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CAREER DECISION-MAKING APPROACHES

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CAREER DECISION-MAKING APPROACHES Two categories of decision making models Two categories of decision making models Descriptive Theories - describe or explain the ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: CAREER DECISION-MAKING APPROACHES


1
CAREER DECISION-MAKING APPROACHES
  • Two categories of decision making models

2
Two categories of decision making models
  • Descriptive Theories - describe or explain the
    choices that an individual makes when deciding on
    career choices usually based on adolescent or
    adult decision making.
  • Example spiritual approach life and career are
    related
  • Prescriptive Theories - focus on the ideal
    approach to decision making originate with
    psychological decision making theory or
    observations of cognitive decision making
    processes
  • Example Peterson et al.s cognitive information
    processing approach

3
Personal and Common Realities
  • Reality concerns the awareness of ones career
    decision-making
  • Personal reality - an individuals sense of what
    is right
  • Common reality - what others say the individual
    should do

4
A SPIRITUAL PERSPECTIVE IN DECISION MAKING
  • Spirit an essential principle that gives life
    to physical being
  • See work as a place where ones spirit can be
    nourished and person can develop self

5
Spirituality
  • When individuals experience the wholeness of
    living spirituality develops

6
Lifecareer Theory (Miller-Tiedeman)
  • Sees each person as his own theory maker
  • You are not looking for a career, you have
    one¼life is our career
  • By trusting inner wisdom that comes from your
    intellectual ability, previous experiences, and
    intuition into past experiences, you can
    experience your career
  • Lifecareer is the dynamic lived-in-the-moment
    process defined by each person in individual
    moments
  • The client decides what works and what doesnt,
    not the counselor

7
Seven themes that people can use to better
understand their lives and the career decisions
that are a part of their lives
  • Change - when change occurs by chance, it is
    called synchronocity can be internal or
    external many feelings and emotions
  • Balance - seek balance it is natural to maintain
    balance between work, play, and other activities
  • Energy - needed in order to bring about change
    and balance in ones life many sources of energy
    (from others, from self, etc.)
  • Community - 3 types (1) communities of
    companionship immediate and extended family,
    close friends, (2) communities of culture
    neighbors, classmates, coworkers, (3) cosmic
    community those which concern large ideas, such
    as environment, poor, etc.
  • Calling - finding ones ideal work
  • Harmony - finding the work that will bring about
    a true sense of appreciation and understanding
  • Unity - to believe in unity is to trust the
    universe

8
A Holistic Approach to Life Planning - Hansen
  • Task 1 Finding Work that Needs Doing in a
    Changing Global Context
  • Task 2 Weaving our Lives into a Meaningful Whole
  • Task 3 Connecting Family and Work
  • Task 4 Valuing Pluralism in Individuality
  • Task 5 Managing Personal Transitions and
    Organizational Change
  • Task 6 Exploring Spirituality and Life Purpose

9
COUNSELOR ISSUES
  • Spiritual approach - Focus on internal
    decision-making process
  • Be aware of different approach to
    decision-making fo counselor and client
  • Avoid shoulds, attend to clients personal
    reality

10
A COGNITIVE INFORMATION PROCESSING APPROACH
  • Peterson et al. tried to help individuals
    understand the way that they think and how that
    influences their career decision making

11
Prescriptive point of view
  • - prescribe or suggest ways that individuals can
    think about career decision making that will
    improve their ability to make good career
    decisions

12
Four assumptions
  • 1. Both affect and cognitive processing are
    important components of career decision making.
  • 2. Individuals not only need to know about
    themselves and the world of work, but also
    information about thinking and how it affects
    decision making.
  • 3. Information about self and the world of work
    is constantly changing.
  • 4. By improving ones information processing
    capabilities, clients can improve their career
    problem-solving abilities.

13
The Pyramid of Information Processing
  • Based on Sternbergs approach to understanding
    human intelligence Three basic components
  • knowledge domain (knowing oneself and knowing
    about world of work),
  • decision-making skills domain (learn how to make
    decisions),
  • and the executive processing domain (become aware
    of how their thoughts influence their decisions)

14
Decision-Making Skills
  • The capabilities that enable people to process
    information about themselves and occupations.
    Also known as CASVE
  • Communication when people get input from within
    themselves or from the environment, the
    communication process begins
  • Analysis examining the self-knowledge and
    occupational knowledge domain
  • Synthesis when information is analyzed, then
    people can pursue courses of action synthesizing
    information through elaborating or crystallizing
    what they have analyzed
  • Valuing the client evaluates or values possible
    actions or career directions
  • Execution once choices have been evaluated or
    have undergone the valuing process, then a plan
    or strategy can be formulated to implement the
    choice

15
The Executive Processing Domain top section of
pyramid refers to higher order functions
  • Three major ways of decision making
  • Self-Talk - internal messages that we give
    ourselves about career choice and other issues
    can be positive or negative
  • Self-Awareness - individuals can be more
    effective problem solvers when they are aware of
    what they are doing and why they are doing it
  • Monitoring and Control - people can monitor the
    way in which they go through the CASVE process
    and control how much time they give to each of
    these stages or phases

16
The Career Thoughts Inventory
  • Three scales
  • Decision-Making Confusion - indicates the
    difficulty that individuals have in initiating or
    sustaining career decision making relates to
    difficulties involved in CAS steps of CASVE
  • External Conflict - difficulty in balancing ones
    own views of information about self and
    occupations with the views of others relates to
    V in CASVE
  • Commitment Anxiety - fear or anxiety that comes
    with the difficulty in implementing a career
    choice and addressing problems in moving from the
    valuing stage to the execution stage

17
Seven-Step Service Delivery Sequence
  • Represents a structured model of career
    counseling that is more organized than most
  • 1. Initial Interview information is gathered
    about clients career problem rapport CASVE
    explained
  • 2. Preliminary Assessment screening instrument
    (e.g. Career Thoughts Inventory) is given and
    readiness for counseling is assessed.
  • 3. Define Problem and Analyze Causes problem is
    clarified and defined so that goals can be
    developed
  • 4. Formulate Goals together form goals Goals
    become basis for Individual Learning Plan (ILP)
  • 5. Develop Individual Learning Plan together
    develop an ILP that lists the activities that are
    to be completed by the client in order to achieve
    her goals
  • 6. Execute Individual Learning Plan with
    counselors help, clients follow through on the
    ILP which is integrated with the CASVE cycle
  • 7. Summarize Review and Generalization after
    client has completed ILP, together discuss
    progress towards reaching goals

18
COUNSELOR ISSUES
  • Cognitive Information Processing Theory
  • Avoid too much structure
  • Consider seven step delivery model
  • Decide whether or not to assess career
    readiness
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