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Change Management

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Change Management Chris Colomb Trish Fullmer Jordan Bloodworth Veronica Beichner Definition of Change Management Process of planning, organizing, coordinating and ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Change Management


1
Change Management
  • Chris Colomb
  • Trish Fullmer
  • Jordan Bloodworth
  • Veronica Beichner

2
Definition of Change Management
  • Process of planning, organizing, coordinating and
    controlling the compositions of the environment,
    internal and external to ensure that the process
    changes are implemented according to approved
    plans and the overall objectives of introducing
    the changes are achieved with as little
    disruption as possible.

Oseni, Ezekiel, 10/26/08, Change Management in
Process Change, 2007, Journal Online.
3
Process Changes
  • Responsibility of top management
  • Not only have to manage their employees but their
    whole environment thats affected
  • Suppliers
  • Customers
  • Competitors
  • Can be very draining on finances and people
    involved

4
Steps for change
  • 1) Pre-implementation
  • Realize the need for change
  • Determine cost/benefit of new change
  • Management must support the new change and
    display this support to others
  • 3 ways to deal with resistance to change
  • Ignore it
  • End it by preventing it
  • Implement crisis management

5
Steps for change
  • 2) Implementation
  • Many companies fail before they make it here
  • Elect a standing committee
  • Composed of all departments affected
  • Meet on a regular basis
  • Meet when problems arise in order to find
    solutions
  • Should appreciate all stakeholders for their
    patience and understanding

6
Steps for change
  • 3) Post-implementation
  • Make sure project achieved planned results
  • Problems that arise after implemented are found
    and dealt with
  • May still have resistance due to
  • Lack of training
  • New culture

7
Bain Company Example
  • Plan
  • Lead
  • Operate
  • Track

www.bain.com
8
Audit Guidelines for Change Controls
  • The best practice guidance
  • Management should use COBiT resources as a source
    of best practice guidance
  • COBiT enables the understanding of
  • Business objectives
  • Communication of best practices
  • Recommendations to be made

9
Control Objective Manage Changes
  • High-level control objective AI6 states
  • The management system should provide for the
    analysis, implementation and follow-up of all
    changes requested and made to the existing IT
    infrastructure.

10
Manage Changes
  • The management system should consider the
  • following
  • Identification of changes
  • Categorization, prioritization and emergency
    procedures
  • Impact assessment
  • Change authorization
  • Release management
  • Software distribution
  • Use of automated tools
  • Configuration management

11
Audit Program for Change Controls
  • Review General Processes
  • Through interviews, determine
  • who prioritizes justifies changes
  • how user requests are assigned to programmers
  • how testing is performed
  • who approves changes
  • how edited or new programs are put into
    production
  • Adequate guidelines are established to instruct
    programming personnel in their duties

Source See Audit Program Change Control (Under
extra readings on topics change management)
12
Audit Program for Change Controls
  • Specific Process
  • Completeness
  • Validity of changes
  • Adequate involvement
  • Access control
  • Emergency changes
  • One-time changes

Source See Audit Program Change Control (Under
extra readings on topics change management)
13
Audit Program for Change Controls
  • Review System Testing for
  • Testing procedures performed or checked by
    persons other than those involved in writing the
    programs
  • Adequate controls to prevent production files
    from being used in testing
  • Adequate testing procedures to prevent any
    unauthorized coding from being inserted into
    programs during their modifications
  • Existence of a structured approach to testing
    based on the use of test plans
  • Adequate supervision and segregation of testing
    activities

Source See Audit Program Change Control (Under
extra readings on topics change management)
14
Audit Program for Change Controls
  • Review User Acceptance Testing
  • A user acceptance testing sign-off procedure is
    in place
  • User acceptance testing is carried out in an
    appropriate environment, isolated from the
    production system
  • Adequate consideration is given to the setting up
    of test data
  • There is a structured approach to testing based
    on the use of test plans
  • Parallel testing is carried out where practical
  • Volume testing is carried out

Source See Audit Program Change Control (Under
extra readings on topics change management)
15
Audit Program for Change Controls
  • Review Testing Environment
  • Access to the test environment is restricted to
    only authorized individuals
  • IT testing is carried out in an appropriate
    environment, isolated from the production system
  • Adequate consideration is given to the setting up
    of the test data
  • Test environment provides an adequate
    representation of the production environment

Source See Audit Program Change Control (Under
extra readings on topics change management)
16
Audit Program for Change Controls
  • Review Backup and Recovery
  • Procedures are in place to consider the impact of
    change on other applications or to determine need
    for upgrading software
  • Operations regularly backs up production program
    libraries, together with a record of changes made
    between back-ups
  • Controls to ensure proper recoverability of
    program libraries should a failure occur and that
    the recovery process introduces no errors

Source See Audit Program Change Control (Under
extra readings on topics change management)
17
Change Management
  • Change Management ensures
  • Standardized methods
  • Processes and procedures are used for all changes
  • Facilitation of efficient and prompt handling of
    all changes
  • Maintaining proper balance between the need for
    change and the potential negative impact of
    changes

18
Common Traps to avoid!
  • 1. Misstarts Change is ill-advised and without
    sufficient commitment. 
  • 2. Making change an option
  • Management asks for change instead of enforcing
    change 
  • 3. A focus only on process
  • Focus on process not results for initial
    implementation 
  • 4. A focus only on results
  • Focus completely on the end result with little
    concern for problems with change 
  • 5. Not involving those expected to implement the
    change
  • Management decides on change without consulting
    employees
  • 6. Delegation outside company
  • Giving outside consultants complete power for
    change 
  • 7. No change in reward system
  • If you reward employees the same way you will
    get the same work 
  • 8. Leadership doesn't walk the talk
  • Leadership preaches change, but does not set
    the example 
  • 9. Wrong size
  • Change is too small or big 
  • 10. No follow-through
  • Management does not clearly define
    responsibility and thus the change is not
    executed properly

Source http//www.ustyleit.com/Change_Management_
Best_Practices.htm
19
Developing a Change Management Plan
  • Raising and recording of changes
  • Forecasting the impact, costs, benefits and risk
    of future changes
  • Developing business justification and obtaining
    approval
  • Managing and coordinating change implementation
  • Monitoring and reporting on implementation,
    reviewing and closing change requests

20
Example
  • Handout Change Management Plan
  • http//pma.doit.wisc.edu/plan/3-4/tools.html
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