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Chapter Three


Chapter Three Socialization: From Infancy to Old Age Society, The Basics 10th Edition John J. Macionis The life course is a social construction Stages in life are ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Chapter Three

Chapter Three
  • Socialization From Infancy to Old Age

Society, The Basics 10th Edition John J. Macionis
Social Experience The Key to Our Humanity
  • Socialization the lifelong social experience by
    which individuals develop their _____ ________.

Personality a persons fairly consistent
_______ of acting, thinking, and feeling.
Human DevelopmentNature and Nurture
  • Sociobiology the role of nature
  • Elements of society have a _________ root
  • Behaviorism - the role of nurture
  • Most of who and what we are as a species is
    ______, or social in nature

Human DevelopmentNature and Nurture
Biological Sciences
  • Charles Darwins study of _______ led to the
    nature argument.
  • _____ that enhance survival emerge as a species

Human DevelopmentNature and Nurture
Social Sciences
  • John Watson developed a theory called
  • Behavior is not ________, but _______.

Social Isolation
Research with monkeys
  • Harry and Margaret Harlow discovered that infant
    monkeys left in isolation suffered _______ and
    ________ damage.
  • Six months of complete _____ was enough to lead
    to permanent developmental damage.

Studies of isolated children
Social Isolation
  • Three children, Anna, Isabelle, and Genie were
    left in isolation and suffered ________
    ___________ _________.
  • Social experience performs a crucial role in
    forming personality.
  • Without social experience, a child is incapable
    of ______ or meaningful _____

Understanding SocializationSigmund Freud
  • Sigmund Freud believed that ______ plays a major
    role in human development.

Eros (the life instinct) - covers all the
self-preserving and erotic instincts. Thanatos
(the death instinct) - covers instincts towards
_________ , self-destruction and ________.
Understanding SocializationSigmund Freud
  • Our _____ ______ or needs as humans are reflected
    in the concept of id
  • The ego is the element of the personality
    representing the demands of society, balancing
    innate pleasure-seeking drives.
  • Culture, in the form of the superego, represses
    selfish demands and demands that individuals
    become less ___-_______.

Understanding SocializationJean Piaget
Cognitive Development
  • Jean Piaget studied human cognition, how people
    think and understand.
  • Piaget identified four stages of cognitive
  • (1) The Sensorimotor Stage.
  • (2) The Preoperational Stage.
  • (3) The ______ __________ Stage.
  • (4) The Formal Operational Stage.

Understanding SocializationJean Piaget
Cognitive Development
  • Stages of development
  • Sensorimotor stage
  • Sensory contact understanding
  • Preoperational stage
  • Use of language and other symbols
  • Concrete operational stage
  • Perception of ______ _________ in surroundings
  • Formal operational stage
  • Abstract, critical thinking

Understanding SocializationLawrence Kohlberg
Moral Development
  • Kohlberg studied moral reasoning, the ways
    individuals judge situations as _____ or _____.
  • Young children experience the world in terms of
    ____and ________.

Understanding SocializationLawrence Kohlberg
Moral Development
  • Teens lose their sense of selfishness as they
    align themselves with broader ______ _____.
  • Lastly, individuals begin to think about ethical
    principles beyond ________ norms.

Understanding SocializationLawrence Kohlberg
Moral Development
  • Pre-Conventional
  • 1. Obedience punishment orientation
  • 2. Self-interest orientation
  • Conventional
  • 3. Interpersonal accord and conformity
  • 4. Authority and social-order orientation
  • Post-Conventional
  • 5. Social contract orientation
  • 6. ________ ________ principles

Understanding SocializationCarol Gilligan
Gender Development
  • Gilligan compared the moral development of
    _____and ____.
  • The two sexes use different standards of

Understanding SocializationCarol Gilligan
Gender Development
  • Boys have a _______ perspective, relying on
    formal rules.
  • Girls have a ____ and __________ perspective,
    relying on personal relationships.

Understanding SocializationGeorge Herbert Mead
Theory of Social Self
  • Mead believed social behaviorism explains how
    _____ ________ creates personality.
  • Meads central concept is the self the part of
    the individuals personality composed of
    ____-_________ and self-image.
  • The origin of the self is in social experience.

Building on the Social Experience
Theory of Social Self
Understanding SocializationGeorge Herbert Mead
  • Recognizing the ________ other
  • Widespread norms ______ people take as their own

Understanding SocializationCharles Horton Cooley
Theory of Social Self
  • Cooley used the term the looking-glass self a
    self-image based on how we think others see us.
  • Others represent a mirror in which we can see
  • What we think of ourselves depends on what we
    think ______ think of us.

Understanding SocializationErik Erikson
Stages of Development
  • Erikson felt we face eight _________ throughout
    the life course.
  • Success at one stage prepares us for meeting the
  • He assumes all people meet these challenges at
    exactly the order presented, in ________ ______.

Understanding SocializationErik Erikson 8
Stages of Development
  • Trust vs. Mistrust
  • Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt
  • Initiative vs. Guilt
  • Industry vs. Inferiority
  • Identity vs. Role Confusion
  • _______ vs. _________
  • Generativity vs. Stagnation
  • Ego Integrity vs. Despair

Agents of Socialization
  • The family has the _______ ______ on

Social Readjustment Scale
Agents of Socialization
Race and Class
  • Racial Identity
  • Social Class Position

Obedience conformity (poor) vs. ____ _________
creativity (rich)
Agents of Socialization
  • Schooling enlarges childrens social worlds
    to include people with ________ ___________.

Socializes children into gender roles.
Agents of Socialization
  • Peer groups ______ groups whose members have
    interests, social positions, and ___ in _______.

Agents of Socialization
  • Mass media ________ communications aimed at a
    ____ audience.

Agents of Socialization
  • Violence and television
  • 1996 American Medical Association stated _______
    on television and films are hard to health
  • 1997 Television rating system adopted

Socialization and the Life Course
  • Learning continues throughout our lives.

Globally, _______ is currently becoming
The U.S. and other rich societies extend
childhood longer than ____societies.
Socialization and the Life Course
  • Adolescence is often a period of _____ and
    _________ turmoil.

Socialization and the Life Course
  • Adulthood is characterized by early goal setting
    and _____ ________.

Socialization and the Life Course
  • Old age begins in the ___-______ in the United

Aging and Culture Elderly have influence and
respect in ___-income countries
Gerontocracy A form of social organization in
which the elderly have the most ______, ______,
and prestige
Death Dying 5 Stages
Elisabeth Kübler-Ross
  • Denial
  • ______
  • Negotiation
  • Resignation
  • Acceptance

Life Course Patterns and Variations
  • The life course is a social construction
  • Stages in life are _______ ___________

Cohort a category of people with something in
common (usually their age)
ResocializationTotal Institutions
  • Two million people experience being confined in
    ______ or mental hospitals.

ResocializationTotal Institutions
  • Total institution a setting in which people are
    isolated from the rest of society and manipulated
    by an administrative staff.

Resocialization _______ _______ an inmates
personality by carefully controlling the