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Infectious & Non-Infectious Diseases

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Infectious diseases are caused by pathogenic microorganisms, such as bacteria, viruses, parasites or fungi; the diseases can be spread, directly or indirectly, from ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Infectious & Non-Infectious Diseases


1
Infectious Non-Infectious Diseases
2
Infectious Diseases
  • Infectious diseases are caused by pathogenic
    microorganisms, such as bacteria, viruses,
    parasites or fungi the diseases can be spread,
    directly or indirectly, from one person to
    another.

How Infections Occur
3
(No Transcript)
4
Methods of Transmission
  • Droplet Contact
  • Also known as the respiratory route, it is a
    typical mode of transmission among many
    infectious agents. If an infected person coughs
    or sneezes on another person the microorganisms,
    suspended in warm, moist droplets, may enter the
    body through the nose, mouth or eye surfaces.
    Diseases that are commonly spread by coughing or
    sneezing include (at least)

5
Droplet Transmission (cont.)
  • Bacterial Meningitis
  • Chickenpox
  • Common cold
  • Influenza
  • Mumps
  • Strep throat
  • Tuberculosis
  • Measles
  • Rubella
  • Whooping cough

6
Fecal Oral Transmission
  • Direct contact is rare in this route, for humans
    at least. More common are the indirect routes
    foodstuffs or water become contaminated (by
    people not washing their hands before preparing
    food, or untreated sewage being released into a
    drinking water supply) and the people who eat and
    drink them become infected. In developing
    countries most sewage is discharged into the
    environment or on cropland as of 2006 even in
    developed countries there are periodic system
    failures resulting in a sanitary sewer overflow.
    This is the typical mode of transmission for the
    infectious agents of (at least)
  • Cholera
  • Hepatitis A
  • Polio
  • Rotavirus
  • Salmonella

7
Sexual Transmission
  • This refers to any disease that can be caught
    during sexual activity with another person,
    including vaginal or anal sex or (less commonly)
    through oral sex. Transmission is either directly
    between surfaces in contact during intercourse
    (the usual route for bacterial infections and
    those infections causing sores) or from
    secretions (semen or the fluid secreted by the
    excited female) which carry infectious agents
    that get into the partner's blood stream through
    tiny tears in the penis, vagina or rectum (this
    is a more usual route for viruses).
  • Some diseases transmissible by the sexual route
    include (at least)
  • HIV/AIDS
  • Chlamydia
  • Genital warts
  • Gonorrhea
  • Hepatitis B
  • Syphilis
  • Herpes

8
Transmission by Direct Contact
  • Diseases that can be transmitted by direct
    contact are called contagious . These diseases
    can also be transmitted by sharing a towel (where
    the towel is rubbed vigorously on both bodies) or
    items of clothing in close contact with the body
    (socks, for example) if they are not washed
    thoroughly between uses. For this reason,
    contagious diseases often break out in schools,
    where towels are shared and personal items of
    clothing accidentally swapped in the changing
    rooms.
  • Some diseases that are transmissible by direct
    contact include
  • Athlete's foot
  • Impetigo
  • Syphilis (on rare occasions, if an uninfected
    person touches a chancre)
  • Warts

9
Vector Borne Transmission
  • A vector is an organism that does not cause
    disease itself but that transmits infection by
    conveying pathogens from one host to another.
  • Examples include mosquitoes, deer ticks, animal
    bites, etc.

10
Test Your Knowledge!
  • Is It Contagious?

11
Non Infectious Disease
  • Non-infectious diseases (also called
    Non-communicable diseases ) are those diseases
    that are not caused by a pathogen and cannot be
    shared from one person to another.
  • Non-infectious diseases may be caused by either
    the environment, nutritional deficiencies,
    lifestyle choices, or genetic inheritances.
    Unlike infectious diseases, non-infectious
    diseases are not communicable or contagious,
    although some kinds can be passed down
    genetically to the children of a carrier.

12
Infectious vs. Non-Infectious
  • Historically, infectious diseases were the main
    cause of death in the world and, indeed, in some
    developing regions this may still be the case.
    With the development of antibiotics and
    vaccination programs, infectious disease is no
    longer the leading cause of death in the western
    world. Non-infectious disease is now responsible
    for the leading causes of death in both developed
    and some developing countries.

13
Causes of Non-Infectious Disease
  • Causes of non-infectious disease are categorized
    into genetically inherited diseases and
    environmental diseases. Non-infectious diseases
    that are not genetic disorders are environmental
    diseases, although many diseases are affected by
    both genetic and environmental factors.

14
Inherited Diseases
  • Genetic disorders are caused by errors in genetic
    information that produce diseases in the affected
    people. These errors may include
  • A change in the chromosome numbers, such as Down
    syndrome
  • A defect in a single gene caused by mutation,
    such as Cystic Fibrosis.

15
Environmental Diseases
  • Environmental disease is a very broad category.
    It includes avoidable and unavoidable conditions
    caused by external factors, such as sunlight,
    food, pollution, and lifestyle choices. The
    diseases of affluence are non-infectious diseases
    with environmental causes. Examples include
  • Many types of cardiovascular disease
  • Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease caused by
    smoking tobacco
  • Type 2 Diabetes
  • Malnutrition caused by too little food, or eating
    the wrong kinds of food (e.g. scurvy from lack of
    Vitamin C)
  • Skin cancer caused by radiation from the sun

16
Cancer
  • Cancer is a non-infectious disease that affects
    millions of people. The National Cancer Institute
    reports the most common cancer type as
    nonmelanoma skin cancer, with about one million
    cases a year. Lung cancer is the second-most
    common, with about 219,440 new cases and 159,390
    deaths. Other common cancers include bladder,
    breast, leukemia, pancreatic, prostate, thyroid,
    colorectal, endometrial and kidney cancer.

17
Heart Disease
  • Mayo Clinic reports heart disease, a
    non-infectious disease, as the number-one killer
    in the United States. Heart or cardiovascular
    disease refers to a variety of conditions that
    involve the circulatory system. Heart attacks,
    strokes, chest pain, tachycardia, high
    cholesterol, heart valve disease, high blood
    pressure, palpitations and congenital heart
    disease are some of the non-infectious heart
    diseases.

18
Kidney Disease
  • The National Kidney Foundation reports chronic
    kidney disease (CKD) is a non-infectious disease
    that affects about 26 million Americans. CKD
    results when the kidneys are no longer able to
    remove wastes from the body. Diseases such as
    diabetes, high blood pressure, lupus, kidney
    stones and polycystic kidney disease may hinder
    the kidneys' ability to process and remove
    wastes.

19
Mental Disease
  • Mental disease covers a broad range of
    non-infectious diseases that affects people of
    all ages. Autism, panic attacks, narcolepsy,
    manic-depressive disorder, depression, bulimia
    nervosa, bipolar disorder and Asperger's syndrome
    are examples of non-infectious mental diseases.

20
Bone Disease
  • Non-infectious bone diseases include
    osteoporosis, Paget's disease and osteogenesis
    imperfecta. Osteoporosis indicates a low bone
    mass, fragile bones, and high risk of bone
    fractures. Paget's disease presents as bones that
    grow larger and weaker than normal bones.
    Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a non-infectious
    genetic disorder. OI symptoms include bones that
    break easily.

21
Muscle Joint Disease
  • Non-infectious muscle and joint diseases include
    fibromyalgia, rheumatoid arthritis and gout.
    Fibromyalgia is a chronic non-infectious disease
    identified as pain and tender points in soft
    tissue, muscles and joints throughout the body.
    Merck Manual, an online medical library, reports
    rheumatoid arthritis (RA) affects about one
    percent of the world's population. RA symptoms
    range from mild occasional joint pain to severe
    and debilitating pain. Gout is a non-infectious
    disease caused by high levels of uric acid in the
    joints and manifests as sudden severe joint pain,
    possibly accompanied by fever and feeling ill.

22
Diabetes
  • When carbohydrates are eaten, they get converted
    to glucose which is blood sugar. To stabilize
    blood sugar levels, the pancreas releases
    insulin. In people that have diabetes, a
    noninfectious disease, the pancreas does not
    release insulin properly or at all in the most
    severe cases. This can cause kidney failure,
    blindness, nerve damage and heart problems.
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