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Early Braille Literacy Instruction: Strategies TVIs

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Early Braille Literacy Instruction: Strategies TVIs Julie A. Bardin, Ph.D. Sandra Lewis, Ed.D. Eileen Bischof, Ph.D. Purposes of Study To determine current strategies ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Early Braille Literacy Instruction: Strategies TVIs


1
Early Braille Literacy Instruction Strategies
TVIs
  • Julie A. Bardin, Ph.D.
  • Sandra Lewis, Ed.D.
  • Eileen Bischof, Ph.D.

2
Purposes of Study
  • To determine current strategies used by teachers
    of students with visual impairments to integrate
    the Braille code and instruction in literacy for
    students
  • To evaluate the efficacy of various teaching
    strategies
  • To provide recommendations for future teachers of
    young blind students

3
Qualitative Research
  • Designed to gain insight into complex social
    phenomena
  • Gather data about events or patterns of behavior
  • Descriptions enhance our understanding of the
    ideas, feelings, beliefs, and motives related to
    individuals actions
  • Generate hypotheses

4
Questions of interest
  • Where does literacy instruction take place for
    learners with a VI?
  • What types of materials are being used to teach
    literacy skills?
  • Who participates in literacy instruction?
  • How is reading instruction provided in the
    general education classroom integrated with
    braille instruction?
  • Which instructional approaches appear to be most
    beneficial?

5
Design of Study
  • Identify teachers of preschool, kindergarten, and
    first grade students who are receiving
    instruction in braille
  • Pay teachers for providing 3 reports per week
    describing their literacy activities
  • Measure students progress
  • Hold focus group
  • Analyze qualitative data

6
Instruments
  • Texas Primary Reading Inventory
  • Minnesota Braille Skills Inventory

7
Data Sources
  • Lesson Plans
  • Student Test Scores
  • Texas Primary Reading Inventory
  • Minnesota Braille Skills Inventory
  • Teacher Interviews
  • One-on-one
  • Focus group
  • Observations of Instruction
  • Teacher and Home Surveys

8
Participants
  • YEAR 1
  • 11 TVIs
  • 3-31 years of teaching
  • 14 students
  • 6 Pre-K
  • 6 Kindergarten
  • 2 First graders
  • YEAR 2
  • 9 TVIs (3 new to project)
  • 3-32 years of teaching
  • 12 students
  • 3 Pre-K
  • 4 Kindergarten
  • 4 First grade
  • 1 Second grade

9
General Findings
10
Location of Instruction
  • Resource Room
  • General Education Classroom
  • After School Care Area
  • Home
  • But we already knew this

11
So, Whos Involved?
  • Student
  • TVI
  • General Education Teacher
  • Other Special Education Teachers
  • Classroom Paraeducators
  • Librarians
  • Peer Volunteers
  • Families
  • But we already knew this

12
interesting..
  • The teachers of the 4 highest performing students
    all indicated that the student received reading
    instruction from the TVI and the general
    education teacher
  • All but one of the teachers of the other students
    indicated that they were the primary reading
    instructor

13
Materials Used By TVIs for Reading Pre-K
14
Materials Used By TVIs for Reading Kindergarten
15
Materials Used By TVIs for Reading First Grade
16
interesting
  • Teachers are starting to build literacy skills
    early
  • Teachers are using familiar and available tools
  • Most teachers are using Patterns
  • Only two teachers (18) are using a new
    curriculum (Kester Braille)
  • No one is using Braille Fundamentals

17
Teacher Made Materials
18
Adapted General Education Materials
19
Student Teacher Case Studies
20
The Kindergarteners
21
Michelle
  • End of Kdg.
  • Read
  • 8 letters
  • 6 whole word alphabet signs
  • Wrote
  • 10 letters
  • 5 whole word alphabet signs
  • Beginning of Kdg.
  • Read
  • 14 letters
  • Wrote
  • 10 letters

On the TPRI, Michelle is on target with phonemic
awareness, letter recognition, and listening
comprehension.
22
Michelles Teacher
  • 12 years teaching experience
  • Certified in VI
  • Has a full-time paraprofessional who is a
    certified transcriptionist
  • Uses Mangold, Patterns, and Kester
  • Teaches contracted braille as contractions appear
    in general ed. materials

23
Claudia
  • Beginning of Kdg.
  • Read 17 signs
  • 7 letters
  • 2 numbers
  • 8 whole word alphabet contractions
  • Wrote 4 signs
  • 4 letters
  • End of Kdg.
  • Read 28 signs
  • 19 letters
  • 0 numbers
  • 9 whole word alphabet contractions
  • Wrote 32 signs
  • 19 letters
  • 13 whole word alphabet contractions

On TPRI, Claudia was on target with phonemic
awareness with some difficulty with letter
recognition and listening comprehension
24
Gilberto
  • End of Kdg.
  • Read 17 signs
  • 9 letters
  • 8 whole word alphabet contractions
  • Wrote 43 signs
  • 25 letters
  • 18 whole word alphabet contractions
  • Beginning of Kdg.
  • Read 14 signs
  • 8 letters
  • 6 whole word
  • alphabet contractions
  • Wrote 15 signs
  • 10 letters
  • 5 whole word
  • alphabet contractions

On TPRI, Gilberto is on target with phonemic
awareness and listening comprehension. He is
having difficulty with letter recognition.
25
Claudia and Gilbertos Teacher
  • 21 years teaching experience
  • Certified in VI and Elementary
  • Does not have a paraprofessional
  • Uses Mangold and Patterns
  • Feels combining general ed. Basal materials is
    confusing to students
  • Presents contractions when child is ready

26
The First Grade Students
27
Lauren
  • End of Kdg.
  • Read 56 signs
  • Wrote 50 signs
  • Mastered
  • Letters Numbers
  • Developing
  • Whole Word Signs
  • Punctuation
  • End of 1st Grade
  • Read 134 signs
  • Wrote 145 signs
  • Mastered
  • Letters Numbers
  • Whole Word Signs
  • Basic Punctuation
  • Developing
  • Short Form Words
  • Lower Cell Signs
  • Part Word Signs

On the TPRI, Lauren is on target with phonemic
awareness, letter recognition, listening and
reading comprehension. She is reading 35 words
per minute fluently.
28
Laurens Teacher
  • 32 years teaching experience
  • Certified in VI
  • Has a full-time paraprofessional who knows
    braille
  • Uses Mangold for tactual discrimination
  • Uses Patterns and general ed. reading curriculum

29
Blake
  • End of Kdg.
  • Read 59 signs
  • Wrote 68 signs
  • Mastered
  • Letters Numbers
  • Developing
  • Whole Word Signs
  • Basic Punctuation
  • End of 1st grade
  • Read 170 signs
  • Wrote 169 signs
  • Mastered
  • Letters Numbers
  • Whole Part Word Signs
  • Dot 5 4-5-6 Signs
  • Developing
  • Punctuation
  • Dot 4-5, 4-6, 5-6 Signs

On the TPRI, Blake is on target with phonemic
awareness, letter recognition, listening and
reading comprehension. He is reading 19 words per
minute fluently.
30
Blakes Teacher
  • 24 years teaching experience
  • Degrees in VI, Elementary, and VE
  • Has a full-time paraprofessional she has taught
    Braille code and rules
  • Uses Mangold and Patterns paired with basal
    reading series
  • Pre-teaches contractions as they appear in the
    general ed. materials
  • Students self-monitor progress

31
Victoria
  • Beginning of 1st grade
  • Did not read or write any braille signs
  • End of 1st grade
  • Read and Wrote
  • All letters
  • 17 Whole word alphabet signs

On TPRI, Victoria was on target with phonemic
awareness. She had difficulty with letter
recognition, listening and reading comprehension.
32
Victorias Teacher
  • 18 years of teaching experience
  • Certified in VI
  • Has a part-time aide who does not know braille
  • Uses Mangold and Patterns
  • Introduces contractions as they appear in general
    ed.
  • Teaches braille to families
  • Pairs new braille readers with experienced ones.

33
Discussion
34
How Do Teachers Decide What Approach to Use?
  • IEP team input
  • Functional vision assessment
  • Eye report
  • Learning media assessment
  • Amount of time allocated for braille
  • Availability of materials
  • Childs rate of learning
  • Teachers personal characteristics
  • But we already knew this

35
Integration of Reading and Braille Instruction
  • TVIs are supplementing reading instruction by
  • Pre-teaching new material.
  • Re-teaching and reviewing material.
  • Providing additional practice.
  • TVIs are teaching braille skills
  • Primarily in isolation.
  • A few teachers, however, are integrating
    instruction with general education.

36
interesting..
  • 3 of the 4 teachers of the highest performing
    students start with uncontracted braille in the
    general education classroom and teach Patterns
    separately
  • Only one of the 7 teachers of the other students
    in the study start with uncontracted braille

37
Instruction Timeline
  • Mangold for pre-braille
  • Use of Patterns to teach braille code
  • All teachers are using Patterns most indicate it
    is the most useful tool for teaching reading
  • Contractions presented (not taught) as they
    appear in general education curriculum
  • Drills for contractions on Patterns timeline

38
Resulting in
  • Students having difficulty with general education
    curriculum
  • Students off task during general education
    activities
  • General education teachers unsure of teaching
    methods for braille readers

39
so what IS working?
  • Pre-teaching students and general educators
  • Working closely with an accepting general
    education teacher
  • Using a variety of instructional methods
  • Providing lots of opportunities for the childs
    hands to be on braille
  • Building a strong pre-braille foundation

40
Needed, MORE
  • student achievement data
  • observations of TVIs teaching
  • home literacy information
  • observations in the general education classrooms
  • general educator perspectives

41
What do teachers want?
  • More time for instruction
  • More training
  • Opportunities for networking
  • Suggestions for instructional order

42
Any questions?
43
Limitations of Study
  • Small sample
  • Teachers in case studies had many years of
    experience
  • Brief glimpse in a long process

44
Minnesota Braille Skills Inventory Results
45
Texas Primary Reading Inventory Results
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