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Psychology 245 Leadership Chapter 13 What is Leadership? A


Psychology 245 Leadership Chapter 13 What is Leadership? A social process through which an individual intentionally exerts influence over others to structure their ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Psychology 245 Leadership Chapter 13 What is Leadership? A

Psychology 245
  • Leadership
  • Chapter 13

What is Leadership?
  • A social process through which an individual
    intentionally exerts influence over others to
    structure their behavior and relationships.
  • Effective leadership depends on the outcomes of
    the work group or those being led. Results, short
    and long-term
  • Core of leadership is influence over others which
    leads us to the issues of POWER.

  • A resource that provides the potential to
    influence the attitudes and behaviors of others.
  • Leaders can emerge at different levels for
    different reasons
  • French and Ravens Model -- 5 Bases
  • 1. Legitimate
  • Bestowed on someone by the organization,
    analogous to authority.
  • 2. Reward (parents)
  • Control rewards or outcomes of others.

  • 3. Coercive (parents, a teacher)
  • Control over punishments and used to get people
    to do what one wants.
  • 4. Expert (computer guy)
  • Affiliated with special knowledge or proficiency.
  • 5. Referent (Braveheart)
  • Gained by the respect of others.
  • Power is not always a good thing.
  • Sometimes it can corrupt decision making or
    follower perceptions of a leaders intent.
  • Referent and expert power not limited to the top
    of the organization.

Theories of leadership
covered today
came about 30s and 40s
  • Universalist theories
  • Great Man/Woman theory
  • Trait theory
  • Behavioral/Style theories
  • Ohio State leadership studies
  • University of Michigan leadership studies

More leadership theories
covered tomorrow
  • Contingency theories
  • Fiedlers contingency theory
  • Houses path-goal model
  • Leader-member exchange model
  • Vroom and Yettons decision-making model
  • New Age theories
  • Charismatic leadership
  • Transactional/Transformational leadership

Great Man/Woman Theory
  • Great leaders are born, not made.
  • Informal theory arguing that good leaders possess
    certain physical qualities, abilities, and
    personality traits.
  • Situation plays no role in leadership.
  • If great leaders of the past were alive today,
    they would once again be great leaders.
  • Evidence Greatness often runs in families.
  • e.g., Kennedys, Gandhis, Religious stuff

Trait theories
  • Trait enduring attribute associated with an
    individuals disposition.
  • Trait theories were formalizations (and saner
    versions) of the great man/woman theory.
  • Attempt to find clusters of traits associated
    with good leaders.

  • Early theories looked at (not necessarily found)
  • physical/physiological traits height,
    appearance, gender, energy level, etc.
  • personality traits extroversion, achievement,
  • cognitive ability traits intelligence
  • Results were weak and inconclusive.

Now a Resurgence of trait theories
  • Recent resurgence of interest in trait theories
  • Consensus High Intelligence, high
    Conscientiousness and (maybe) high Extroversion
    are related to leader success.
  • Some evidence High Need for Power and low Need
    for Affiliation.
  • McClellands Achievement Motivation Theory

  • One controversial study leader succes related to
    masculine personality.
  • Other research fails to support this
  • Consensus lack of women in mgmt is best
    explained by situation barriers and cultural
  • not by dispositional deficiencies
  • Future of trait theories
  • renewed interest in per se

Behavioral theories
  • Leadership Style
  • These theories emphasized leader behavior.
  • Common methodology Factor Analysis of behaviors
    from studies of leaders on the job. Find out
    important factors.
  • Basically, job analysis (to varying degrees of
  • What do successful leaders actually do to make
    them successful?
  • Found two unrelated factors for successful

Ohio State/Michigan studies
  • Initiating Structure (Ohio State studies) /
    Task-oriented Behaviors (Michigan studies)
  • Leader behaviors focused on the work task.
  • Specifically, behaviors that define, organize and
    structure the work situation.
  • letting group members know what is expected of
  • telling people what to do
  • creating procedures
  • Consideration (Ohio State studies) /
    Relationship-oriented Behaviors (Michigan
  • Leader behaviors focused on maintaining
    interpersonal relationships on the job.
  • Behaviors that show a concern for the feeling,
    attitudes, and needs of followers.
  • willing to make changes
  • treat members as equals
  • nice vs being directive
  • Situational (army drill instructor mean-gtnice)
  • Does this contradict the finding that successful
    leaders have a low Need for Affiliation???

The marketing of leadership theory
  • Leadership Grid
  • An application of the findings from behavioral
    theories emphasizes that effective leaders are
    both task and relationship oriented.
  • There is only one best leadership style (the 9,9
  • The Grid is criticized for being a universalist
  • Effective leadership depends on how a leaders
    style adapts to a particular work situation.

Concern for Production/Results
1,9   Country Club Management    
9,9   Team Management    
Concern for People
5,5   Middle of the Road Management    
9, 1   Authority Compliance Management
1,1   Impoverished Management
Contingency theories of leadership
  • The effectiveness of a leadership style is
    contingent (depends) on the situation.
  • Implication certain leader behaviors will be
    effective in some situations but not in others.
  • Fiedlers model of leadership
  • Effective leadership depends on the match
    between a leaders style and the extent to which
    the work situation affords control and influence
    to the leader.
  • Types of leaders
  • Task-oriented and relationship-oriented.
  • Where did he get this classification?

Fiedlers Contingency Model
  • But theres a difference.
  • Behavioral theories (Ohio State Michigan)
  • Successful leaders are high on both task-oriented
    and relationship-oriented behaviors.
  • Fiedlers theory
  • Leaders can be either task-oriented or
    relationship-oriented (but not both).
  • Problem Why cant a leader be high on both?
  • Some situations are conducive to success for
    task-oriented leaders.
  • Other situations are conducive to success for
    relationship-oriented behaviors.

LPC scale
  • Least Preferred Coworker scale
  • A leaders description of the person with whom he
    has the greatest difficulty working reflects his
    leadership style.
  • leader rates person with whom s/he has had most
    difficulty in getting the job done
  • Low values (strict rating) ? task-oriented leader
  • High values (lenient rating) ? relationship-orient
    ed leader
  • Problem Middle values ?
  • Problem Zero construct validity.

Matching leadership style and the work situation
  • Characteristics of situation
  • Described using three dimensions
  • Leader-member relations
  • Quality of relationship between leader and
  • Extent to which leader is liked, respected and
  • Defined as good or poor.
  • Task structure
  • Assessment of the extent to which the task is
  • Can group output be easily evaluated?
  • Does group have well-defined goals?
  • Does group have clear procedures for achieving
  • Defined as structured or unstructured.

  • Position power
  • Extent to which leader has authority over
  • Ability to hire, fire, discipline and reward.
  • Defined as strong or weak.

  • Situations conducive to effective leadership
  • Task-oriented leaders
  • Very Unfavorable situation
  • All 3 situational dimensions are negative.
  • Leader has nothing to lose.
  • Task-oriented directive style might achieve
  • Subordinates might exploit relationship-oriented
  • Problem Theoretically, it is equally likely
    here that
  • subordinates will ignore task-oriented leaders,
  • subordinates will respond favorably to
    relationship-oriented leaders.

  • Very Favorable situation
  • All 3 situational dimensions are positive.
  • Since task is already taken care of,
    task-oriented leaders start focusing on
    relationships (good thing).
  • In contrast, relationship-oriented leaders will
    start focusing on the task (bad thing).
  • Relationship-oriented leaders
  • Are most effective in the Moderate situation
  • Not all situational dimensions are positive or
  • Interpersonal conflicts arise.
  • Relationship-oriented leaders can deal with
    conflicts better.

Houses Path-Goal Theory
  • Leaders job is to help subordinates achieve
    their desired goals.
  • Assumption The goals held by subordinates are
    good for the organization!
  • Leader as facilitator or guide.
  • Different types of leadership styles are
    appropriate in different situations.
  • Leadership styles directive, achievement-oriente
    d, supportive, and participative.
  • See text for more details.

Leader-Member Exchange (LMX) Model
  • Effective leadership will depend on the quality
    of interactions between leader and subordinates.
  • Leaders interactions with various subordinates
    will not all be of same quality.
  • Interactions with some subordinates (in-group)
    will be good.
  • These subordinates are more trusted and
  • Interactions with other subordinates (out-group)
    will not be good.
  • Suggested intervention Increase all
    leader-subordinate relationships.

Vrooms Decision-Making Model
  • Motivational/Expectancy backing to it
  • Leaders are basically decision-makers.
  • Effective leadership match between leaders
    decision-making style and work situation.
  • Leader goes through a decision-tree containing
    several Yes/No questions.
  • Answers determine which decision style/strategy
    should be adopted.

Decision-making styles
  • Decision styles vary in extent of subordinate
    involvement in decision.
  • Distinguish b/w 5 decision-making procedures
  • AI Autocratic decision (1) leader decides
    without seeking input from group members. speedy
  • AII Autocratic decision (2) leader gathers
    information from members (without explain), then
    makes decision. swift
  • CI Consultative decision (1) leader shares
    problem with individual subordinates, gets their
    opinions, then makes his own decision.
  • CII Consultative decision (2) leader shares
    problem with the group, gets their opinions, then
    makes decision.
  • G Group decision leader shares problem with
    the group, and decision is made when everyone is
    in consensus.

Decision-making model cont.
  • Model is prescriptive
  • Prescribes rules for leaders to follow under
    different conditions in order to make the most
    effective decisions.
  • Eg if a leader lacks information that
    subordinates have, an autocratic decision is
  • Recommendations of theory
  • More participative decision-making generally
    beneficial for high stakes decisions Jury
  • need high decision quality
  • need high commitment and implementation by

on the other hand if u need speed
  • Less participative decision-making generally
    beneficial for decisions requiring to be made
  • Participation takes timeso, leader should make
    decision himself/herself.
  • Evaluation of theory
  • Mostly supported by research.
  • Might have got some details wrong, but is
    generally on right track.

Now New Age Theories
  • Attempt to recapture the romance of leadership
    (in popular culture).
  • Belief that this romantic essence of leadership
    has unfortunately been stripped away by
    dispassionate scientific analysis.
  • Types of leaders
  • Charismatic leaders Possess exceptional
    qualities of charisma that cause followers to be
    loyal and devoted.
  • Transactional leaders Strike a deal with
  • Transformational leaders Motivate and inspire
    followers to perform beyond expectations.

Charismatic leadership
  • Webers concept of charisma
  • An exceptional leader, a crisis situation, the
    leaders vision presenting a solution to the
    crisis, followers who are attracted to the leader
    and vision
  • Outcomes of charismatic leadership
  • Follower trust in the correctness of leaders
  • similarity of follower and leader beliefs
  • unquestioning acceptance of leader
  • emotional involvement of follower in the mission
  • feeling on the part of followers that they will
    accomplish the mission.
  • What does this sound a lot like??
  • Groupthink - BAD

Transactional and Transformational Leaders
  • Transactional leaders
  • Strike a transaction with subordinates.
  • Transactional leader provides material rewards
    and security, while subordinates provide energy
    and time at work.
  • Transformational leaders
  • Change the values, beliefs and attitudes of
  • Motivate followers to go beyond their
    self-interests for good of the group.
  • Mechanisms
  • Define the need for change
  • Providing new visions
  • Mobilizing commitment
  • transform the group and the organization.

Problems with new age theories
  • Much overlap between the three types.
  • Little discriminant validity.
  • Very low scientific rigor in theory development
    and theory testing.
  • Charismatic leadership, by reducing in-group
    criticism and increasing unquestioning obedience
    could lead to groupthink.
  • Same can be said about transformational

Gender and Leadership
  • By 2008, women will make up 48 of the labor
  • Women have been historically underrepresented in
    corporate management.
  • Women have more participative and interpersonally
    oriented styles than men.
  • Men and women emerge as leaders in contexts that
    are consistent with their gender roles.

Leadership Glass Ceiling?
Gender and Leadership
  • Gender congeniality should moderate leadership
  • Women and men leaders do not differ in overall
    perceptions of effectiveness.
  • Men are perceived as more effective in contexts
    congenial to men and women in contexts congenial
    to women.
  • Women at a huge disadvantage because leadership
    is masculine typed and to be effective, a woman
    has to be masculine, but thats inconsistent with
    her gender expectation.