# Problem Solving And Decision Making - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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## Problem Solving And Decision Making

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### Problem Solving And Decision Making Chapter 8 Definition Problem solving refers to active efforts to discover what must be done to achieve a goal that is not readily ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Problem Solving And Decision Making

1
Problem Solving And Decision Making
• Chapter 8

2
Definition
• Problem solving refers to active efforts to
discover what must be done to achieve a goal that

3
Types of Problems (Greeno)
• Problems of Inducing Structure
• Problems of Arrangement
• Problems of Transformation

4
Approaches to Problem Solving
• Trial Error
• Heuristics
• Forming Subgoals (Tower of Hanoi)
• Working Backwards (Water Lilies)
• Using Analogies (Tumor)
• Reenvisioning the Problem

5
Barriers to Effective Problem Solving
• Irrelevant (Distracting) Information
• Functional Fixedness (Screw Driver)
• Mental Set
• Unnecessary Constraints

6
Decision Making
• Two types of decisions
• Making choices (selecting among alternatives)
• Taking chances (deciding amidst uncertainty)

7
Selecting Among Alternatives
• Strategies
• Subtractive (Elimination of Aspects)

8
Making Risky Decisions
• Risky Decisions (Tversky Kahneman)
• Factors Influencing Risky Decisions
• Using Probabilities
• Expected Value
• Subjective Utility
• Factors that Affect Probability Estimates
• Heuristics
• Availability
• Representativeness
• Ignoring Base Rates
• The Conjunction Fallacy
• Alternative Outcomes Effect
• Framing the Question

9
Humans as Decision Makers
• Classic View
• Irrational
• Prone to errors mistakes
• Mentally limited
• Evolutionary View
• Rational
• Fast and Frugal heuristics work

Dual Process Theories
Intuitive Thinking Rational Thinking
10
Reducing Regret after Decisions
Told next person tasks were fun and interesting
Cognitive Dissonance Theory
Asked how much they enjoyed experiment
Told next person tasks were fun and interesting
11
Making Decisions in Groups
• Group Polarization
• Groupthink

12
Group Polarization
Group Polarization- tendency to shift toward
more extreme positions after group discussion
13
Groupthink
• Groupthink- syndrome of bad decision-making

12.17