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Joseph Conrad’s Heart of Darkness

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Title: Joseph Conrad’s Heart of Darkness


1
Joseph Conrads Heart of Darkness
Introducing Joseph Conrads Heart of Darkness
2
Jozef Teodor Konrad Korzeniowski Joseph
Conrad
  • Chronology
  • 1857
  • Jozef Teodor Konrad Korzeniowski born December 3
    near Berdichev to Apollo Nalecz Korzeniowski and
    Evelina (Ewa) Bobrowska.
  • 1862
  • May 8, Apollo Korzeniowski exiled to prison camp
    in Vologda, Russia, accompanied by his wife and
    son.
  • 1865
  • June 6, Conrad's mother dies. Conrad in care of
    maternal uncle, Tadeusz Bobrowski.
  • 1869
  • Apollo Korzeniowski and son return to Cracow in
    February. Apollo dies on May 23. Conrad attends
    (sporadically) school in Cracow.
  • 1873
  • In May, Conrad leaves for a three-month-long stay
    in Switzerland and northern Italy. First view of
    the sea.
  • 1874
  • On October 14 leaves Cracow for Marseilles.

3
Conrad at 17
4
Joseph Conrad at Sea
  • 1875
  • Apprentice on the Mont-Blanc, bound for
    Martinique.
  • 1876-1877
  • From January to July in Marseilles
  • from July to February 1877 on schooner
    Saint-Antoine to West Indies.
  • 1877
  • Acquires (with three other men) the tartane, the
    Tremolino which carries arms illegally to the
    supporters of Don Carlos, the Spanish pretender.
  • 1878-1879
  • In February attempts suicide by shooting himself
    through the chest. On April 24 leaves Marseilles
    on British steamer Mavis. On June 18 sets foot in
    England at Lowestoft. Serves as ordinary seaman
    on coaster The Skimmer of the Sea.
  • 1883
  • Passes mate's examination on July 4. Meets uncle
    Bobrowski at Marienbad. Mate on the sailing ship
    Riversdale.
  • 1884
  • Second mate on the Narcissus, bound from Bombay
    to Dunkirk.
  • 1885-1886
  • Second mate on the Tilkhurst August 19, receives
    British certificate of naturalization. November
    11, passes examination, receives his "Certificate
    of Competency as Master" first story, "The Black
    Mate," submitted to Tit-Bits.
  • 1887
  • First mate on Highland Forest. Hurt by a falling
    spar, hospitalized in Singapore (experience
    recalled in Lord Jim). Second mate on steamship
    Vidar (Singapore-Borneo).
  • 1888
  • On Melita (bound for Bangkok), then his first
    command on the baroque the Otago
    (Bangkok-Sydney-Mauritius-Port Adelaide).
    Experiences described in The Shadow-Line,
    Victory, "The Secret Sharer," "A Smile of
    Fortune," and other works.

5
From Seaman to Writer and Father
  • 1893-1894
  • Second mate on Adowa (London-Rouen-London).
  • Ends his career as seaman on January 14, 1894.
  • Uncle Bobrowski dies on January 29, 1894.
  • In April Conrad sends Almayer's Folly to T.
    Fisher Unwin.
  • 1894-1895
  • Writes An Outcast of the Islands.
  • 1896
  • Match 24, marries Jessie George.
  • 1897
  • Completes The Nigger of the "Narcissus"
  • friendship with R. B. Cunninghame Graham.
  • 1898
  • Son Alfred Borys born January 14.
  • In October moves to Petit Farm, Kent.
  • 1899
  • In February completes Heart of Darkness.
  • 1900
  • Finishes Lord Jim.

6
Joseph Conrad and his son Borys
7
Travel and Critical Acclaim
  • 1905
  • Spends four months in Europe.
  • 1906
  • Spends two months in France. Second son John
    Alexander born August 2.
  • 1907
  • Children ill in France. Returns to Pent Farm in
    August. The Secret Agent.
  • 1908
  • A Set of Six.
  • 1910
  • In June moves to Capel House, Kent. Seriously
    ill.
  • 1911
  • Under Western Eyes.
  • 1912
  • 'Twixt Land and Sea, Tales.
  • 1913-1914
  • Chance. Writes Victory.
  • Leaves for Poland in July 1914 meets Stefan
    Zeromski in Zakopane
  • caught by the war in August escapes and returns
    to Capel House November 3.

8
Joseph Conrad and his family
9
War, Fame and Last Years
  • 1915
  • Victory. Within the Tides.
  • 1916
  • Borys fights on the French front.
  • 1917
  • The Shadow-Line. Writes prefaces for a new
    collected edition of his works.
  • 1918
  • Borys, gassed and wounded, is hospitalized in Le
    Havre.
  • 1919
  • The Arrow of Gold. Moves to Oswalds,
    Bishopbourne, near Canterbury, where he spends
    the last years of his life.
  • 1920
  • The Rescue.
  • 1921
  • Visits Corsica. Notes on Life and Utters.
  • 1923
  • Visits New York (April-June).
  • Reading from his Victory at home of Mrs. Arthur
    Curtiss James, May 10.
  • The Secret Agent, Drama in Four Acts (adaptation
    of the novel). The Rover.
  • Laughing Anne, a play (adaptation of "Because of
    the Dollars").

10
(No Transcript)
11
Posthumous Publications
  • 1925
  • Suspense (incomplete). Tales of Hearsay.
  • 1926
  • Last Essays.
  • 1928
  • The Sisters (written in 1896 incomplete.)
  • 1936
  • Jessie Conrad dies December 6. Buried near her
    husband at Canterbury.
  • 1978
  • Alfred Borys Conrad, the elder son of Conrad,
    dies on November 13.

Excerpted and condensed from Adam Gillon, Joseph
Conrad. Boston Twayne,1982.
12
Imagery
  • J.M.W. Turner, Approach to Venice, 1844.

13
Heart of Darkness Norton Critical Edition, page 8
The day was ending in a serenity of still and
exquisite brilliance. The water shone
pacifically, the sky without a speck was a benign
immensity of unstained light, the very mist on
the Essex marshes was like a gauzy and radiant
fabric hung from the wooded rises inland and
draping the low shores in diaphanous folds. Only
the gloom to the west brooding over the upper
reaches became more sombre every minute as if
angered by the approach of the sun. And at last
in its curved and imperceptible fall the sun sank
low, and from glowing white changed to a dull red
without rays and without heat, as if about to go
out suddenly, stricken to death by the touch of
that gloom brooding over a crowd of men.
14
  • Positive Diction
  • Mood and Tone
  • The day was ending in a serenity of still and
    exquisite brilliance. The water shone
    pacifically, the sky without a speck was a benign
    immensity of unstained light, the very mist on
    the Essex marshes was like a gauzy and radiant
    fabric hung from the wooded rises inland and
    draping the low shores in diaphanous folds. Only
    the gloom to the west brooding over the upper
    reaches became more sombre every minute as if
    angered by the approach of the sun.
  • And at last in its curved and imperceptible fall
    the sun sank low, and from glowing white changed
    to a dull red without rays and without heat, as
    if about to go out suddenly, stricken to death by
    the touch of that gloom brooding over a crowd of
    men.

15
  • Positive Detail
  • and Imagery
  • The day was ending in a serenity of still and
    exquisite brilliance. The water shone
    pacifically, the sky without a speck was a benign
    immensity of unstained light, the very mist on
    the Essex marshes was like a gauzy and radiant
    fabric hung from the wooded rises inland and
    draping the low shores in diaphanous folds. Only
    the gloom to the west brooding over the upper
    reaches became more sombre every minute as if
    angered by the approach of the sun.
  • And at last in its curved and imperceptible fall
    the sun sank low, and from glowing white changed
    to a dull red without rays and without heat, as
    if about to go out suddenly, stricken to death by
    the touch of that gloom brooding over a crowd of
    men.

16
J.M.W. Turner, Rain, Steam and Speed (1844)
17
  • Negative Diction
  • Mood and Tone
  • The day was ending in a serenity of still and
    exquisite brilliance. The water shone
    pacifically, the sky without a speck was a benign
    immensity of unstained light, the very mist on
    the Essex marshes was like a gauzy and radiant
    fabric hung from the wooded rises inland and
    draping the low shores in diaphanous folds. Only
    the gloom to the west brooding over the upper
    reaches became more sombre every minute as if
    angered by the approach of the sun.
  • And at last in its curved and imperceptible fall
    the sun sank low, and from glowing white changed
    to a dull red without rays and without heat, as
    if about to go out suddenly, stricken to death by
    the touch of that gloom brooding over a crowd of
    men.

18
  • Negative Detail
  • and Imagery
  • The day was ending in a serenity of still and
    exquisite brilliance. The water shone
    pacifically, the sky without a speck was a benign
    immensity of unstained light, the very mist on
    the Essex marshes was like a gauzy and radiant
    fabric hung from the wooded rises inland and
    draping the low shores in diaphanous folds. Only
    the gloom to the west brooding over the upper
    reaches became more sombre every minute as if
    angered by the approach of the sun.
  • And at last in its curved and imperceptible fall
    the sun sank low, and from glowing white changed
    to a dull red without rays and without heat, as
    if about to go out suddenly, stricken to death by
    the touch of that gloom brooding over a crowd of
    men.

19
James Abbot Whistler, Nocturne
20
Structure Frame Narrative

Marlow
Narrator
Joseph Conrad
21
Heart of Darkness Norton Critical
Edition Narrative Voice
  • Between us there was as I have already said
    somewhere, the bond of the sea. Besides holding
    our hearts together through long periods of
    separation it had the effect of making us
    tolerant of each others yarnsand even
    convictions(Page 7).
  • His remark did not seem at all surprising. It
    was just like Marlow. It was accepted in
    silence. No one took the trouble to grunt even,
    and presently he said very slow (Page 9).

22
Heart of Darkness Norton Critical
Edition Marlows Voice
  • I was thinking of very old times, when the
    Romans first came here, nineteen hundred years
    agothe other dayLight came out of this river
    sinceyou say Knights? Yes but it is like a
    running blaze on a plain, like a flash of
    lightning in the clouds. We live in the
    flickermay it last as long as the old earth
    keeps rolling! But darkness was here yesterday.
    (Page 9)

23
Techniques of Characterization
  • What characters do
  • What characters say
  • What others say about them

24
Characterization through Voice
  • Between us there was as I have already said
    somewhere, the bond of the sea. Besides holding
    our hearts together through long periods of
    separation it had the effect of making us
    tolerant of each others yarnsand even
    convictions(Page 7).
  • His remark did not seem at all surprising. It
    was just like Marlow. It was accepted in
    silence. No one took the trouble to grunt even,
    and presently he said very slow
  • I was thinking of very old times, when the
    Romans first came here, nineteen hundred years
    agothe other dayLight came out of this river
    sinceyou say Knights? Yes but it is like a
    running blaze on a plain, like a flash of
    lightning in the clouds. We live in the
    flickermay it last as long as the old earth
    keeps rolling! But darkness was here yesterday.
    (Page 9)

25
Diction and Imagery in Heart of Darkness
  • Diction creates Tone. Detail Indicates Imagery.
  • Directions For each of the following excerpts
    from Heart of Darkness
  • List the diction that creates the tone and
    describe the tone and its implications
  • List any detail that creates an image, or at
    least a potential image
  • Explain why this image would be significant in
    this text.
  • Write all of this on a separate piece of paper,
    one per group. Do not write on your copy of the
    assignment.

26
  • Now when I was a little chap I had a passion
    for maps. I would look for hours at South
    America, or Africa, or Australia and lose myself
    in all the glories of exploration. At that time
    there were many blank spaces on the earth and
    when I saw one that looked particularly inviting
    on a map (but they all look that) I would put my
    finger on it and say When I grow up I will go
    there. The North Pole was one of these places I
    remember. Well, I havent been there yet and
    shall not try now. The glamours off. Other
    places were scattered about the Equator and in
    every sort of latitude al over the two
    hemispheres. I have been in some of them
    andwell, we wont talk about that. But there
    was one yetthe biggestthe most blank, so to
    speakthat I had a hankering after.
  • True, by this time it was not a blank space
    any more. I had got filled since my boyhood with
    rivers and lakes and names. It had ceased to be
    a blank space of delightful mysterya while patch
    for a boy to dream gloriously over. It had
    become a place of darkness. But there was in it
    one river especially, a mighty big river that you
    could see on the map, resembling an immense snake
    uncoiled, with its head in the sea, its body at
    rest curving afar over a vast country and its
    tail lost in the depths of the land. And as I
    looked at the map of it in a shop-window it
    fascinated me as a snake would a birda silly
    little bird. Then I remembered there was a big
    concern. A Company for trade on that river. Dash
    it all, I though to myself, they cant trade
    without using some kind of craft on that lot of
    fresh watersteamboats! Why shouldnt I try to
    get charge of one. I went on along Fleet Street,
    but could not shake off the idea. The snake had
    charmed me (12).

27
(No Transcript)
28
Congo Free State (Belgian Congo) in 1890s
29
  • True, by this time it was not a blank
    space any more. I had got filled since my
    boyhood with rivers and lakes and names. It had
    ceased to be a blank space of delightful
    mysterya while patch for a boy to dream
    gloriously over. It had become a place of
    darkness. But there was in it one river
    especially, a mighty big river that you could see
    on the map, resembling an immense snake uncoiled,
    with its head in the sea, its body at rest
    curving afar over a vast country and its tail
    lost in the depths of the land. And as I looked
    at the map of it in a shop-window it fascinated
    me as a snake would a birda silly little bird.
    Then I remembered there was a big concern. A
    Company for trade on that river. Dash it all, I
    though to myself, they cant trade without using
    some kind of craft on that lot of fresh
    watersteamboats! Why shouldnt I try to get
    charge of one. I went on along Fleet Street, but
    could not shake off the idea. The snake had
    charmed me (12).

30
Diction and Imagery in Heart of Darkness
  • Diction creates Tone. Detail Indicates Imagery.
  • Directions For each of the following excerpts
    from Heart of Darkness
  • List the diction that creates the tone and
    describe the tone and its implications
  • List any detail that creates an image, or at
    least a potential image
  • Explain why this image would be significant in
    this text.
  • Write all of this on a separate piece of paper,
    one per group. Do not write on your copy of the
    assignment.

31
  • One thing more remained to do -- say good-bye
    to my excellent aunt. I found her triumphant. I
    had a cup of tea -- the last decent cup of tea
    for many days -- and in a room that most
    soothingly looked just as you would expect a
    lady's drawing-room to look, we had a long quiet
    chat by the fireside. In the course of these
    confidences it became quite plain to me I had
    been represented to the wife of the high
    dignitary, and goodness knows to how many more
    people besides, as an exceptional and gifted
    creature -- a piece of good fortune for the
    Company -- a man you don't get hold of every day.
    Good heavens! and I was going to take charge of a
    two-penny-half-penny river-steamboat with a penny
    whistle attached! It appeared, however, I was
    also one of the Workers, with a capital -- you
    know. Something like an emissary of light,
    something like a lower sort of apostle. There had
    been a lot of such rot let loose in print and
    talk just about that time, and the excellent
    woman, living right in the rush of all that
    humbug, got carried off her feet. She talked
    about 'weaning those ignorant millions from their
    horrid ways,' till, upon my word, she made me
    quite uncomfortable. I ventured to hint that the
    Company was run for profit.

32
Hints for Diction and Imagery in Heart of
Darkness
  • Directions For each of the following excerpts
    from Heart of Darkness
  • Summarize the paragraph to be sure you get the
    gist of it.
  • List the diction that creates the tone and
    describe the tone and its implications
  • You may want to categorize the diction. Not
    every word is significant, so this helps you find
    the patterns.
  • List any detail that creates an image, or at
    least a potential image
  • You could categorize the details also. Once you
    have identified the categories, you can recognize
    major images.
  • Explain why this image would be significant in
    this text.
  • Write all of this on a separate piece of paper,
    one per group.
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