor beasts we ken
  • The ice was all between.
  • (from S. T. Coleridge The Rime of the Ancient
    Mariner)

78
Poetic Forms
  • The disposition of lines into groups falls into
    two categories
  • Stichic poetry, in which verse line follows verse
    line, as in
  • Miltons Paradise Lost. Stichic poetry is often
    segmented into
  • verse paragraphs, i.e. passages of irregular
    length divided by a
  • space-line.
  • Strophic poetry, in which groups of lines
    (stanza) are formed,
  • as in Keatss Ode on a Grecian Urn.

79
Rhyme Schemes and Poetic Forms
  • Strophic or stanzaic forms are often bound
    together by rhymes.
  • Stanza forms are determined by numbers of lines
  • Couplet two-line stanza
  • Tercet three line stanza
  • Quatrain four-line stanza

80
Stanza (Italian station, stopping place)
  • A structural unit in verse composition, a
    sequence of lines
  • arranged in a definite pattern of meter and rhyme
    scheme
  • which is repeated throughout the whole work.
    Stanzas range
  • from such simple patterns as the couplet or the
    quatrain to
  • such complex stanza forms as the Spenserian or
    those used by
  • Keats in his odes.
  • (Alex Preminger, ed. Princeton Encyclopedia of
    Poetry and Poetics. Enlarged edition.
  • London Macmillan, 1975)
  • Stanzas may consist of metrically identical or
    different lines.

81
Rhyme Scheme
  • Patterns of rhyme within larger units of poetry
  • marked by letters
  • A or a first line and every following line
    rhyming
  • with it
  • B or b next new rhyme and every following line
  • rhyming with it

82
Rhyme SchemesCouplets
  • Couplet aa bb cc, etc.
  • Had we but world enough, and time,
  • This coyness, lady, were no crime.
  • We would sit down and think which way
  • To walk, and pass our long love's day.
  • (from Andrew Marvell To his Coy Mistress)

83
Rhymes SchemesAlternate Rhymes
  • Alternating / alternate / cross rhymes abab
    cdcd, etc.
  • The curfew tolls the knell of parting day,
  • The lowing herd winds slowly o'er the lea,
  • The ploughman homeward plods his weary way,
  • And leaves the world to darkness and to me.
  • (from Thomas Gray Elegy Written in a Country
    Church-Yard)

84
Rhyme SchemesEnvelope Rhymes
  • Envelope / enclosed abba cddc, etc.
  • The world is too much with us late and soon,
  • Getting and spending, we lay waste our powers
  • Little we see in nature that is ours
  • We have given our hearts away, a sordid boon!
  • (William Wordsworth The world is too much with
    us
  • late and soon)

85
Rhyme SchemesTerza Rima
  • Terca rima aba bcb cdc, etc. (It is a type
    interlocking rhyme
  • patterns word unrhymed in 1st stanza is linked
    with words
  • rhymed in 2nd stanza.)
  • O wild West Wind, thou breath of Autumn's being,
  • Thou, from whose unseen presence the leaves dead
  • Are driven, like ghosts from an enchanter
    fleeing,
  • Yellow, and black, and pale, and hectic red,
  • Pestilence-stricken multitudes O thou,
  • Who chariotest to their dark wintry bed

86
Rhyme SchemesTerza Rima cont.
  • The winged seeds, where they lie cold and low,
  • Each like a corpse within its grave, until
  • Thine azure sister of the Spring shall blow
  • Her clarion o'er the dreaming earth, and fill
  • (Driving sweet buds like flocks to feed in air)
  • With living hues and odors plain and hill
  • (from P. B. Shelley Ode to the West Wind)

87
Percy Bysshe Shelley (1792-1822)by Alfred Clint
(18071883)
88
Rhyme SchemesOttava Rima
  • of Italian origin
  • rhyme scheme ABABABCC
  • Three alternate rhymes plus a closing couplet
  • consists of iambic lines, usually pentameters
  • Byrons Don Juan is a well known example

89
Ottava Rima
  • That is no country for old men. The young
  • In one another's arms, birds in the trees
  • - Those dying generations - at their song,
  • The salmon-falls, the mackerel-crowded seas,
  • Fish, flesh, or fowl, commend all summer long
  • Whatever is begotten, born, and dies.
  • Caught in that sensual music all neglect
  • Monuments of unageing intellect.
  • (from W. B. Yeats Sailing to Byzantium)

90
Rhymes SchemesRhyme Royal
  • rhyme scheme ABABBCC
  • usually iambic pentameter
  • Geoffrey Chaucers Troilus and Criseyde is a
    well-know example

91
Rhyme Royal
  • Here at right of the entrance this bronze head,
  • Human, superhuman, a bird's round eye,
  • Everything else withered and mummy-dead.
  • What great tomb-haunter sweeps the distant sky
  • (Something may linger there though all else die)
  • And finds there nothing to make its tetror less
  • Hysterica passio of its own emptiness?
  • (from W. B. Yeats A Bronze Head)

92
Rhyme SchemesSpenserian Stanza
  • Rhyme scheme ABABBCBCC
  • The Spenserian stanza was invented by Edmund
    Spenser and
  • used it for his epic poem The Faerie Queene.
  • Each stanza contains nine lines in total eight
    lines in iambic
  • pentameter followed by an iambic hexameter
    (alexandrine).

93
Spenserian Stanza
  • The wicked witch now seeing all this while
  • The doubtfull ballaunce equally to sway,
  • What not by right, she cast to win by guile,
  • And by her hellish science raisd streightway
  • A foggy mist, that overcast the day,
  • And a dull blast, that breathing on her face,
  • Dimmed her former beauties shining ray,
  • And with foule ugly forme did her disgrace
  • Then was she faire alone, when none was faire in
    place.
  • (from Edmund Spenser Faerie Queene)

94
Edmund SpenserThe Faerie Queene
95
The Sonnet
  • Consists of fourteen lines divided into stanzas.
  • Iambic pentameters (or iambic hexameters, also
  • called alexandrines, sometimes iambic
    tetrameters).
  • The rhyme schemes is fixed.
  • There are three main types.

96
The Petrarchan / Italian SonnetsJohn Donne Holy
Sonnet 19
  • Oh, to vex me, contraryes meet in one A
  • Inconstancy unnaturally hath begott B
  • A constant habit that when I would not B
  • I change in vowes, and in devotione. A
  • As humorous is my contritione A
  • As my prophane Love, and as soone forgott B
  • As ridlingly distemper'd, cold and hott, B
  • As praying, as mute as infinite, as none. A
  • I durst not view heaven yesterday and to day C
  • In prayers, and flattering speaches I court God
    D
  • To morrow I quake with true feare of his rod. D
  • So my devout fitts come and go away C
  • Like a fantistique Ague save that here E
  • Those are my best dayes, when I shake with feare.
    E

97
According to the stanzaic pattern, you can print
like thie (actually many sonnets are printed this
way
  • Oh, to vex me, contraryes meet in one A 1st
    quatrain
  • Inconstancy unnaturally hath begott B
  • A constant habit that when I would not B
  • I change in vowes, and in devotione. A
  • As humorous is my contritione A 2nd quatrain
  • As my prophane Love, and as soone forgott B
  • As ridlingly distemper'd, cold and hott, B
  • As praying, as mute as infinite, as none. A
  • I durst not view heaven yesterday and to day
    C 1st tercet
  • In prayers, and flattering speaches I court God
    D
  • To morrow I quake with true feare of his rod. D
  • So my devout fitts come and go away C 2nd
    tercet
  • Like a fantistique Ague save that here E
  • Those are my best dayes, when I shake with feare.
    E

98
The Petrarchan Sonnet4 4 3 3 8 6
  • A
  • B
  • B
  • A 1st quatrain
  • A octave
  • B
  • B
  • A 2nd quatrain
  • turn
  • C
  • D
  • C 1st tercet
  • D sestet
  • C
  • D 2nd tercet

99
The English SonnetWilliam Shakespeare Sonnet 75
  • So are you to my thoughts as food to life, A
  • Or as sweet-seasoned showers are to the
    ground B
  • And for the peace of you I hold such strife A
  • As 'twixt a miser and his wealth is found. B
  • Now proud as an enjoyer, and anon C
  • Doubting the filching age will steal his
    treasure, D
  • Now counting best to be with you alone, C
  • Then bettered that the world may see my
    pleasure, D
  • Sometime all full with feasting on your sight, E
  • And by and by clean starved for a look, F
  • Possessing or pursuing no delight E
  • Save what is had, or must from you be took. F
  • Thus do I pine and surfeit day by day, G
  • Or gluttoning on all, or all away. G

100
The English Sonnet4 4 4 2 8 4 2 12
2
  • A
  • B
  • A
  • B 1st quatrain
  • C
  • D
  • C
  • D 2nd quatrain
  • turn
  • E
  • F
  • E
  • F 3rd quatrain
  • G
  • G closing couplet

101
The Spenserian SonnetEdmund Spenser Amoretti 75
  • One day I wrote her name upon the strand, A
  • But came the waves and washed it away B
  • Again I wrote it with a second hand, A
  • But came the tide, and made my pains his prey.
    B
  • Vain man, said she, that doest in vain assay B
  • A mortal thing so to immortalize, C
  • For I myself shall like to this decay, B
  • And eek my name be wiped out likewise. C
  • Not so (quoth I), let baser things devise C
  • To die in dust, but you shall live by fame D
  • My verse your virtues rare shall eternize, C
  • And in the heavens write your glorious name. D
  • Where whenas Death shall all the world subdue,
    E
  • Out love shall live, and later life renew. E

102
The SonnetPetrarchan / Italian
  • Rhyme scheme
  • a b b a a b b a c d c d c d
  • a b b a c d d c e f g e f g / e e f g g
    f
  • quatrains - envelope rhymes repeated
  • turn after line 8 (turn markers but, though,
    yet, etc.)
  • tercets
  • quatrains versus tercets
  • based on opposition, thesis antithesis, static
    quality

103
The SonnetEnglish / Shakespearean
  • Rhyme scheme
  • a b a b c d c d e f e f g g
  • alternate rhymes
  • two turns the first one after line 8
  • the second one after line 12
  • quatrains versus closing couplet (summary,
    conclusion)
  • dramatic quality, tripartite structure
  • thesis antithesis synthesis

104
The SonnetSpenserian
  • Rhyme scheme
  • a b a b b c b c c d c d e e
  • A mixture of the two, the overlapping rhymes
    create a similar
  • acoustic effect to that of the Italian sonnet,
    yet displays two
  • turn, thus represents a more dramatic quality.
    However, the
  • overlapping rhymes blur the tripartite division.

105
Semi-strict forms, loosely metrical poems
  • Poets often use loosely metrical patterns.
  • It either means the employment of metrical
    substitutions or
  • variations, as in S. T. Coleridges Rime of the
    Ancient Mariner,
  • with subtle irregularities in the ballad measure,
    e.g.
  • With throats unslaked, with black lips baked,
  • We could nor laugh nor wail
  • Through utter drought all dumb we stood!
  • I bit my arm, I sucked the blood,
  • And cried, A sail! a sail!

106
Semi-strict forms, loosely metrical poems
  • or the use of metrical
  • lines of irregular length, as
  • T. S. Eliots Preludes,
  • Or it may take other, more
  • radical forms of only hinting
  • at the vague memory of strict
  • metrical patterns.

107
T. S. Eliot (1888-1965)PreludesI
  • The winter evening settles down
  • With smell of steaks in passageways.
  • Six o'clock.
  • The burnt-out ends of smoky days.
  • And now a gusty shower wraps
  • The grimy scraps
  • Of withered leaves about your feet
  • And newspapers from vacant lots
  • The showers beat
  • On broken blinds and chimneypots,
  • And at the corner of the street
  • A lonely cab-horse steams and stamps.
  • And then the lighting of the lamps.


108
PreludesII
  • The morning comes to consciousness
  • Of faint stale smells of beer
  • From the sawdust-trampled street
  • With all its muddy feet that press
  • To early coffee-stands.
  • With the other masquerades
  • That times resumes,
  • One thinks of all the hands
  • That are raising dingy shades
  • In a thousand furnished rooms.

II
109
PreludesIII
  • You tossed a blanket from the bed
  • You lay upon your back, and waited
  • You dozed, and watched the night revealing
  • The thousand sordid images
  • Of which your soul was constituted
  • They flickered against the ceiling.
  • And when all the world came back
  • And the light crept up between the shutters
  • And you heard the sparrows in the gutters,
  • You had such a vision of the street
  • As the street hardly understands

110
Preludes III cont.
  • Sitting along the bed's edge, where
  • You curled the papers from your hair,
  • Or clasped the yellow soles of feet
  • In the palms of both soiled hands.

111
PreludesIV
  • His soul stretched tight across the skies
  • That fade behind a city block,
  • Or trampled by insistent feet
  • At four and five and six o'clock
  • And short square fingers stuffing pipes,
  • And evening newspapers, and eyes
  • Assured of certain certainties,
  • The conscience of a blackened street
  • Impatient to assume the world.

112
Preludes IV cont.
  • I am moved by fancies that are curled
  • Around these images, and cling
  • The notion of some infinitely gentle
  • Infinitely suffering thing.
  • Wipe your hand across your mouth, and laugh
  • The worlds revolve like ancient women
  • Gathering fuel in vacant lots.

113
Bibliography
  • Attridge, Derek Poetic Rhythm. An Introduction.
    Cambridge Cambridge
  • University Press, 1995
  • Brooks, Cleanth and Warren, Robert Penn
    Understanding Poetry. 4th
  • edition. New York Holt, Rinehart and Winston,
    1976
  • Fry, Stephen The Ode Less Travelled. Unlocking
    the Poet Within. London
  • Hutchinson, 2005
  • Hobsbaum, Philip Metre, Rhythm and Verse Form.
    London Routledge, 1996
  • Leech, Geoffrey N. A Linguistic Guide to English
    Poetry. London Longman,
  • 1969
  • Scannel, Vernon How to Enjoy Poetry. London
    Piatkus, 1983
  • Preminger, Alex, ed. Princeton Encyclopedia of
    Poetry and Poetics. Enlarged
  • edition. London Macmillan, 1975
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