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Cultural Competency: Incorporating Communication Skills Training into Health Professions Curricula

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October 23, 2008 Cultural Competency: Incorporating Communication Skills Training into Health Professions Curricula Janice P. Burke, PhD, OTR/L, FAOTA – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Cultural Competency: Incorporating Communication Skills Training into Health Professions Curricula


1
Cultural Competency Incorporating Communication
Skills Training into Health Professions Curricula
October 23, 2008
Janice P. Burke, PhD, OTR/L, FAOTA Professor and
Chair, Department of Occupational
Therapy Dean, Jefferson School of Health
Professions Lauren Collins, MD Assistant
Professor, Division of Geriatric Medicine
Department of Family and Community
Medicine Jefferson Medical College
2
Objectives
  • ? Express the role of verbal and nonverbal
    communication skills in the patient encounter.

October 23, 2008
3
Objectives
  • ? Adopt new tools for teaching and
  • assessing communication skills with health
    professions students.

4
Objectives
  • ? Devise an action plan for one
  • strategy to promote training of
  • culturally and linguistically
  • competent health care
  • professionals.

5
Human Interaction is
  • Created in VERBAL and NONVERBAL behaviors
  • Culturally bound
  • Constructed through rhythm, tempo, kinesic
    movements, presentation of self, use of gaze, and
    use of space
  • A delicate and complicated behavioral
    coordination

6
Communication Why is it important?
  • Effective communication enhances
  • patient satisfaction
  • health outcomes
  • adherence to treatment
  • job satisfaction
  • Patient surveys report that patients want better
    communication from their health care providers
    (Lansky, 1998)
  • Breakdown in communication has been shown to be a
    factor in malpractice litigation (Beckman, 1994)

7
Communication skills Why do they matter?
  • Increasingly, communication is evaluated to
    determine a trainees suitability for promotion,
    graduation, and licensure
  • Institute of Medicine, Improving Medical
    Education Report, 2004 names communication as
    one of six domains
  • Many health care organizations are using patient
    satisfaction ratings of physician communication
    skills to help determine compensation
  • Schrimer, 2005 Makoul, et al, 2007.

8
VERBAL BEHAVIORS -
  • Taking and Holding the Floor
  • Allows Key Figure to
  • Manage concurrent demands
  • Control topic
  • Control interruptions
  • Ignoring topics
  • Control verbal requests

9
NONVERBAL BEHAVIORS Eye Gaze
and Eye Contact Head Movements
Facial Gestures Postural Orientation Body
Lean, Body Posture, Postural Change
Interactional Space Gestures Hand,
Affirmative
10
NONVERBAL BEHAVIORS ARE USED TO SIGNAL
  • Who should be involved
  • The focus of attention and shifts of attention
  • The frame for the activity
  • The start and completion of an activity

11
Eye Gaze
Gaze direction provides information to
co-participants about what is important
12
Head Movements
  • Used as a signal to encourage a speaker to
    continue
  • Conveys understanding
  • Typically used with eye gaze
  • More difficult to interpret when used without eye
    gaze

13
Facial Gestures and Touch
14
Eye Contact and Body Posture
15
Postural Orientation
16
Postural Change
17
Interactional Space
18
Forming Interactional Space
19
Teaching Communication Skills
20
Teaching Communication skills
  • Kalamazoo Consensus Statement identified seven
    essential communication tasks
  • Build the doctor-patient relationship the
    fundamental task
  • Open the discussion
  • Gather information
  • Understand the patients perspective
  • Share information
  • Reach agreement of problems and plans
  • Provide closure
  • Kalamazoo Consensus Statement, Acad Med, 2001

21
Teaching Communication Skills Challenges
  • Variability among institutions
  • Methods, curricular time, position, depth of
    materials
  • Variable resources
  • staff, infrastructure, finances, time, etc

22
Teaching Communication Skills Approaches
  • Approaches have included
  • Lectures
  • Workshops
  • Role-plays
  • Standardized patients
  • Videotaped encounters
  • Modeling
  • Cinemeducation

23
Teaching Communication Skills Approaches
  • Approaches categorized into 4 groups
  • Instruction
  • didactic sessions, etc
  • Feedback
  • assessment/evaluation related to medical
    interview
  • Modeling
  • using a model (actor) to demonstrate the behavior
  • Skill practice
  • participants produce behavior of interest
    (included monitoring and skill refinement)
  • Anderson, Pat Educ Couns, 1991

24
Teaching Communication Skills
  • Students prefer experiential methods and use of
    benchmarks for learning communication skills
  • Evans et al, 1989 Rees, 2004 Losh et al, 2005,
    Boyle et al, 2005
  • Focusing on tasks provides a sense of purpose
    for learning communication skills. The task
    approach also preserves the individuality of
    learner by encouraging them to develop a
    repertoire of strategies and skills, and respond
    to patients in a flexible way.
  • Makoul and Schofield, 1999

25
Teaching Communication Skills Strategy
  • Effective teaching methods
  • Provide evidence of current deficiencies in
    communication
  • Offer evidence base for skills needed to overcome
    deficiencies
  • Demonstrate skills to be learned, elicit
    reactions
  • Provide opportunity to practice skills
  • Give constructive feedback on performance,
    opportunity for reflection
  • Maguire et al, BMJ, 2002

26
Teaching Tools Cinemeducation
  • Approach Cinemeducation
  • In a small group format, residents view the movie
    The Doctor starring William Hurt and discuss
    issues such as the psychosocial impact of
    terminal illness, breaking bad news and stress in
    a medical marriage.
  • Alexander, Fam Med, 2002

27
Teaching Tools Small Group Discussion
  • Approach case-based seminars and discussion of
    assigned readings and writing projects
  • Trainees given a case with specific trigger
    questions for discussion. Trainees write about
    their experiences with patients to deepen their
    own understanding of issues such as health
    disparities, medical errors, and access to care.
  • Trainees discuss readings including journal
    articles, novels, and essays by physician
    writers.
  • Skills assessed with a 360 evaluation from
    physicians, nurses, patients
  • Sklar D, Acad Emer Med, 2002

28
Teaching Tools Role-play/Simulated patients
  • Model for medical interviewing
  • Approach standardized patients and small group
    format with role-play
  • The specific skills addressed include
  • Establishing rapport (Invite)
  • Active listening (Listen)
  • Summarizing the patients story (Summarizing)
  • The learners are given feedback on their skills
    from the standardized patients
  • Boyle D, Acad Med, 2005

29
Teaching Tools Role-play/Simulated patients
  • Model for delivering bad news
  • Approach Trainees taught a mnemonic/model for
    informing families of a death. Trainees practice
    this model via role-play and with simulated
    patients.
  • Simulated survivors provide feedback on death
    notification skills
  • Hobgood C, Harward D, Newton K, Davis W. The
    Educational Intervention GRIEV-ING Improves
    Death Notification Skills of Residents. Academic
    Emergency Medicine. 2005 12 296-301.

30
Teaching Clinical Skills Summary
  • Perhaps the most important way for an individual
    to learn skills and behavior is to practice them,
    be observed, receive helpful feedback, reflect on
    his or her performance, and then repeat the
    cycle
  • Branch et al, 2001

31
Assessing Communication Skills
32
Assessment What is Competence?
  • Competence is not defined solely by the presence
    or absence of specific behaviors but rather by
    the presence and timing of effective verbal and
    nonverbal behaviors within the context of
    individual interactions with patients or
    families
  • Schrimer, 2005

33
Assessing Communication Skills Challenges
  • Assessing communication competence is complex
  • Often requires in-vivo demonstration
  • Is dependent on observable behaviors of the
    physician but also on behaviors and perceptions
    of patients

34
Assessment Methods Formative vs. Summative
Evaluation
  • Formative Evaluation
  • May use checklists to assess learning needs,
    create learning opportunities, guide feedback and
    coaching
  • Summative Evaluation
  • Or use tool administered in a standardized way,
    rated by an evaluator, with a predetermined
    passing score
  • Kalamazoo II Report, 2004

35
Assessment Methods
  • Checklists
  • Most frequently used method
  • Involves an observers rating of trainees
    performance of several communication behaviors
  • Rater may be self, peer, faculty, or SP
  • May be live or recording of previous interaction
  • Kalamazoo II Report, 2004

36
Assessment Methods cont.
  • Patient Surveys
  • Patients may be the best judge of effectiveness
    of a HCPs interpersonal skills
  • Examinations
  • Can provide an effective means of testing
    knowledge about the process and content of
    communication tasks and conceptual basis of
    interpersonal relationships
  • Kalamazoo II Report, 2004

37
Assessment Tools Specific Types
  • Ratings of direct observation with real patients
  • Ratings of simulated encounters with standardized
    patients
  • Ratings of video and audiotape interactions
  • Patient questionnaire or survey
  • Examination of knowledge, perceptions, attitudes
  • Kalamazoo II Report, 2004

38
Sample Assessment Tools
  • SEGUE Form
  • Kalamazoo Essential Elements The Communication
    Checklist
  • Humanism Scale
  • Davis Observation Guide
  • Calgary-Cambridge Observation Guide
  • Roter Interactional Analysis System
  • Four Habits Model
  • Common Ground Rating Form
  • MAAS Global Rating List for Consultation Skills
    of Doctors
  • Brown interview Checklist (BIC)
  • Rochester Communication Rating Scale
  • Interpersonal Skills Rating Form
  • Interpersonal and Communication Skills Checklist
  • The Humanism Scale
  • Physicians Humanistic Behaviors Questionnaire
  • Parents Perceptions of Physicians Communicative
    Behavior
  • Patient Perception of Patient Centeredness
  • ABIM Patient Assessment

39
Assessment Challenges
  • New domains of assessment
  • No validated method of assessing teamwork
  • Many communication rating scales, little evidence
    that one is better than another
  • Standardization
  • Individual schools often make own decisions about
    assessment, so it may be difficult to compare
    students
  • Impact on learning
  • Unintended consequences (i.e. cramming for an
    exam vs. reflective learning)
  • Assessment and Future Performance
  • Hard to document correlation
  • Epstein, NEJM, 2007

40
How to Assess Recommendations
  • Multiple methods, environments, contexts
  • Organize into repeated, ongoing, contextual and
    developmental programs
  • Include directly observed behavior
  • Use experts to test expert judgment
  • Use pass-fail standards that reflect appropriate
    developmental levels
  • Provide timely feedback and monitoring
  • Epstein, NEJM, 2007

41
How to choose a tool?
  • Tools available at http//www.acgme.org/outcome/as
    sess/IandC_Index.asp
  • External validity, feasibility, psychometric
    characteristics listed on website
  • Rating of tools available from Schrimer et al,
    Fam Med, 2005

42
How to choose a tool?
  • Kalamazoo II Consensus Recommendations
  • A multi-method approach
  • Using faculty instrument to assess communication
    skills
  • Patient survey to assess interpersonal skills
  • For summative evaluation, choose instrument with
    strong reliability and validity measures
  • Choose assessment criteria that are
    developmentally appropriate
  • Schrimer, 2005

43
A Case Study Development of an Ethnogeriatric
OSCE
44
Case Study Context
  • Incorporating cross-cultural curricula into
    undergraduate and graduate medical education has
    been proposed as a strategy to increase provider
    awareness and knowledge of cross-cultural issues
    in the medical encounter
  • Betancourt, 2003

45
Case Study Literature Review
  • In one review, Loudon identified 17 educational
    programs for medical students on cultural
    diversity
  • 6 programs used simulated patients
  • 2 programs used videotaped modeling
  • Others were lecture or didactic session, role
    play, panel, case presentation, small group
    sessions
  • Only half of the programs were required
  • Only 1 program included student assessment
  • Loudon, 1999

46
Case Study Literature Review
  • Few publications exist on instructional
    initiatives to enhance medical students knowledge
    of cultural diversity
  • Review by Loudon highlighted need for programs in
    multicultural education as part of medical core
    curriculum and as training for medical educators

47
Case Study Assessing Learner Needs
  • Formal needs assessment performed by Deans at the
    medical school identified need for enhanced
    curricula in geriatrics and cultural competency
  • Informal needs assessment performed in
    conjunction with Family Medicine Residency
    Program Director revealed no formal training in
    ethnogeriatrics

48
Case Study Outline Goals/Objectives
  • To practice conducting a culturally competent
    interview with an older patient with a focus on
    incorporating communication skills

49
Case Study Why Choose an OSCE?
  • Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE)
    is a practical tool to both prepare students for
    working with diverse populations and to assess
    their performance in cross-cultural medical
    interviewing

50
Case Study Establishing OSCE Goals
  • The goal of this case is to evaluate medical
    students, residents, and fellows in taking a
    focused history on a patient with hyperlipidemia
    who has issues with trusting Western medicine

51
Case Study Establishing OSCE Objectives
  • Students will be evaluated by their ability to
  • Elicit a cultural, social, and medical history,
    including a patients health beliefs and model of
    their illness
  • Use negotiating and problem-solving skills in
    shared decision-making with a patient
  • Assess and enhance patient adherence based on the
    patients explanatory model
  • Recognize and manage the impact of bias, class,
    and power on the clinical encounter
  • Demonstrate respect for the patients cultural
    and health beliefs
  • Acknowledge their own biases and the potential
    impact they have on the quality of health care

52
Case Study Teaching the ETHNIC mnemonic
  • E Explanation
  • (How do you explain your illness?)
  • T Treatment
  • (What treatments have you tried?)
  • H Healers
  • (Who else have you sought help from for this?)
  • N Negotiate
  • (mutually acceptable options)
  • I Intervention
  • (agreed on)
  • C Collaboration
  • (with patient, family and healers)
  • Kobylarz, J Am Geriatr Soc, 2002

53
Case Study The OSCE Scenario
  • Instructions to the Standardized Patients
  • Patient Name Mr./Mrs. Jackson
  • Setting Office visit
  • Scenario
  • Mr./Mrs. Jackson is a 65 year-old patient who is
    in the office for a follow-up visit after being
    diagnosed with hyperlipidemia (high cholesterol)
    six months ago. At the last visit about 3 months
    ago, he/she was told by the physician to start
    taking Lipitor, a statin, to reduce his/her
    cholesterol levels. He/she has not been taking
    the new medication because he/she heard that it
    causes bad side effects like muscle pain and
    maybe even death. Instead, he/she started to take
    Red Yeast Rice, a remedy that he/she heard about
    from his/her friends at the local senior center
    to lower cholesterol. His/her daughter is
    concerned that he/she is not taking the
    medication the doctor prescribed and made him/her
    come back to see the doctor to discuss this in
    more detail.
  • Opening Line My cholesterol is high.

54
Case Study Video of Sample SP Encounter
If you would like a copy of the video, please
contact Dr. Lauren Collins at lauren.collins_at_jeffe
rson.edu.
55
Case Study Standardized Patient Checklist
Communication The student asked YES NO
History The student asked YES NO
56
Case Study Video of SP Feedback
If you would like a copy of the video, please
contact Dr. Lauren Collins at lauren.collins_at_jeffe
rson.edu.
57
Case Study Implementing the tool
  • Pilot project implemented with 24 trainees
    (medical students, residents, fellows)
  • Adapted by Clinical Skills team for end of third
    year OSCE
  • Administered to 250 medical students

58
Case Study Dissemination
  • Dissemination - local
  • Undergraduate Medical Education _at_Jefferson
  • End of Year OSCE
  • End of Clerkship SP scenario
  • Graduate Medical Education
  • Incorporate into formal FM resident evaluation

59
Case Study Dissemination
  • National
  • Post to EPaD GEC website
  • Post to POGOE or MedEd portal
  • Submit scholarly articles, presentations

60
Case Study Next Steps
  • Modify scenario for use by other Health
    Professions
  • Meet with Health Professions faculty/Clinical
    Skills Team
  • Incorporate into curricula
  • Research/evaluation

61
Developing an Action Plan
62
Action Plan Checklist
  • Has a needs assessment been conducted?
  • What communicative behaviors are going to be the
    target of the intervention?
  • Is there clear theoretical rational for the
    strategies chosen to effect the desired outcomes?
  • Is there an explicit scheme for planned
    intervention?
  • Anderson et al, 1991

63
Action Plan Checklist, cont.
  • Are the resources required to conduct the
    intervention available?
  • Is there support from the staff that will be
    involved in the program?
  • Is there a plan for evaluation?
  • In preparing reports and publications, are the
    sample characteristics, methods, and statistical
    analyses described thoroughly?
  • Anderson et al, 1991

64
Discussion
65
Online Resources
  • http//www.acgme.org/outcome/assess/IandC_Index.as
    p (ACGME Outcome Project Advancing Education in
    Interpersonal and Communication Skills)
  • www.omhrc.gov/clas (National Standards on
    Culturally and Linguistically Appropriate
    Services in Health Care)
  • www.aamc.org/meded/edres/cime/vol1no5.pdf
    (Teaching and Learning of Cultural Competence in
    Medical School)
  • www.stanford.edu/ethnoger (Stanfords Core
    Curriculum in Ethnogeriatrics)
  • www.hrsa.gov/culturalcompetence/curriculumguide.ht
    m (Cultural Competence Resources for Health Care
    Providers)

66
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