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Childhood Obesity Problems, Causes


Commercials feature many junk foods that promote weight gain ... The NSLP provides lunches to over twenty-six million children every school day ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Childhood Obesity Problems, Causes

Childhood ObesityProblems, Causes Solutions
  • by
  • Eddie Krista

A Growing Crisis
  • In the past three decades, the number of
    overweight children has more than doubled, with
    most of the increases occurring during the past
    ten years. - Rallie McAllister, M.D.
  • Implementing prevention programs and getting a
    better understanding of adequate treatment is
    important to controlling this obesity epidemic.

Whats the Big Deal?
I Dont Want to Grow Up
  • 25 of children who are obese at age 6 will be
    obese as an adult
  • 75 of children who are obese at age 12 will be
    obese as an adult

Effects on the Child
Physical Consequences
  • Type 2 Diabetes
  • used to be virtually unrecognized in adolescence
  • almost entirely attributable to obesity
  • obese children are reported to be 12 times more
    likely to have high fasting blood insulin levels
  • Orthopedic complications
  • bone and cartilage in the process of development
    are not strong enough to bear excess weight
  • Hypertension
  • Elevated blood pressure levels have been found to
    occur about 9 times more frequently among obese

Social Difficulties
  • Obese children
  • are stereotyped as unhealthy, academically
    unsuccessful lazy
  • may be teased or verbally abused by other
  • can become excluded from being a part of social
    groups and/or other activities

Psychological Problems
  • Discrimination can cause a negative self-image
    and poor self-esteem
  • Sadness can occur, which can lead to depression
  • Loneliness
  • Eating disorders
  • more prevalent in females

People who are obese or overweight also have a
lower life expectancy
A 40-year-old nonsmoking male who is overweight
will lose 3.1 years of life expectancy one who
is obese will lose 5.8 years. A 40-year-old
overweight nonsmoking female will lose 3.3 years
of life expectancy one who is obese will lose
7.1 years.
How to Tell If Your Child is Overweight or Obese
  • Growth Chart
  • height and weight can be compared and plotted
  • Skin fold thickness
  • measured at the triceps with a caliper that
    pinches the skin and together and will be
    higher in obese children
  • BMI (Body Mass Index)
  • is best measurement to take because it is age and
    gender specific

What is BMI?
  • BMI is used to identify overweight and obesity in
  • BMI weight (kg)/height (m)²
  • For children, BMI is age and gender specific and
    is consistent with adult index, so it can be used
    continuously from two years of age to adulthood

Are you at risk?
  • The Center for Disease Control avoids using the
    word obesity for children
  • Instead they suggest two levels of overweight
  • 1.) 85th percentile At-risk level (overweight)
  • 2.) 95th percentile Severe-level (obesity)

What does the 95th percentile BMI score mean?
  • Correlates to BMI score of 30, which is the
    marker for obesity in adults
  • Indication for children and adolescents to have
    an in-depth medical assessment
  • Identifies children that are likely to have
    obesity persist into adulthood
  • Is associated with elevated blood pressure and
    lipid in older adolescents which increases risk
    of diseases

Increase in obesity among American youth over the
past two decades
What are the Causes?
The Family Atmosphere
  • According to the American Obesity Association,
    parents are the most important role models for
  • Obesity tends to run in families
  • Eating patterns play a role
  • Children of active parents are six times more
    likely to be physically active than kids whose
    parents are sedentary

Television Nutrition
  • Commercials feature many junk foods that promote
    weight gain
  • fast food, soft drinks, sweets and
    sugar-sweetened breakfast cereals
  • Children seem to passively consume excessive
    amounts of energy-dense foods while watching TV

The typical American child spends about 44.5
hours per week using media outside of school.
Pick-up or Delivery?
  • Today, families eat fewer meals together and
    fewer meals at home
  • Children tend to eat more food when meals are
    eaten at a restaurant
  • Plenty of children eat fast food on a regular
  • Take-out food like pizza or chinese is also

Between 1977 and 1996, portion sizes grew in the
U.S., not only at fast-food outlets but also in
homes and restaurants
  • One study of portion sizes for typical items
    showed that
  • Salty snacks increased from 132 calories to 225
  • Soft drinks increased from 144 calories to 193
  • French fries increased from 188 calories to 256
  • Hamburgers increased from 389 calories to 486

Setting Standards
  • The United States Department of Agriculture
    developed the National School Lunch Program
    (NSLP) in 1946
  • The NSLP provides lunches to over twenty-six
    million children every school day
  • The lunches must meet the recommendations of the
    Dietary Guidelines for Americans
  • 30 of calories from fat
  • no more than 10 from saturated fat

Bending the Rules
  • In the mid-1990s, the USDA researched the
    relationship between childrens dietary intake
    and the school lunch program
  • The results showed that on an average day, NSLP
    participants consumed more sodium and cholesterol
    than non participants
  • Students who participated in the NSLP ate more
    calories in the form of total fat, as well as
    saturated fat
  • the total percentage of fat for NSLP participants
    was almost 37, with saturated fat at over 14

Food Pyramid School Lunch
  • On average, NSLP participants ate only 0.1
    servings of whole grains and poultry
  • 0.0 servings of dark-green leafy vegetables,
    fish, eggs, nuts and seeds were typically consumed

Vending Machines
  • Soda
  • each 12-oz (though now most are 20-oz) sugared
    soft drink consumed daily increases a childs
    risk of obesity by 60
  • risk of lack of calcium if students choose
    sweetened drinks with no nutritional value
    instead of milk, a good source of vitamins,
    minerals and protein

In 1977-78, drank about four times as much milk
as soda. In 2001-02, they drank about the same
amounts of milk and soda
Vending Machines
  • The Center for Science in the Public Interest
    took a survey of vending machines nationwide in
    middle and high schools (2004)
  • The results found that the majority of options
    were high in calories and/or low in nutrition
  • in middle school vending machines, 73 of the
    drinks and 83 of the snacks sold were of poor
    nutritional value
  • in high schools, 74 of beverages and 85 of
    snacks were nutritionally-poor choices
  • only 12 of available drinks were water

A La Carte Selections
  • Resembles fast food
  • Hamburgers, French fries pizza
  • Do not meet the USDA fat recommendations
  • A recent study published by the American Journal
    of Public Health suggests that about 35-40 of
    students reported only eating snack bar items for
    lunch over the two year study period

Simple Solutions
Keys to Preventing Obesity
  • Teaching healthy behaviors at a young age is
    important since change becomes more difficult
    with age
  • Education in physical activity and nutrition are
    the cornerstones of preventing childhood obesity
  • Schools and families are the two most critical
    links to decreasing the prevalence of childhood

Parents role in Prevention
  • Create an active environment
  • Limit amount of TV watching
  • Plan active family trips such as hiking or skiing
  • Enroll children in a structured activity that
    they enjoy

Parents role (cont.)
  • Create a healthy eating environment
  • Implement the same healthy diet for entire
    family, not just selected individuals
  • Avoid using food as a reward or the lack of food
    as a punishment
  • Encourage kids to eat their colors
  • (food bland in color often lack nutrients)
  • Dont cut out treats all together, think in
    moderation, or kids will indulge

Schools Are Only Exercising Our Minds
  • According to the Center for Disease Control and
  • Nationwide, approximately 56 of high school
    students were enrolled in a physical education
    class and only 29 attended PE class daily (1999)

What Should Schools Revise?
  • Schools should establish policies that require
    daily physical education and comprehensive health
    education in grades K-12
  • Schools and government should provide adequate
    funding, equipment, and supervision for programs
    that meet needs of all students

What Should Schools Revise?
  • Provide adequate school time for physical
  • American Heart Association recommends 30-60
    minutes of vigorous activities at least 3-4 times
    each week
  • Discourage the use or withholding of physical
    activity as punishment

Its as Easy as Cake
  • THE
  • END