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Genomics Bioinformatics & Medicine http://biochem158.stanford.edu/

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Genomics provides understanding of disease Genomics and bioinformatics provides basis for novel drug development Genomics provides basis for novel genetic and stem ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Genomics Bioinformatics & Medicine http://biochem158.stanford.edu/


1
Genomics Bioinformatics Medicine
http//biochem158.stanford.edu/
  • Biochem 158/258 and HumBio 158G

Doug Brutlag Professor Emeritus Biochemistry and
Medicine (by courtesy) brutlag_at_stanford.edu
2
Greg Gibson Spencer V. MuseA Primer of Genome
Science
62
3
Greg GibsonIt Takes a Genome
4
Course Syllabushttp//biochem158.stanford.edu/
5
Course Requirementshttp//biochem158.stanford.edu/
  • Four research assignments
  • Disease case presentation
  • Bioinformatics analysis of gene function
  • Description of a genome-wide association study
  • Final project (paper or presentation) on
  • The molecular basis of a disease
  • A novel diagnosis or treatment of a disease
  • A technological advance in genomics disease
  • An ethical, legal or social issue in genomics or
    medicine
  • Participation in Class Discussion

6
Research Projects and Grading Policy
http//biochem158.stanford.edu/
Second chance on homework!
7
Cognate Courses
  • Undergraduate Courses
  • Biochem 118 Genomics and Medicine Sophomore
    Seminar
  • Bio 109A and 109B (HumBio 158A and B) The Human
    Genome and Disease
  • HumBio 157 The Biology of Stem Cells
  • HumBio 159 Genes and Environment in Disease
    Causation
  • Graduate Level Courses
  • Genetics 210 Genomics and Personalized Medicine
  • Genetics 211 Genomics
  • CS 262 Computational Genomics
  • CS 273A A Computational Tour of the Human Genome
  • Biochem 218/BMI 231 Computational Molecular
    Biology
  • BMI 214/CS 274 Representations and Algorithms for
    Computational Molecular Biology

8
BioMedical SeminarsBiomedical Seminars Calendar
  • Frontiers in Biology Seminar Series
  • Atul Butte, Stanford
  • Exploring Systems and Personalized Medicine
    Through Translational Bioinformatics
  • Sep 28 400 PM Clark Center Auditorium
  • Nick Schork, Scripps
  • Functional Genomic Variants and Human Diversity
  • Oct 26 400 PM Clark Center Auditorium
  • Marisa Bartolomei, U of Pennsylvania
  • Epigenetic regulation of genomic imprinting
  • Nov 16 28 400 PM Clark Center Auditorium

9
Leveraging Genomic Information
  • Novel Diagnostics
  • Microchips Microarrays - DNA
  • Gene Expression - RNA
  • Proteomics - Protein

Novel Therapeutics Drug Target
Discovery Rational Drug Design Molecular
Docking Gene Therapy Stem Cell Therapy
Understanding Metabolism
Understanding Disease Inherited Diseases -
OMIM Infectious Diseases Pathogenic
Bacteria Viruses
10
Impact of Genomics on MedicineI. Diagnostics
  • Genomics Identifying all known human genes
  • Functional Genomics Functional analysis of genes
  • In what tissues are they important?
  • When in development are the genes used?
  • How are they regulated?
  • Novel diagnostics
  • Linking genes to diseases and to traits
  • Predisposition to diseases
  • Expression of genes and disease
  • Personal Genomics
  • Understanding the link between genomics and
    environment
  • Increased vigilance and taking action to prevent
    disease
  • Improving health care

11
Impact of Genomics on MedicineII. Therapeutics
  • Novel Drug Development
  • Identifying novel drug targets
  • Validating drug targets
  • Predicting toxicity and adverse reactions
  • Improving clinical trials and testing
  • Gene therapy
  • Replacing the gene rather than the gene product
  • Stem cells therapies
  • Replacing the entire cell type or tissue to cure
    a disease
  • Pharmacogenomics
  • Personalized medicine
  • Adjusting drug, amounts and delivery to suit
    patients
  • Maximize efficacy and minimize side effects
  • Identify genetics of adverse reactions
  • Identify patients who respond optimally

12
Impact of Genomics on MedicineIII. Ethical,
Legal and Social Issues
  • Personal Privacy
  • Insurability
  • Employability
  • Discrimination
  • Genetic selection versus eugenics
  • Cosmetic genetics
  • Patentability of genes, proteins and other
    natural products

13
Impact of Genomics on MedicineIV. Strategic
  • Genomics can discover disease associated genes
  • Genomics can discover disease causing genes.
  • Genomics provides understanding of disease
  • Genomics and bioinformatics provides basis for
    novel drug development
  • Genomics provides basis for novel genetic and
    stem cell therapies
  • Genomics provides the basis for preventive
    medicine.

14
Preventive Medicine
15
Founder of Preventive MedicineLouis Pasteur
When thinking about diseases, I never think
about how to cure them, but instead I think about
how to prevent them.
16
Preventive Medicine
  • The goal is to prevent disease from occurring.
  • First one must identify the cause of the disease.
  • Treat the cause of the disease rather than the
    symptoms
  • Example 1 Peptic Ulcers
  • Example 2 Pyrogens
  • Genomics identifies genetic causes of inherited
    disease.
  • When Paul Wise (a Stanford pediatrician) heard
    that we may soon sequence every childs genome at
    birth, he stated
  • all medicine may soon become pediatrics!
  • Overlooked accidents, infectious disease, auto
    immune disease and aging environmental or
    acquired diseases
  • Genetic penetrance and environment

17
Health Care Policy
  • Current health care treats disease rather than
    maintaining health (Illness care?)
  • Future health care prevent disease
  • Reduce need for expensive interventions
  • Need policies that incentivize patients and
    doctors to prevent disease.
  • Need social pressures to control behavior and
    increase vigilance.

18
Huntington Disease Film
19
The Inheritance
  • You are 18 years old.
  • Your father abandoned you and your mother when
    you only 2 years old.
  • Your father died this year and left you an
    inheritance.
  • He died from an autosomal dominant disease known
    as Huntingtons Chorea or Huntingtons Disease.
  • You have a 50 chance of inheriting this
    invariably fatal neurodegenerative disease.
  • But there is a genetic test for this disease that
    can tell you not only if you have the disease,
    and if you do, when you will die from it.
  • Would you take the genetic test or not?
  • Why?
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