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What is the Self Concept?


The Self What is the Self Concept? BODY IMAGE Is there an ideal body image? A poll by Kellogg s found that 62 percent out of a sample of 503 women over 18-years-old ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: What is the Self Concept?

The Self
What is the Self Concept?
72 of men and 85 of women are unhappy with at
least one aspect of their appearance
Which of the following has caused you to have a
bad day? Skin Problems   (12)
Clothes you had on (11) How your hair
looked (77)   If you could make only one
change with your hair, what would it be? More
attractive color (3) Be thicker/fuller
(93) Less or more curly  (5)   At
which occasions have you wished you had a better
hair day? Wedding  (4) College/High School
Reunion  (1) Night out on the town  (12)
Business meeting  (3) Everyday  (79)
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Self-Esteem Marketing
Self Esteem Slogans
DIET COKE "Live your life" or, in other words,
drink it because you just feel good about it -
not to lose weight APPLE COMPUTER "The Power to
Be Your Best." CHARLES ATLAS "You Too Can Have
A Body Like Mine." CAMAY SOAP "You are in a
Beauty Contest Every Day of your
Life. GILLETTE The best a man can get."
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The Real and the Ideal
  • The Real - the reality of who we are
  • The Ideal - who we would like to be.
  • The Gap creates a tension
  • Products are purchased because they are
    consistent with either self.
  • Many products appeal to consumers tendencies to
    fantasize about the way we would like to be
  • poses executed in pastels, with soft focus and
    haloes of light and color create highly romantic
    images of feminine beauty and purity.

  • Multiple Selves
  • consumers are different people at different times
  • We play different roles - in class or at work
  • Different selves have different consumption
  • Clairol permits you to explore and express the
    full range of your multiple selves

  • 1998 Bacardi launches a 15 million advertising
    campaign under the theme "Bacardi by night."
  • "We know our consumers do something each day --
    they work, they have responsibilities. But at
    night they let off steam," Sardina said.
  • Who do the ads target?

young professionals
  • Consumption of products and services contributes
    to the definition of self.
  • Consumers exhibit attachment to products to the
    extent that it is used by the person to maintain
    his or her self concept.

Cask Cream Reversing a Trend of Self-Denial,
This Ad Illustrates a Shift in Values Toward
Pleasure and Self-indulgence
Gender Identity
What does it Mean to be a Man in Our Society
  • Men never cry
  • Should not show emotion
  • Not quitters
  • Physically brave
  • Independent
  • Heroic and patriotic ideals
  • Adventurous
  • Shaving
  • First day at work - earning a wage
  • Initiations
  • tough
  • Courageous
  • Drinking
  • Physical strength
  • Sex

This Pirelli image of Carl Lewis wearing red high
heel shoes challenges the conventional view of
black male athletes as being super-masculine
  • Gays are 12 times more likely to be in
    professional jobs,
  • 94 more likely to use a product of service
    advertised in a gay publication

Women as Consumers
  • 80 per cent of the household dollar is spent by

  • The products do not need to be geared towards
    women since they control spending for their
    family's household, as well as for their own
    personal needs
  • 70 per cent of men's underwear is bought by
  • Studies continue to show that women control
    purchases of everything from household goods to
    investments and expensive consumer durables such
    as automobiles.

  • According to a study by Business Week and Gallup,
    women will control 1 trillion by 2010,
    representing nearly two-thirds of the nation's

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  • Canadian research has indicated women are not
    particularly impressed by firms seeking their

Do companies generally meet the needs of women as
Do women feel less valued than male consumers? If
so what can businesses do about it?
Depiction of Women in Ads
ROSIE THE RIVETER All the day long, Whether rain
or shine, She's a part of the assembly
line. She's making history, Working for
victory, Rosie the Riveter. Keeps a sharp lookout
for sabatoge, Sitting up there on the
fuselage. That little girl will do more than a
male will do. Rosie's got a boyfriend,
Charlie. Charlie, he's a Marine. Rosie is
protecting Charlie, Working overtime on the
riveting machine. When they gave her a production
"E," She was as proud as she could be. There's
something true about, Red, white, and blue
about, Rosie the Riveter.
Redd Evans and John Jacob Loeb, "Rosie the
Riveter," (New York Paramount Music Corp., 1942
In the 1940s, women were encouraged to help the
war effort by getting a job outside the home. But
it was family and country rather than money,
status, or power that they were encouraged to
toil for .
Coke 1942
For whether she rears a family or mans a
rangefinder, a woman needs the physical support
of a good foundation." and "Amongst other
munitions of war, Berlei are still making
November 1942
1950s - mass consumption in high gear, TV ads
idealized the woman as the wife and homemaker,
and the man as the bread winner.
But also the sex kitten
1960s - educated women started exhibiting their
discontent with the depiction of women in
ads. Armed with diplomas and new sophisticated
birth control methods, they demanded for the
right to have both career and family. The great
social change in the sixties allowed a variety of
depictions of women sex kitten, nurturing mother
and independent working girl. Men become
1970s Advertisers in the nineteen seventies
realized the changing roles of women, and so they
used such issues like woman's lib, ethnic
heritage, and critiques of capitalism to sell
their products. Advertisers realized that not
just white people were buying products. Ethnic
people were placed in advertisements.
1980s independent woman.
1990s 2000s She is a "multifaceted success
machine. She is a nurturer and a seducer. She
is the twenty-four hour a day woman, and she
never sleeps. Men are domesticated. Sex objects
Is it a mistake to portray women this way?
  • Business Executive 19580 19700 9834
  • Professional 19580 19700 198315
  • Entertainment/sports 195811 1970-58
  • Sales/Midlevel business 19586 19708
  • White Collar 195872 197017 19834
  • Blue Collar 19580 197017 19834

Sullivan and O'Connor (1988)
Content analysis on the Portrayal of Sex Roles in
Canadian Television Advertising, commissioned by
the CRTC (1985)
  • For 50 of the major female characters, the
    primary setting is the home.
  • Among men, 29 appear primarily in the home.
  • The paid work setting includes 9 of women and
    22 of men.
  • The outdoor setting includes 11 of women and 19
    of men.
  • The number of ads showing men only is
    significantly greater at 24 than the 13 of
    women-only ads.
  • Of the ads with voice-overs, 94 are male.

How are women generally portrayed?
  • Women are usually shown performing domestic tasks
    relating to the product.
  • Male product representatives are mostly depicted
    using the product or giving instructions or
  • Men are shown as the beneficiaries in 54 of the
    food ads and 81 of the cleaning product ads.
  • Ads that show the preparation and consumption of
    food tend to be populated with women and girls.

Images of women improving?
From June 1999 issue of Glamour Part of
outstanding ad campaign that accompanied the
Womens World Cup You pass on more to your
children and your grandchildren than your
eye color, . . . You provide the living example
that they can become more than they ever thought
they could. Because you did. Just do it.
  • Advertising generally portrays women as
  • dependent on or subservient to men
  • primarily in the home or domestic settings
  • preoccupied with physical attractiveness
  • sex objects
  • decorations for men
  • product users/demonstrators

Is there an ideal body image?
A poll by Kelloggs found that 62 percent out of
a sample of 503 women over 18-years-old believe
that an ideal body weight and size do
exist. These women said the major factor
determining the feminine ideal comes from
television advertising or fashion magazines.
  • Ads appearing in popular teen magazines promise
    to transform a girls appearance. While these ads
    are designed to encourage a girl to use make-up
    and dieting to look acceptable, they can
    undermine her self-confidence and contribute to
    negative body image
  • Girls are usually more concerned with appearance
    than boys because they have been socialized to
    overemphasize appearance

  • One study of Saturday morning toy commercials
    found that 50 of commercials aimed at girls
    spoke about physical attractiveness, while none
    of the commercials aimed at boys referred to
  • Other studies found 50 of advertisements in
    teen girl magazines and 56 of television
    commercials aimed at female viewers used beauty
    as a product appeal.

Teen People Magazine March 2003
  • One study found womens magazines have 10.5 times
    more ads and articles promoting weight loss than
    mens magazines did.

Victorias Secret is Revealed
  • What does this ad suggest women should look like?
  • The current ideal of female beauty is difficult
    to achieve. The ideal being a young Caucasian
    female, height 5'8"- 5'10", weighing 110-120
    pounds or less.
  • Make-up, lighting and air-brushing are used to
    slim down the images even more.
  • Less than 10 of the female population are
    genetically destined to fit this ideal.

Victorias Secret, Angels Collection
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The latest addition to Mattel's best-selling
fashion doll range has caused near-riots in toy
stores as children and collectors alike rush to
pick up their very own Bulimic Barbie. The new
doll, complete with a fridge full of ice cream,
chocolate and cake, is the epitome of doll
technology. "Look at this," squealed
mother-of-two Dawn Galway, 31, activating the
toy's realistic gag reflex by pushing its hand
into its mouth. "Isn't that the cutest thing
you've ever seen?" she asked, as the synthetic
vomit gushed into the tiny basin. A Mattel PR
spokeswoman said "Mattel have an ongoing
commitment to fans of Barbie to keep her relevant
and now. Market research indicates that many
young girls are developing a fascination with
bulimia and other eating disorders, and this new
doll reflects that." Barbie enthusiast Kylie
Holridge, 10, said. "Now, with Bulimic Barbie, I
know just how to get that perfect thin figure.
Kylie's elder sister Jodie, 13, said that Barbie
has inspired her quest for a slimmer, trimmer
figure since she was nine.
Bulimic Barbie
Matel, the makers of Barbie, sued The Body Shop,
UK for this ad. They withdrew it and settled out
of court.
Kelloggs Special K cereal realized that
campaigns featuring young, thin models barely
squeezing into tight clothes alienated their
older audience, Our consumers told us they
really couldn't relate to advertising techniques
that used unrealistic body images. "They said
that they couldnt live up to the standards of
beauty dictated by advertisers."
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Men are Supposed to be Strong
  • What message does this ad send to men? Women?
  • Do we usually see more scantily clad men or
  • Is this what a man looks like? Should men look
    like this? Why or why not?
  • Where do our ideals of beauty come from?

  • Recent advertising trends are just as harmful to
  • Unforgiving unrealistic images
  • Mens magazines encourage obsession with body
    image, aging sexual prowess

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