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Carbohydrate Metabolism

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Carbohydrate Metabolism Turning Sugar into Energy Outline What is Metabolism? Glycolysis TCA Cycle Electron Transport System What is Metabolism? – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Carbohydrate Metabolism


1
Carbohydrate Metabolism
  • Turning Sugar into Energy

2
Outline
  • What is Metabolism?
  • Glycolysis
  • TCA Cycle
  • Electron Transport System

3
What is Metabolism?
  • Sum of all chemical reactions in the body

4
What is Metabolism?
  • Sum of all chemical reactions in the body
  • Creates energy (ATP)

5
Why do we need to make ATP?
  • Power muscular contraction
  • Active Transport
  • Homeostasis
  • Synthesis of macromolecules

6
ATP is short-term energy storage
  • ATP consumed lt 1 minute from synthesis

7
Types of Metabolic Reactions
  • Anabolic reactions
  • Building macromolecules in the body

8
Types of Metabolic Reactions
  • Anabolic reactions
  • Building macromolecules in the body
  • Catabolic reactions
  • Hydrolysis of foods in GI tract
  • Chemical breakdown releases energy

9
Types of Metabolic Reactions
  • Anabolic reactions
  • Building macromolecules in the body
  • Catabolic reactions
  • Hydrolysis of foods in GI tract
  • Chemical breakdown releases energy
  • Where does the energy come from?

10
Fuel Up with Slyders!
11
Our Fuel Sources
  • Carbohydrates
  • Sugars and starches
  • First choice of metabolic fuel
  • Fats
  • Protein

12
Glucose Our Primary Fuel
C6H12O6
All carbohydrates we consume are eventually
converted into glucose
13
Catabolism of Glucose
  • C6H12O6 6O2 ? 6CO2 6H2O energy
  • Transfer energy from glucose to ATP
  • Most energy lost as heat

Glucose
14
Catabolism of Glucose
  • Occurs as a series of steps.
  • Major Pathways
  • Glycolysis (does not require O2)
  • glucose split into 2 parts, generating 2 ATP
  • Aerobic Respiration (requires O2)
  • - catabolizes the products of glycolysis and
    generates more than 30 ATP

15
Where is Glucose Broken Down?
TCA
16
Glycolysis (Sugar Splitting)
  • Occurs in presence and absence of O2
  • Occurs in cytoplasm
  • Provides energy during strenuous exercise

All I need is GlycolysisAnd my Jenny.
17
Key Steps in Glycolysis
  • Glucose enters cell by facilitated diffusion

18
Key Steps in Glycolysis
  • 2. Glucose is Phosphorylated by ATP

19
Key Steps in Glycolysis
  • 3. Glucose split into two 3-carbon molecules

20
Key Steps in Glycolysis
  • 4. Coenzyme NAD collects hydrogen

21
Coenzymes in Metabolism
  • Collect electrons (hydrogen atoms) during
    catabolism of glucose
  • Transfer 2H and 2 e- at a time to coenzymes NAD
    and FAD
  • NAD (made from niacin)
  • NAD 2H ? NADH H
  • FAD (made from vitamin B2)
  • FAD 2H ? FADH2
  • Temporary carriers of energy

22
Key Steps in Glycolysis
  • 4. Coenzyme NAD collects hydrogen

23
Key Steps in Glycolysis
  • 5. Create 4 ATP by substrate-level
    phosphorylation

24
Substrate-level Phosphorylation
25
Key Steps in Glycolysis
  • 6. Create 2 Pyruvate molecules

26
Final Products of Glycolysis
2 molecules of Pyruvate 2 molecules of NADH
H 4 gross ATP molecules, but only 2 net
ATP Quick Energy.but, not very much ATP
Glycolysis Animation
27
Some Cells Stop at Glycolysis
  • Red Blood Cells
  • Skeletal Muscle
  • (during exercise)

28
Much Energy Remains in Pyruvate
TCA
ATP Produced
2
29
So What Happens to Pyruvate?
  • Aerobic vs. Anaerobic Respiration
  • Krebs Cycle
  • Electron Transport Chain

30
Most ATP is Generated in Mitochondria
  • Two principal steps
  • Matrix Reactions (Krebs Cycle)
  • occurs in matrix of mitochondria
  • Pyruvate is oxidized and electrons are
    transferred to NAD and FAD, forming NADH H and
    FADH2
  • Membrane Reactions (Electron Transport Chain)
  • Occurs within the inner mitochondrial membrane
  • NADH FADH2 are oxidized, transferring energy to
    ATP and regenerating NAD and FAD

31
Mitochondria The Cell Powerhouse
32
The Krebs Cycle Also known as. Tricarboxylic
Acid Cycle TCA Cycle Citric Acid Cycle
33
Major Steps of the TCA Cycle
  • 1. CO2 removed from Pyruvate and several
    intermediate molecules
  • C6H12O6 6O2 ? 6CO2 6H2O energy
  • CO2 is a metabolic waste product

Glucose
34
Major Steps of the TCA Cycle
  • Hydrogen removed from intermediate molecules
  • Picked up by NAD and FAD coenzymes

35
Summary of Krebs Cycle
  • 2 pyruvate 6 H2O ? 6 CO2
  • 2 ADP 2 Pi ? 2 ATP
  • 8 NAD 8 H2 ? 8 NADH 8 H
  • 2 FAD 2 H2 ? 2 FADH2
  • Carbon from Pyruvate converted to CO2 and exhaled
  • Energy has been lost (as heat) or stored in
    2 ATP, 8 NADH, and 2 FADH2.

36
Krebs Cycle Animation
Animation
Do not worry about the following Names of
Intermediate carbon molecules What GTP is (it is
an ATP precursor) Focus on the following CO2
production Action of coenzymes NAD FAD
Creation of ATP
37
To the Inner Mitochondrial Membrane!
TCA
2
2
38
So what happens to all of the NADH and FADH?
39
(No Transcript)
40
Most ATP is Generated in Mitochondria
  • Two principal steps
  • Matrix Reactions (Krebs Cycle)
  • occurs in matrix of mitochondria
  • Pyruvate is oxidized and electrons are
    transferred to NAD and FAD, forming NADH H and
    FADH2
  • Membrane Reactions (Electron Transport Chain)
  • Occurs within the inner mitochondrial membrane
  • NADH FADH2 are oxidized, transferring energy to
    ATP and regenerating NAD and FAD

41
Electron Transport System (ETS)
  • Occurs on Inner mitochondrial membrane
  • Requires oxygen

42
ETS Makes Lots of ATP
43
Electron Transport System
  • NADH and FADH2 release hydrogen atoms

44
Splitting of Hydrogen
  • 2) Electrons passed along electron transport
    system
  • Protons (H) pumped out of mitochondrial matrix
  • Flow of electrons powers active transport of H

45
ATP Synthase Creates ATP
3) H diffuse into matrix through ATP Synthase
Flow of H powers anabolism of ATP
46
Electron Transport System Payoff
  • Produce 34 ATP
  • Efficiency of 40
  • Rest is body heat

47
Electron Transport System
Electron Transport Animation
48
Summary of Glucose Catabolism
TCA
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