Data Collection - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


Title: Data Collection


1
Qualitative Research
Methods and Evaluation
Research Committee Module 5 1 CNE Available
2
Learner Objectives
  • 1. Describe 2 basic guiding philosophic
    principles of qualitative research.
  • 2. Identify 2 different types of established
    qualitative research methodologies.
  • 3. Discuss 2 concerns with generic qualitative
    research.
  • 4. List components of qualitative rigor.

3
A Need ForQualitative Research
  • It therefore is time for nurses to assert their
    autonomy and use qualitative criteria to evaluate
    qualitative paradigm, without this position, we
    will continue to have noncredible, inaccurate,
    and questionable findings for qualitative
    research studies. It is time to change practices!
  • M. Leininger (1994)

4
Characteristics ofQualitative Research
1. Belief in multiple realities
  • Individuals create meaning
  • Multiple ways of understanding
  • Multiple truths

(Caelli, Ray Mill, 2003)
5
Characteristics ofQualitative Research
  • 2. Commitment to gain understanding from the
    participants viewpoint.
  • Find meaning of the experience
  • Identify basic social problems
  • Within context of the experience
  • Find similarities and differences

(Caelli, Ray Mill, 2003)
6
Characteristics ofQualitative Research
  • 3. Acknowledged participation of the researcher
    in the research
  • Researcher is co-participant in the discovery and
    understanding
  • All research is conducted with a subjective bias
  • Objectivity - documents rigor from participants
    viewpoint

(Caelli, Ray Mill, 2003)
7
Characteristics ofQualitative Research
4. Minimize disturbance of the natural context
of the phenomena
  • Do not disturb the natural contextof the
    phenomena
  • Little intrusion as possible

(Caelli, Ray Mill, 2003)
8
Types of EstablishedQualitative Methodologies
  • EthnographyAnthropology
  • Grounded TheorySociology
  • PhenomenologyPhilosophy
  • Focus groupsBusiness
  • Naturalistic InquiryEducation
  • Narrative InquiryEducation others

9
Ethnography Analysis
Values, beliefs, practices of cultural groups
  • Types of analysis
  • Thematic analysis
  • Grounded theory analysis

10
Grounded Theory Analysis
Grounded Theory (GT) developed by two
sociologists to discover problems or meaning
  • Analysis
  • Classic GT (Glaser Strauss)
  • Non classic (Strauss and Corbin)

11
Bias Theoretical Positioning
All qualitative studies value the identification
of the researchers bias and the analytic lens of
analysis
  • Examples
  • Did the researcher have a parent with renal
    failure?
  • What are the researchers beliefs related to the
    phenomenon being studied?

12
Focus Groups
  • A specific technique used by trained group
    moderators to identify likes, dislikes, or
    problems
  • Used in business to test new products
  • Used by hospitals to find how to bring in
    customers, way finding, satisfaction
  • Analysis Content analysis

13
Credibility of Generic Qualitative Research
  • 1. Theoretical positioning of the researcher
  • 2. Congruence between methodology and method
  • 3. Strategies to establish rigor
  • 4. Analytic lens of data analysis

(Caelli, Ray, Mill, 2003)
14
Rigor
Each of the established qualitative methods have
guidelines for rigor
  • Member checks (participant validates findings)
  • Fit
  • Trustworthiness
  • Credibility
  • Follow assumptions of method
  • Follow analysis recommended for method

15
Non Established Qualitative Methodologies-Generic
  • There is a major explosion of research studies
    that do not follow a specific guiding methodology
    or analysis. They are descriptive in nature, and
    not necessarily rigorous.

16
Research Abstract
  • Title
  • Purpose or research question
  • Sample and setting
  • Method
  • Analysis
  • Results
  • Implications

17
Title of the Study
  • The title may sound non scholarly
  • The title may be in the participants own words
  • Do not overlook a study because of a weird title

18
Purpose or Research Question
  • The purpose must be clearly identified
  • Qualitative research is great to
  • Study a new phenomenon
  • Study a phenomenon or problem that has not been
    studied
  • To discover meaning
  • To understanding the experience

19
Purposeful Sample
  • Sample size in qualitative research is small
  • It is not appropriate for large samples (over 40)
  • Not appropriate for a random sample
  • Select each participant on purpose
  • Participants or key informants have the problem
    that is being studied

20
Study Participants
  • In qualitative research the study volunteers are
    not called SUBJECTS
  • Key informants or participants

21
Saturation - Sample Size
  • Saturation is a term that is used when the data
    is complete or redundant and there are no new
    findings
  • Saturation occurs when each additional interview
    or observation brings the same information
  • Saturation is the exhaustive exploration and
    completion of data

22
Setting
  • A description of where the study took place
  • Important in ethnographic studies
  • Culture, environment
  • In-depth interviews often take place in a
    mutually agreed upon private place
  • Home or office

23
Data Collection
  • What data was collected?
  • Demographic data (age, economic, other)
  • In-depth interviews (audio or videotaped)
  • Participant observations
  • Field work
  • Historical documents
  • Artifacts, journals, photos, other

24
Data Analysis
  • Each of the established qualitative methods has
    its own specific type of data analysis, except
    for generic qualitative methods.
  • For example - Phenomenology - Giorgis
    analysis
  • - Colaizzis analysis - Van Kaams analysis
  • - Parses analysis

25
Results of Analysis
  • The hallmark of qualitative research are the
    results
  • Themes
  • Categories, subcategories
  • Concepts
  • Theory, theoretical models
  • Hypothesis for future research

26
ING-Gerund
  • Most themes and categories are from the words of
    participants
  • Usually end in ING implying a process
  • - Enduring - Developing
  • - Coping - Discovering
  • - Seeking - Managing
  • - Finding - Facing mortality

27
Evaluating an Article Usinga Check List for
Guidance
  • A check list can be a guide
  • Often used in research courses

28
Nursing Implications
  • A good research article will have a summery of
    implications for future research and implications
    for nursing.

29
References
  • Caelli, K., Ray, L., Mill, J. (2003). Clear as
    mud Toward greater clarity in generic
    qualitative research. International Journal of
    Qualitative Methods, 2(2). Article 1. Retrieved
    from http//www.ualberta.ca/iiqm/backissues/pdf/c
    aellietal.pdf.
  • Leininger, M. (1994). Evaluation criteria and
    critique of qualitative research. In Critical
    Issues in Qualitative Research Methods. Morse, J.
    M. (ed). Newberry Park, CA Sage.
  • Law, M. et al (1998). Guidelines for critical
    review form qualitative studies. Retrieved from
    http//www.usc.edu/hsc/ebnet/res/Guidelines.pdf.

30
References
  • Lincoln, Y. S. Guba, E. G. (1985). Naturalistic
    inquiry. Beverly Hills, CA Sage.
  • Aamodt, A. (1983). Problems in doing nursing
    research Developing criteria for evaluating
    qualitative critique. Western Journal of Nursing
    Research (5)4, 399.
  • Morse, J. M. (1991). Strategies for sampling. In
    J. Morse (Ed.), Qualitative nursing research A
    contemporary dialogue (Rev. Ed.). (pp. 117-131).
    Newbury Park, CA Sage.

31
References
  • Morse, J. M. (1999). Myth 93 Reliability and
    validity are not relevant to qualitative inquiry.
    Qualitative Health Research, 9, 717.
  • Morse, J. M., Barrett, M., Mayan, M., Olson, K.,
    Spiers, J. (2002). Verification strategies for
    establishing reliability and validity in
    qualitative research. International Journal of
    Qualitative Methods 1 (2), Article 2. Retrieved
    from http//www.ualberta.ca/ijqm/.
  • Sandelowski, M. (1993). Rigor or rigor mortis
    The problem of rigor in qualitative research
    revisited. Advances in Nursing Science, 16 (2),
    1-8.
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Data Collection

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Title: Data Collection


1
Qualitative Research
Methods and Evaluation
Research Committee Module 5 1 CNE Available
2
Learner Objectives
  • 1. Describe 2 basic guiding philosophic
    principles of qualitative research.
  • 2. Identify 2 different types of established
    qualitative research methodologies.
  • 3. Discuss 2 concerns with generic qualitative
    research.
  • 4. List components of qualitative rigor.

3
A Need ForQualitative Research
  • It therefore is time for nurses to assert their
    autonomy and use qualitative criteria to evaluate
    qualitative paradigm, without this position, we
    will continue to have noncredible, inaccurate,
    and questionable findings for qualitative
    research studies. It is time to change practices!
  • M. Leininger (1994)

4
Characteristics ofQualitative Research
1. Belief in multiple realities
  • Individuals create meaning
  • Multiple ways of understanding
  • Multiple truths

(Caelli, Ray Mill, 2003)
5
Characteristics ofQualitative Research
  • 2. Commitment to gain understanding from the
    participants viewpoint.
  • Find meaning of the experience
  • Identify basic social problems
  • Within context of the experience
  • Find similarities and differences

(Caelli, Ray Mill, 2003)
6
Characteristics ofQualitative Research
  • 3. Acknowledged participation of the researcher
    in the research
  • Researcher is co-participant in the discovery and
    understanding
  • All research is conducted with a subjective bias
  • Objectivity - documents rigor from participants
    viewpoint

(Caelli, Ray Mill, 2003)
7
Characteristics ofQualitative Research
4. Minimize disturbance of the natural context
of the phenomena
  • Do not disturb the natural contextof the
    phenomena
  • Little intrusion as possible

(Caelli, Ray Mill, 2003)
8
Types of EstablishedQualitative Methodologies
  • EthnographyAnthropology
  • Grounded TheorySociology
  • PhenomenologyPhilosophy
  • Focus groupsBusiness
  • Naturalistic InquiryEducation
  • Narrative InquiryEducation others

9
Ethnography Analysis
Values, beliefs, practices of cultural groups
  • Types of analysis
  • Thematic analysis
  • Grounded theory analysis

10
Grounded Theory Analysis
Grounded Theory (GT) developed by two
sociologists to discover problems or meaning
  • Analysis
  • Classic GT (Glaser Strauss)
  • Non classic (Strauss and Corbin)

11
Bias Theoretical Positioning
All qualitative studies value the identification
of the researchers bias and the analytic lens of
analysis
  • Examples
  • Did the researcher have a parent with renal
    failure?
  • What are the researchers beliefs related to the
    phenomenon being studied?

12
Focus Groups
  • A specific technique used by trained group
    moderators to identify likes, dislikes, or
    problems
  • Used in business to test new products
  • Used by hospitals to find how to bring in
    customers, way finding, satisfaction
  • Analysis Content analysis

13
Credibility of Generic Qualitative Research
  • 1. Theoretical positioning of the researcher
  • 2. Congruence between methodology and method
  • 3. Strategies to establish rigor
  • 4. Analytic lens of data analysis

(Caelli, Ray, Mill, 2003)
14
Rigor
Each of the established qualitative methods have
guidelines for rigor
  • Member checks (participant validates findings)
  • Fit
  • Trustworthiness
  • Credibility
  • Follow assumptions of method
  • Follow analysis recommended for method

15
Non Established Qualitative Methodologies-Generic
  • There is a major explosion of research studies
    that do not follow a specific guiding methodology
    or analysis. They are descriptive in nature, and
    not necessarily rigorous.

16
Research Abstract
  • Title
  • Purpose or research question
  • Sample and setting
  • Method
  • Analysis
  • Results
  • Implications

17
Title of the Study
  • The title may sound non scholarly
  • The title may be in the participants own words
  • Do not overlook a study because of a weird title

18
Purpose or Research Question
  • The purpose must be clearly identified
  • Qualitative research is great to
  • Study a new phenomenon
  • Study a phenomenon or problem that has not been
    studied
  • To discover meaning
  • To understanding the experience

19
Purposeful Sample
  • Sample size in qualitative research is small
  • It is not appropriate for large samples (over 40)
  • Not appropriate for a random sample
  • Select each participant on purpose
  • Participants or key informants have the problem
    that is being studied

20
Study Participants
  • In qualitative research the study volunteers are
    not called SUBJECTS
  • Key informants or participants

21
Saturation - Sample Size
  • Saturation is a term that is used when the data
    is complete or redundant and there are no new
    findings
  • Saturation occurs when each additional interview
    or observation brings the same information
  • Saturation is the exhaustive exploration and
    completion of data

22
Setting
  • A description of where the study took place
  • Important in ethnographic studies
  • Culture, environment
  • In-depth interviews often take place in a
    mutually agreed upon private place
  • Home or office

23
Data Collection
  • What data was collected?
  • Demographic data (age, economic, other)
  • In-depth interviews (audio or videotaped)
  • Participant observations
  • Field work
  • Historical documents
  • Artifacts, journals, photos, other

24
Data Analysis
  • Each of the established qualitative methods has
    its own specific type of data analysis, except
    for generic qualitative methods.
  • For example - Phenomenology - Giorgis
    analysis
  • - Colaizzis analysis - Van Kaams analysis
  • - Parses analysis

25
Results of Analysis
  • The hallmark of qualitative research are the
    results
  • Themes
  • Categories, subcategories
  • Concepts
  • Theory, theoretical models
  • Hypothesis for future research

26
ING-Gerund
  • Most themes and categories are from the words of
    participants
  • Usually end in ING implying a process
  • - Enduring - Developing
  • - Coping - Discovering
  • - Seeking - Managing
  • - Finding - Facing mortality

27
Evaluating an Article Usinga Check List for
Guidance
  • A check list can be a guide
  • Often used in research courses

28
Nursing Implications
  • A good research article will have a summery of
    implications for future research and implications
    for nursing.

29
References
  • Caelli, K., Ray, L., Mill, J. (2003). Clear as
    mud Toward greater clarity in generic
    qualitative research. International Journal of
    Qualitative Methods, 2(2). Article 1. Retrieved
    from http//www.ualberta.ca/iiqm/backissues/pdf/c
    aellietal.pdf.
  • Leininger, M. (1994). Evaluation criteria and
    critique of qualitative research. In Critical
    Issues in Qualitative Research Methods. Morse, J.
    M. (ed). Newberry Park, CA Sage.
  • Law, M. et al (1998). Guidelines for critical
    review form qualitative studies. Retrieved from
    http//www.usc.edu/hsc/ebnet/res/Guidelines.pdf.

30
References
  • Lincoln, Y. S. Guba, E. G. (1985). Naturalistic
    inquiry. Beverly Hills, CA Sage.
  • Aamodt, A. (1983). Problems in doing nursing
    research Developing criteria for evaluating
    qualitative critique. Western Journal of Nursing
    Research (5)4, 399.
  • Morse, J. M. (1991). Strategies for sampling. In
    J. Morse (Ed.), Qualitative nursing research A
    contemporary dialogue (Rev. Ed.). (pp. 117-131).
    Newbury Park, CA Sage.

31
References
  • Morse, J. M. (1999). Myth 93 Reliability and
    validity are not relevant to qualitative inquiry.
    Qualitative Health Research, 9, 717.
  • Morse, J. M., Barrett, M., Mayan, M., Olson, K.,
    Spiers, J. (2002). Verification strategies for
    establishing reliability and validity in
    qualitative research. International Journal of
    Qualitative Methods 1 (2), Article 2. Retrieved
    from http//www.ualberta.ca/ijqm/.
  • Sandelowski, M. (1993). Rigor or rigor mortis
    The problem of rigor in qualitative research
    revisited. Advances in Nursing Science, 16 (2),
    1-8.
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