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Obesity and Diabetes in California

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... Fruits and Vegetables per Day by Fast Food Consumption, Ages 12-17, ... Limiting or eliminating availability of junk food in schools and public buildings ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Obesity and Diabetes in California


1
Obesity and Diabetes in California
  • Susan H. Babey PhDUCLA Center for Health Policy
    ResearchLos Angeles, California
  • California Legislative Task Force on Diabetes and
    Obesity
  • Sacramento, California
  • September 22, 2007

2
Acknowledgements
  • Co-authors
  • Theresa Hastert, MPP
  • E. Richard Brown, PhD
  • Allison L. Diamant, MD, MSHS
  • Major funding for data collection on obesity and
    diabetes in the 2005 California Health Interview
    Survey
  • The California Endowment
  • Robert Wood Johnson Foundation
  • National Cancer Institute

3
Presentation Overview
  • Using data from the California Health Interview
    Survey, this presentation examines
  • Prevalence of adult obesity overall as well as by
    race/ethnicity and household income
  • Prevalence of adolescent overweight overall as
    well as by race/ethnicity
  • Prevalence of diabetes overall as well as by age,
    race/ethnicity and household income
  • Examples of environmental factors associated with
    diet and activity behaviors
  • Suggested strategies for improving Californians
    diet and activity behaviors

4
The California Health Interview Survey (CHIS)
  • Largest state health survey and one of the
    largest health surveys in the United States
  • Telephone survey of adults, adolescents and
    children from across the state conducted every
    two years
  • CHIS 2005 interviewed over 43,000 households in
    California
  • The data provide a representative sample of the
    states non-institutionalized population,
    including health information on the overall
    population and on many racial and ethnic groups
    as well as local-level health information for
    most counties
  • Interviews are conducted in five languages
    English, Spanish, Chinese, Korean and Vietnamese

5
Background - Obesity
  • Definition of Overweight and Obesity
  • Body Mass Index (BMI) is defined as kg/m2
  • Obese is having a BMI of 30 or higher
  • Overweight among adolescents is having a BMI in
    at least the 95th percentile for age and gender
  • Nationwide, the prevalence of obesity has doubled
    in the past 30 years among adults and more than
    tripled among adolescents
  • Being overweight or obese increases the risk of
    conditions such as
  • Type 2 diabetes
  • Coronary heart disease
  • Hypertension
  • Stroke
  • Some cancers
  • In California the combined costs of obesity,
    overweight and physical inactivity were projected
    to be over 28 billion in 2005

6
Obesity in California Increased from 2001-2005
Obesity Prevalence by Year, Adults Age 18 and
Over, California, 2001-2005
Source 2001, 2003, and 2005 California Health
Interview Survey
7
Obesity Highest Among Latinos, African Americans,
American Indians and Pacific Islanders
Obesity Prevalence by Race/Ethnicity and Year,
Adults Age 18 and Over, California, 2001-2005
Source 2001 and 2005 California Health Interview
Survey
8
Obesity Highest among Low-Income Californians
  • Prevalence of Obesity by Household Income, Adults
    Age 18 and Over, California, 2005

Source 2005 California Health Interview Survey
9
Adolescent Overweight in California Increased
from 2001-2005
  • Prevalence of Overweight by Year, Adolescents
    Ages 12-17, California, 2001-2005

Source 2001, 2003, and 2005 California Health
Interview Survey
10
Overweight Highest among Latino and African
American Teens
  • Prevalence of Overweight by Race/Ethnicity,
    Adolescents Ages 12-17, California, 2005

Source 2005 California Health Interview Survey
11
Summary of Obesity Findings
  • The prevalence of obesity is increasing in
    California
  • 5.6 million California adults are obese and an
    additional half million adolescents are
    overweight or obese
  • Obesity rates are higher among Latinos, African
    Americans, American Indians and Pacific Islanders
    than whites or Asians
  • Obesity rates increased from 2001 among whites,
    Latinos, Asians and African Americans
  • Obesity prevalence is higher among lower-income
    adults
  • Overweight prevalence among teens is higher among
    Latinos and African Americans than whites

12
Background - Diabetes
  • Diabetes is a chronic medical condition in which
    the body does not produce or properly use
    insulin, a hormone needed to convert
    carbohydrates into energy.
  • Risk factors for type 2 diabetes include
  • A family history of the condition
  • Age
  • Obesity
  • Diabetes is the fifth leading cause of death by
    disease in the U.S.
  • Complications include
  • Heart disease
  • Blindness
  • Kidney failure
  • Limb disease requiring amputations
  • The economic cost of diabetes in 2002 was an
    estimated 132 billion, or one out of every 10
    health care dollars spent in the United States.
  • Approximately 1.8 million Californians (7) have
    diabetes. This includes 300,000 with type 1
    diabetes and more than 1.5 million with type 2
    diabetes.

13
Diabetes Prevalence Increased from 2001-2005
Diabetes Prevalence by Year, Adults Age 18 and
Over, California, 2001-2005
Source 2001, 2003, and 2005 California Health
Interview Survey
14
Diabetes Prevalence Higher among Latinos, African
Americans and American Indians
Diabetes Prevalence by Race/Ethnicity and Year,
Adults Age 18 and Over, California, 2001-2005
Source 2001 and 2005 California Health Interview
Survey
15
Adjusting for Age Emphasizes Disparities by
Race/Ethnicity
Diabetes Prevalence by Race and Age, Adults Age
18 and Over, California, 2005
Source 2005 California Health Interview Survey
16
Diabetes Prevalence is Highest among Low-Income
Californians
Diabetes Prevalence by Household Income, Adults
Age 18 and Over, California, 2005
Source 2005 California Health Interview Survey
17
Summary of Diabetes Findings
  • The prevalence of diabetes is increasing in
    California
  • 1.8 million adults have been diagnosed with
    diabetes
  • Diabetes rates are higher among Latinos, African
    Americans and American Indians than whites
  • Diabetes prevalence increased significantly from
    2001 for all racial/ethnic groups except African
    Americans
  • Diabetes prevalence is higher among low-income
    adults

18
Reducing the Prevalence of Obesity and Diabetes
  • Overweight and obesity result from an energy
    imbalance eating too many calories and not
    getting enough physical activity
  • Obesity is a major risk factor for type 2
    diabetes
  • Preventing diabetes is closely tied to reducing
    the prevalence of obesity
  • Promoting and encouraging physical activity and
    healthy eating are important in preventing and
    reducing obesity as well as in preventing
    diabetes
  • Eating and activity behaviors are influenced by
    our environment

19
Physical Education at School Related to Teen
Physical Activity
  • Percent of Adolescents Engaging in Regular
    Physical Activity and No Physical Activity by
    Physical Education (PE) Requirements at School,
    Ages 12-17, California, 2003

Source 2003 California Health Interview Survey
20
Availability of Safe Parks Related to Teen
Physical Activity
  • Percent of Adolescents Engaging in Regular
    Physical Activity and No
  • Physical Activity by Availability of a Safe Park,
    Ages 12-17, California, 2003

Source 2003 California Health Interview Survey
21
Availability of Safe Parks Related to Adult
Walking
  • Prevalence of Walking by Availability of a Safe
    Park,
  • Adults Age 18 and Over, California, 2003

Source 2003 California Health Interview Survey
22
Teen Soda Consumption Related to Availability in
School Vending Machines
  • Average Daily Soda Consumption by the
    Availability of Soda in School Vending Machines,
    Adolescents Ages 12-17, California, 2003

Source 2003 California Health Interview Survey
23
Teen Soda Consumption Related to Fast Food
  • Average Daily Soda Consumption by Fast Food
    Consumption,
  • Adolescents Ages 12-17, California, 2003

Source 2003 California Health Interview Survey
24
Teen Fruit and Vegetable Consumption Related to
Fast Food
  • Percent of Adolescents Eating at Least Five
    Servings of Fruits and Vegetables per Day by Fast
    Food Consumption, Ages 12-17, California, 2003

Source 2003 California Health Interview Survey
25
How can we promote physical activity and healthy
eating?
  • Recognize that behavior is influenced by our
    environment
  • Cost and geographic availability are associated
    with consumption of fresh fruits and vegetables,
    sodas, fast foods, etc.
  • Availability of sodas in vending machines is
    associated with drinking more soda
  • Safe parks and neighborhoods encourage walking
  • School PE requirements are associated with
    physical activity
  • Important to shape environments to encourage
    healthy behaviors and to discourage unhealthy
    behaviors
  • Improving access to healthy foods and decreasing
    access to junk foods
  • Improving access to facilities and opportunities
    to be physically active

26
Conclusions RecommendationsHealthy Eating
  • Improve environments to encourage healthy eating
    (at school, work and home)
  • Specific suggestions include
  • Menu labeling
  • Promoting availability of healthy food outlets,
    particularly in underserved areas
  • Consider zoning requirements that improve the
    food environment around schools (limiting access
    to and marketing of junk foods)
  • Limiting or eliminating availability of junk food
    in schools and public buildings
  • California has already taken steps to improve the
    food available in schools, but what about
    implementation?

27
Conclusions RecommendationsPhysical Activity
  • Improve our environment to encourage a physically
    active lifestyle
  • Specific suggestions include
  • Daily high-quality physical education in school
  • Safe environments for walking and other physical
    activity
  • Worksite programs to encourage and facilitate
    physical activity
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