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Introductory Questions: Hinduism

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Introductory Questions: Hinduism Where did Hinduism originate? Hinduism is considered a major world religion. Why do you think this is? Is Hinduism polytheistic or ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Introductory Questions: Hinduism


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Introductory Questions Hinduism
  • Where did Hinduism originate?
  • Hinduism is considered a major world religion.
    Why do you think this is?
  • Is Hinduism polytheistic or monotheistic?

3
Basics of Hinduism
  • Originated in India
  • Dates back to 1500 BCE and many consider it the
    oldest religion in the world
  • Third largest religion ( of adherents)
  • Practiced by 80 of Indias inhabitants
  • Derivative of word Hindu is the geographical term
    (Sindu River or Indus Valley)

4
Origins of Hinduism
  • Aryans
  • 1500 BCE
  • Poems and ritual texts called VEDAS (early sacred
    writings)
  • Rig Veda the oldest of the Sacred Texts
  • Agni - worshipped forces of nature as gods
  • Atman - human soul
  • Indus Valley
  • 4000 2200 BCE
  • Built houses for worship
  • Stone sculptures and charms to ward off evil
  • Fire altars animal sacrifices

5
  • VEDAS
  • Composed in Sanskrit
  • Vedas literally means knowledge
  • Vedas called Shruti by the Hindus
  • RIG VEDA
  • Upanishads mystical texts on human existence
  • EPICS
  • Ramayana Hindu Epic of about 24000 verses
    including hero story of Rama
  • Mahabharata and Bhagavad Gita
  • Legal Codes
  • Laws of Manu

Sacred Texts
6
Hindu Beliefs Deities
  • Categorizing the religion of Hinduism is somewhat
    confusing
  • POLYTHEISTIC worships multiple deities gods and
    goddesses
  • MONOTHEISTIC it recognizes only one supreme
    God the panentheistic principle of Brahman, that
    all reality is a unity. The entire universe is
    seen as one divine entity who is simultaneously
    at one with the universe and who transcends it as
    well
  • TRINITARIAN Brahman is simultaneously
    visualized as a triad -- one God with three
    persons Brahma (the Creator) Vishnu (the
    Preserver, Shiva (the Destroyer)
  • HENOTHEISTIC recognize a single deity, and
    recognizes other gods and goddesses as facets,
    forms, manifestations, or aspects of that supreme
    God

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HINDU TRINITY
-is the supreme being-entity without form or
quality-soul of universe-divine, invisible,
unlimited
Preserver
Destroyer
Creator
8
GANESHA
  • Son of Shiva and Parvati
  • Human body and an elephants head with only one
    short tusk
  • Worshipped as the remover of all obstacles
  • Milk Miracle Sept. 25, 1995

9
Ten Avatars
Vishnu has many AVATARS (incarnations)who appear
on earth as humans or animals to conquer evil and
establish righteousness7th- Rama 8th-
Krishna 9th- Siddhartha Gautama (Buddha)
10
Beliefs and Goals
  • The ultimate aim of all Hindu thoughts is to
    attain the universal soul or divine wisdom called
    Brahman
  • Hindus believe in the freedom to individually
    worship and guide own spiritual experience.
  • The goals of Hinduism consist of personal conduct
    and righteous living which equals to dharma
  • Goal to achieve moksha, (liberation) from endless
    cycle of rebirths called Samsara and reunite
    atman with Brahman

11
Key Terms
  • MAYA all forms of existence are temporary and
    illusionary
  • SAMSARA endless cycle of reincarnation
  • KARMA Basic belief of cause and effect (all
    actions have a consequence)
  • DHARMA personal conduct and righteous living
  • MOKSHA the liberation from samsara and the
    uniting of ATMAN (human soul) with Brahman
    (ultimate soul)

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13
OM
  • ? ? ???? ?? ?????? ? ???? ?? ??????????? ?
    ?????????????? ??? ??
  • OM Asato ma sadgamaya, tamaso ma jyotirgamaya,
    mrityormamritam gamaya
  • "OM (Lead me) from falsehood to truth, from
    darkness to light, from death to immortality."
  • Aum (also Om, ?) is the most sacred syllable in
    Hinduism and Vedas
  • Used in meditation and prayer as sound gives
    supernatural power
  • Represents the original sound of creation
  • To chant om will steady and elevate the mind

14
  • Good luck symbol representing well being
  • Usually illustrated in red
  • Used on wedding invitations, drawings
  • Used in rituals to bring good luck and protect
    against evil

Swastika
15
HINDU PRACTICES
  • 4 Paths to Salvation
  • 4 Stages of Life
  • 4 Goals of Life
  • Caste System
  • Puja
  • Upanayana
  • Vegetarianism holy cow
  • Arranged Marriages
  • Diwali Festival of Lights
  • Ahimsa non-violence
  • Yoga philosophy and exercise together very
    spiritual

16
Mahatma Gandhi
  • Best known Hindu in world
  • Fought to end discrimination against Indians in
    South Africa
  • Tolerant of all religions
  • Religious ideals on duty, truth, non-violence
    (ahimsa) and spiritual liberation (moksha)
  • Negotiated independence of India in 1947
  • Opposed social injustice of Hindu society (ie.
    untouchables)
  • Assassinated in 1948
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