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Health and Fitness

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ALL COMPONENTS OF FITNESS CAN BE MEASURED AND SUCCESSFULLY MONITORED OVER TIME. There are some WEAKNESSES IN FITNESS TESTING Fitness test scores are an ESTIMATE of ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Health and Fitness


1
GCSE PHYSICAL EDUCATION
Health and Fitness
2
Introduction
  • During this module you will be looking at
    Physical Fitness.
  • The two types of fitness Skill Health
    Related.
  • The components that make up Skill Health
    Related Fitness.
  • How we evaluate the different forms of fitness.
  • Some lessons will be classroom based and others
    will be practically based.

3
What is Health ?
  • TASK What is health?
  • Health does not mean the absence of sickness.
  • HEALTH IS
  • A STATE OF COMPLETE PHYSICAL, MENTAL AND SOCIAL
    WELL BEING, AND NOT MERELY THE ABSENCE OF DISEASE
    OR INFIRMITY.
  • Physical Activity helps
  • Your physical well-being
  • Your mental well-being.
  • Your social well-being.

4
What is Fitness ?
  • TASK What is Fitness?
  • Fitness isnt just about being able to do sit-ups
    and run fast.
  • FITNESS IS
  • THE ABILITY TO MEET THE DEMANDS OF THE
    ENVIROMENT
  • Your environment is everything around you.
  • It includes home, school, family and friends
    All of them make demands on you.
  • Meeting the demands means carrying out tasks and
    activities.
  • If you can carry out these tasks and activities
    without getting too tired, and still have energy
    left over for emergencies, then you are fit.

5
What is Fitness ?
  • FITNESS is a blend of a number of different
    physical qualities.
  • Physical Fitness is only one area of TOTAL
    fitness.
  • Other areas include mental, social and emotional
    fitness.
  • Fitness is constantly changing and is influenced
    by many factors.
  • WEAKNESS in one fitness area may keep you from
    improving in other areas.
  • Physical fitness is made up of 11 different parts
    or components five are Health-related and six
    are Skill related.

6
Link between Health and Fitness
  • Health and Fitness are closely linked.
  • You cant be HEALTHY WITHOUT BEING FIT enough to
    meet the demands of your environment.
  • However, it is possible to be FIT but NOT
    HEALTHY.
  • E.g. You can physically manage your everyday
    tasks (so you are fit) but are constantly
    depressed about being no good at anything.
  • Remember, HEALTH is complete PHYSICAL, SOCIAL
    and MENTAL well-being.

7
Task
  • Who is the fittest sports performer that you can
    think of ?
  • Why ?
  • What physical factors are a particular strength
    of your sports performer ? List them.

8
Health and Skill Related Fitness
From the list below try and work which you would
consider to be health-related components of
fitness and which you would consider to
skill-related components.
9
Components of Fitness
  • Cardiovascular /Aerobic Fitness, Stamina
  • Agility
  • Strength
  • Balance
  • Muscular Endurance
  • Co-ordination
  • Flexibility or Suppleness
  • Speed
  • Body Composition
  • Reaction Time
  • Power

10
Task Match the Components of Fitness with their
definitions.
11
Task Match the Components of Fitness with their
definitions.
The ability to exercise the whole body for
prolonged periods of time.
The mixing of different abilities into the smooth
execution of task.
Refers to the capacity of the muscle or group of
muscles to work continuously.
The quickness with which one is able to move the
body from one point to another.
The ability to maintain the equilibrium of the
body
The ability to change direction accurately and
quickly
Refers to the range of movement at a joint.
The ability to produce strength performances
quickly.
The ability to respond to a given stimulus.
The ability of a muscle or muscle group to apply
force and overcome resistance.
Refers to the proportions of lean body mass and
body fat.
12
Task
For each of the Skill and Health Related
Components of Fitness suggest a sporting activity
and relevant sports performer that you would
suggest requires and possesses a large amount of
that component.
13
Homework
  • Highlight what skill health related components
    of fitness are most valuable in each of the
    following sporting activities
  • Marathon Running
  • Squash
  • Javelin Throwing
  • Bowling in Cricket
  • Hockey
  • Golf
  • Weight Lifting

Each sport can have more than one component
14
Personal Fitness Profile
Complete your own personal fitness profile
15
HEALTH-RELATED COMPONENTS OF FITNESS
16
  • CARDIOVASCULAR FITNESS
  • THE ABILITY TO EXERCISE THE WHOLE BODY FOR
    PROLONGED PERIODS OF TIME.
  • What words would you link with Cardiovascular
    Fitness ?
  • Linked words include endurance, stamina and
    aerobic fitness.
  • What frequency and intensity of Training would
    you expect to perform to improve Cardiovascular
    Fitness ?
  • To improve CV Fitness you should choose an
    activity in which your body has to WORK
    CONTINUOUSLY for a LONG PERIOD OF TIME (e.g.
    jogging, swimming etc.)
  • Work levels should be maintained for 30 MINUTES
    and should be repeated 3 TIMES A WEEK. (Heart
    Rate should be 50-60 of max.)

17
  • STRENGTH

  • Can be defined as
  • THE ABILITY OF A MUSCLE OR MUSCLE GROUP TO APPLY
    FORCE AND OVERCOME RESISTANCE
  • There are 3 different types of Strength
  • Static or Isometric When FORCE is applied to a
    NON-MOVING OBJECT.
  • Dynamic or Isotonic Which involves the
    MOVEMENT of the muscles / joints etc. against a
    MOVING object.
  • Explosive Which involves all the athletes
    strength going into a QUICK MOVEMENT.

18
  • Give an example of a sporting activity that you
    would associate with each different type of
    Strength
  • Static / Isometric Strength
  • Rugby Scrum
  • Tug of War
  • Wrestling
  • Dynamic / Isotonic Strength
  • Weight Lifting
  • Explosive Strength
  • High Jump
  • Long Jump

19
  • FLEXIBILITY
  • REFERS TO THE RANGE OF MOVEMENT AT THE JOINT.
  • Can be improved by STRETCHING the muscles and
    tendons and by extending the ligaments and
    supporting tissues BEYOND THEIR NORMAL RANGE OF
    MOVEMENT.
  • There are 3 different types of stretching
  • Static Stretching - EXTENDING a limb beyond its
    normal range. The position is held for at least
    10 seconds.
  • Active/Dynamic Stretching Extending a joint
    beyond its normal limit, and repeats this
    RHYTHMICALLY over a period of 20 seconds.
  • Passive Stretching Joint flexibility is
    improved by EXTERNAL FORCE caused by partners or
    coaches who move the limb to its end position and
    keep it there for a few seconds.

20
  • BODY COMPOSTION
  • REFERS TO THE PROPORTIONS OF LEAN BODY MASS AND
    BODY FAT
  • MUSCULAR ENDURANCE
  • REFERS TO THE CAPACITY OF A MUSCLE TO WORK
    CONTINUOUSLY

TASK Using the information that you have been
given, attempt to highlight a sport for EACH of
the HEALTH-RELATED components that you would
consider to be very closely linked.
21
Skill Related Components of Fitness
22
  • AGILITY
  • Is defined as
  • THE ABILITY TO CHANGE DIRECTION ACCURATELY AND
    QUICKLY.
  • In what type of activities is Agility important ?
  • In GAMES ACIVITIES this is a very important
    factor.
  • CO-ORDINATION
  • Is defined as
  • THE MIXING OF DIFFERENT ABILITIES INTO A SMOOTH
    EXECUTION OF A TASK.
  • It can include hand-eye co-ordination in
    catching a ball or eye-foot co-ordination in
    kicking a ball.
  • In what type of activities is Co-ordination
    important?

23
  • REACTION TIME
  • THE TIME REQUIRED TO RESPOND TO A GIVEN
    STIMULUS.
  • An example where a fast reaction time is a
    definite advantage would be reacting to a
    starters gun in a 100m race.
  • POWER
  • THE ABILITY TO PRODUCE STRENGTH PERFORMANCES
    QUICKLY.
  • I.e the combination of strength and speed
  • SPEED
  • THE QUICKNESS WITH WHICH ONE CAN MOVE THE BODY
    FROM ONE POINT TO ANOTHER

24
  • BALANCE
  • Is defined as
  • THE ABILITY TO MAINTAIN THE EQUILIBRIUM OF THE
    BODY.
  • There are 2 types of balance
  • Static The equilibrium is maintained in a
    FIXED POSITION, usually while stood on one foot.
  • Dynamic The equilibrium must be maintained
    while performing a task which involves MOVEMENT
    e.g. Walking the beam.

Give sporting examples where you think the two
different types of balance are required. Static
Performing an Arabesque Dynamic Walking the
beam
25
TASK Using the information that you have been
given, attempt to highlight a sport for EACH of
the SKILL-RELATED components that you would
consider to be very closely linked.
26
Fitness Worksheet
What components of fitness are important for
different types of sporting activities? Task Look
at the range of sporting activities and different
components of fitness on the table and rate their
importance using the following scale.
27
Fitness Worksheet

28
Why Fitness Test ?
  • Task Why do we Fitness Test ?
  • The results of fitness tests can be used to
  • Identify strengths and weaknesses in
    performance.
  • Compare against recognised standards
  • Monitor progress
  • Adapt training programmes
  • Place athletes in correct training groups
  • Set targets / goals
  • Identify talent
  • Monitor progress following injury

29
Fitness Tests
It is possible to test those Components of
Health-Related and Skill-Related Fitness using a
wide variety of standardised tests.
30
How do you Interpret your Results ?
  • You interpret results by comparing to
  • Your own previous results
  • Other subjects (people) within your group
  • Recognised standards
  • Elite athletes scores
  • Your can present your results by using charts,
    graphs, pie charts and percentile rankings.

Yr 10 Bleep Test Results
31
Fitness Tests
  • Fitness Tests must be valid and reliable this
    means
  • VALID
  • The fitness test should measure the actual
    fitness component that you are interested in.
  • e.g.. Does the 30m sprint measure speed?
  • RELIABLE
  • The test should consistently give the same
    results.

32
Task
WHAT FACTORS AFFECT FITNESS TEST SCORES ? TASK
With the person sat next to you brainstorm what
factors you thing could have an influence on a
fitness test score.
Use your personal experience of completing some
of the fitness tests e.g. The bleep test etc. to
help you think of some reasons why an
individuals score in any of the tests may not be
a true representation of their fitness levels.
33
Factors that Influence Fitness scores are
  • Genetic
  • Training
  • Tester Error
  • Motivation
  • Maturation (age)
  • Skill
  • Conditions (e.g. weather, surface etc.)

The degree to which each factor affects results
can be seen in the pie chart below
34
What do Fitness Tests show ?
  • ALL COMPONENTS OF FITNESS CAN BE MEASURED AND
    SUCCESSFULLY MONITORED OVER TIME.
  • There are some WEAKNESSES IN FITNESS TESTING
  • Fitness test scores are an ESTIMATE of the
    different fitness components, they dont
    represent absolute achievements.
  • Fitness scores can CHANGE dramatically with
    changes in circumstance e.g. effect of training
    or prolonged inactivity.
  • Scores can be affected by POOR LEVELS OF
    MOTIVATION to GENETIC factors.

35
Factors Affecting Fitness
Your fitness can be affected by the following
factors, some of which are out of your
control. Age You are usually at your fittest in
your twenties. The graph below shows fitness in
terms of oxygen used per kilogram of body weight.
The more you use the fitter you are. From your
thirties onwards fitness falls because
Muscles get weaker
Bones get lighter
Joints get stiffer
Movements get slower
Body fat increases
36
  • Gender
  • Up to about 11 years
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