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COFFEE (COFFEA SPECIES)

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LECTURE 5 COFFEE (COFFEA SPECIES) Family: Rubiaceae Cultivated varieties Varieties of cultivated coffee: Coffea arabica C. canephora (robusta coffee) C. liberica C ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: COFFEE (COFFEA SPECIES)


1
LECTURE 5
2
COFFEE (COFFEA SPECIES)Family Rubiaceae
3
Cultivated varieties
  • Varieties of cultivated coffee
  • Coffea arabica
  • C. canephora (robusta coffee)
  • C. liberica
  • C. congoensis (tolerates temporary water logging)
  • C. arabusta (C. arabica x C. canephora)
  • C. abeokutae
  • C. excelsa
  • C. macrocarpa
  • C. stenophylla
  • C. brevipe
  • Today the C. arabica and C. canephora are the
    most economic and widely cultivated world-wide.

4
ORIGIN OF COFFEE
  • Originated from Africa
  • C. arabica, despite its name, comes from
    Ethiopia. Its wild population is still found in
    the undergrowth of high Abyssinian plateaux.
  • Wild populations of C. Canephora still exist in
    the evergreen forests from central Africa to West
    Africa.
  • C. liberica do exist with the C. canephora but
    more in Liberia than other regions.
  • C. Abeokutae species peculiarly found in
    Abeokuta, South West Nigeria.
  • Domestically in Abyssinian plateau,
    (1)Abyssinian bun is traditionally made from
    dried coffee beans and butter (2) infusion of the
    roasted and ground bean in boiling water.

5
Current distribution of cultivated coffee species
  • Horticultural Science and Plant Breeding modified
    the cultivated species of coffee to thrive in
    marginal ecological conditions by
  • Selection of varieties resistant to drought,
    temperature extremes, water logging, disease and
    insect attacks,
  • Selection of highly productive species of coffee
    stable in a number of environments with excellent
    organoleptic properties.
  • C. arabica (Highland Coffee) South and Central
    America, Caribbean, India, Pacific Islands,
    Indonesia, Viet Nam, New Guinea, Philippines,
    Highland regions of Africa Ethiopia, Kenya,
    Tanzania, Rwanda, Zimbabwe, Burundi, Zaire,
    Angola, Cameroon, Guinea and Nigeria.
  • C. canephora (Lowland Coffee) Africa (relatively
    low quantity, hot and humid areas), Uganda,
    Tanzania, Angola, Sudan, Zaire, Central African
    Republic, Cameroon, Gabon, Benin, Togo, Ghana,
    Ivory Coast, Guinea, Sierra Leone, Nigeria,
    India, Indonesia, New Caledonia, the Philippines,
    Viet Nam, Cambodia, Brazil, Bolivia and Trinidad.

6
Ecology and Botany of cultivated coffee
  • C. arabica
  • Original source of coffee beans and has best
    coffee quality.
  • Most suitable climate is the original (Ethiopian)
    climate i.e. tropical climate tempered with
    altitude with two contrasting seasons.
  • Rainfall of between 750 mm and 3000 mm with 4
    months of dry season.
  • Average annual temperature of between 180C and
    220C.
  • C. arabica thrives in some lowland climates
    especially hot and humid equatorial areas but
    altitude must be higher than 800 m asl for good
    berry yield.
  • It is damaged by frosts in lowland and extreme
    cold in very high altitude.
  • It has a slender tree which is heavily branched
    and kept in shape by judicious pruning
  • Axillary and sub-axillary buds develop into
    reproductive lateral branches.

7
  • C. canephora
  • It is a lowland coffee originated from equatorial
    Africa.
  • With the exception of C. arabica, all other
    species of coffee are lowland types.
  • All lowland coffee types are similar in
    vegetative and reproductive characteristics.
  • Require hot and humid equatorial to
    sub-equatorial climates.
  • Heavy annual rainfall of 1500 mm and 2500 mm
    spreading over 9 to 10 months with high relative
    humidity and short dry season.
  • Sandy and shallow soils are unsuitable. Coffee
    thrives on hillsides with gentle slope and deep
    fertile soils.
  • Temperature of between 270C and 300C.
  • C. canephora is next to C. arabica in bean
    quality while C. Liberia and other species are of
    lower bean quality.

8
Site Selection For Coffee Growing
  • Site to be selected for coffee cultivation is
    determined by type of coffee to be grown which is
    on the basis of requirements for altitudes.
  • Highland coffee C. arabica requires 600 m asl
    and above.
  • Medium altitude coffee C. liberica requires 450
    600 m asl.
  • Lowland coffee C. canephora requires 0 750 m
    asl.
  • Deep, slightly acid, well-drained loams,
    (especially, hillsides with a gentle slope) that
    are rich in nutrients especially potash and
    organic matter are ideal for coffee.

9
Propagation of Coffee
  • Raising of coffee seedlings
  • Plantable seeds or seedlings must be obtained
    from designated centers Research Institutes or
    Colleges and Faculties of Agriculture of
    Universities.
  • Never you obtain propagules from friends coffee
    farms.
  • Preparation of coffee seeds
  • Pick ripe and healthy fruits that drop on the
    ground.
  • Depulp the fruits
  • Short-ferment coffee seeds for 24 hours.
  • Rub inside water to remove any traces of pulp
    still adhering to the seeds.
  • Air-dry the seeds in a well-ventilated area.
  • Moisture content must not be lower than 10 lest
    viability will be seriously impaired.
  • Sorting of seeds against small,
    abnormally-shaped, infected and infested seeds.
  • Selected seeds are ready for raising seedlings.
  • If coffee seeds are to be stored / transported,
    treat with charcoal dust and fungicides
    (especially copper-based fungicides) and aldrin
    dust against termites.

10
Raising coffee seedlings contd.
  • Seedlings are raised in a shaded nursery in a
    polythene (seedling) bags filled with about 3 kg
    fertile top soil.
  • Maintenance of seedlings in the nursery
  • Watering Adequate watering is a must, even in
    the rainy season, especially, if there are 5
    consecutive days of no rain.
  • Weeding Manual weeding is encouraged. Though,
    chemical weeding saves about 20 mandays but, not
    encouraged.
  • Control of disease infection especially
    damping-off, leaf spot (Cercospora spp.)
  • Control of insect infestation especially mole
    crickets, larvae and grubs, stem borers,
    defoliating caterpillars (Epiplema spp.) and
    termites.
  • If necessary, fertilizer may be applied by foliar
    application.
  • C. canephora stays in the nursery for about 4 6
    months while C. arabica stays for up to 1 year.
  • Towards the end of the nursery period, hardening
    must be carried out.

11
Clonal / Vegetative Propagation of Coffee
  • Multiplication of coffee plants by vegetative
    means (mainly cuttings) enables total
    reproduction of all the traits of a selected
    individual plant, for instance production
    capacity, reaction to environment (soil, climate
    tolerance / resistance to pest attacks),
    technological and organoleptic properties of
    coffee.
  • Clonal propagation involves the use of stem
    cuttings, budwood, scion wood for grafting and
    layering, taken from selected trees.
  • Such trees are normally grown for the purpose of
    cloning.
  • A coffee plantation grown from such special
    trees are made up of clones.
  • Clonal mixtures is preferable in coffee
    plantation especially where self-sterile types
    like C. robusta is cloned.
  • Earlier maturity and considerable increase in
    yield is achieved from clonally-propagated plants
    when compared to seedlings.

12
Propagation Of Coffee By Stem Cuttings
  • Most commonly used form of vegetative propagation
    on an industrial scale.
  • Internodes of orthotropic suckers are taken from
    selected clones and rooted in special nurseries
    (humidified areas of a general nursery).
  • Orthotropic stem cuttings grow into a well shaped
    coffee plant.
  • Plagiotropic stem cuttings only grow horizontally
    into coffee bushes.
  • The internodal sections in the cutting prepared
    develop their roots in a porous substrate inside
    a propagator.
  • The rooted cuttings are planted out in seedlings
    bags, hardened-off under a shade in an humid
    environment.
  • The successfully hardened clones are transplanted
    into the field after 6 8 months in the nursery.

13
Propagation Of Coffee By Stem Cuttings Contd.
  • Selection and preparation of stem cuttings
  • Only semi-hard wood portion of the stem is used.
  • With a grafting / budding knife, cut off the tip
    of the selected orthotropic branches 15 days
    before cuttings are taken.
  • The branches are cut into short segment of 7 10
    cm in length, consisting of 1 node and 2 leaves
    which are also cut into half or one-third.
  • Cutting of the leaves may be in different shapes
    in order to differentiate among various C.
    canephora clones.
  • The upper portion of the cutting must be cut as
    close as possible to the axils of the leaves in
    order to check growth of extra-axillary buds.
  • The cuttings may be cleaved, if the diameter is
    sufficiently large.

14
Propagation Of Coffee By Stem Cuttings Contd.
  • Setting Of Cuttings
  • Vertically insert prepared cuttings of coffee, in
    rows into the previously moistened medium at a
    depth at which the leaf just touches the medium
    (sawdust).
  • This arrangement is essential in order to avoid
    leaf drop, which is indication that the cutting
    has not rooted.
  • Cutting planted at a planting density of 400
    500 cuttings per square meter.
  • A full compartment is covered with transparent
    polythene sheet and sprayed with water.

15
Propagation Of Coffee By Stem Cuttings Contd.
  • Maintenance of set cuttings
  • Every morning, the chamber is sprayed with mist
    of water until micro-droplets of the sprays
    become deposited on the leaves. A second spray is
    carried out in the afternoon during the dry
    season.
  • Mist-blowing of water is not only to keep the
    chamber humidified, but also to keep the
    temperature stabilized at 250C 300C.
  • After 20 days of setting, callus would have
    developed and the first root would have appeared.
  • Transplanting of cuttings into the nursery begins
    at 6 weeks and continues till 3 months.
  • Any unrooted cuttings is discarded and propagator
    prepared for another batch of cuttings.
  • The success rate depends on physiological
    conditions of the prepared cuttings.

16
  • Transplanting and Hardening-off
  • Coffee seedlings are maintained and hardened-off
    following the standard operational procedures in
    the nursery.
  • Transplanting Of Coffee Seedlings Into The Field
  • Planting spacing / planting densities
  • C. canephora
  • 4.0 m x 2.5 m (1100 trees/ha)
  • 2.5 m x 2.0 m (2000 trees/ha)
  • C. arabica
  • 4.0 m x 2.5 m (1000 trees/ha)
  • 2.0 m x 2.0 m (2500 trees/ha)
  • High density planting for Coffea spp, of gt 5000
    plants/ha, requires a considerable investment in
    terms of fertilizers, plant treatments and strict
    application of carefully planned procedures. It
    is therefore practised in large plantations.

17
Maintenance Of Coffee Plantation
  • Weeding Clean-weeding during the establishment
    phase of the transplants, especially, in the
    first 18 24 months eliminates weed problems and
    thus facilitates good establishment of the
    transplants.
  • In a non-organic coffee production system,
    herbicides may be used to check weed growth.
  • Mulching organic mulch is preferable. A gap of
    about 10 15 cm radius should be left around a
    coffee plant unmulched in order to reduce the
    risk of termite attacks.
  • In a termite-infested land, the mulch should be
    sprayed with a termiticide.
  • Shade shade requirement in coffee cultivation is
    controversial. Research reports have indicated
    that coffee transplanted under 50 shade had
    better growth performance.

18
Maintenance Of Coffee Plantation Contd.
  • Pruning
  • An important maintenance operation in coffee.
  • Coffee yield is directly dependent on good
    pruning operations.
  • Pruning in coffee is based on the understanding
    of the growth habit of the crop plant which is of
    2 types
  • Orthotropic growth, made up of vegetative
    verticals.
  • Plagiotropic growth, made up of lateral or fruit
    (reproductive) branches.
  • Pruning in coffee is complicated because it
    differs from place to place.
  • The basic principle of pruning in coffee culture
    is regeneration / renovation of coffee trees in
    an orchard.

19
Forms Of Pruning In Coffee Culture
  • De-suckering Removal of unwanted suckers from
    coffee plants. It helps to maintain required
    number of vertical stems.
  • Topping Simplest forms of pruning in coffee. It
    involves cutting off the upper part of a
    developed, well-grown, vigorous coffee plant.
    topping enables both vertical and lateral shoots
    to thicken. It induces heavy tillering,
    especially, in C. canephora.
  • Single stem Only the most vigorous vertical stem
    is left upright to bear the laterals on which
    berries are borne, while all other laterals are
    removed.
  • Double stem rotation Leaning / modified single
    stem / bayonet system. This is applied when
    coffee plant, in fertile soil, grows luxuriantly.
    Two out of a number of new shoots, after topping,
    are retained. One grows vertically while the
    second is topped in order to induce fruit
    laterals. When vertical bayonet fruits and bend
    over, a new vertical is initiated from the second
    bayonet that was formally topped.

20
Forms Of Pruning In Coffee Culture Contd.
  • Vertical / Upright multiple stem After the first
    crop of coffee, 2 or 3 vertical stems are allowed
    to develop from the base, these are topped at an
    height of about 1.8 m. The strongest, oldest and
    healthiest among them is allowed to bear berries
    for the year while the other shoots are
    suppressed by pruning or trimming. The selected
    vertical is allowed to bear berries for 2 years
    before it is cut and replaced with the next
    strongest shoot.
  • Leaning multiple stem This is recommended for
    areas with fairly high temperature, good soil
    fertility, adequate rainfall and shade provision.
    It involves topping coffee seedlings at about 0.5
    m, new shoots to become vertical are encouraged
    from the base, about 1 shoot per year. Terminal
    growth is unrestricted. During growth and
    fruiting, farm workers go round the plantation to
    gently pull the tops of fruit-bearing verticals
    outwards and downwards to fit them for
    harvesting. Remove emerging suckers/shoots. The
    vertical can remain productive for 5 years, if
    well-managed.

21
Forms Of Pruning In Coffee Culture Contd.
  • Hawaiian system This is an intensive upright /
    vertical stem rotation system. It involves 4 6
    verticals half of which are in heavy production
    each year while the second half is held to light
    fruiting or prepared for next berry production.
  • Colombian system Otherwise called umbrella
    system is normally applied to coffee grown under
    shade. The verticals of young coffee plant are
    allowed to grow to about 2 m and then topped.
    Growth from terminal 2 axils prevented. Laterals
    allowed to grow horizontally branching repeatedly
    which later bends downwards under the weight of
    the berries, to form a dome-shaped /
    umbrella-like shape.
  • Candelabra system A Costa Rica system and it
    starts from the nursery where the seedling is
    topped at about 30 cm. The topped seedlings,
    after transplanted are topped again at 60 cm and
    thereafter, 2 equal verticals are allowed to
    grow. These grow to about 1 m and are topped
    again. At this stage, 4 verticals emerge and
    laterals encouraged to emerge for fruiting.
    Laterals continue to bear berries for about 5
    years before they are cut back to 20 30 cm and
    new suckers allowed to emerge.

22
Forms Of Pruning In Coffee Culture Contd.
  • Guatemalan system
  • This is a form of soil-layering where the
    daughter coffee plant becomes severed from the
    mother plant and thus becomes an individual
    plant. This system exploits the easy-to-root
    ability of coffee stems. Coffee seedlings, when
    transplanted into the field, are bent down to an
    angle of 450 or an acute angle to the soil. This
    inhibits top growth, but induces shoots to emerge
    from the base of the seedling. Three to four
    verticals are allowed to grow and the strongest
    are selected while the oldest stem is topped. The
    succeeding multiple shoots are bent again to
    continue the system. The vertical shoots put out
    laterals for berry production.

23
Harvesting And Processing Of Coffee Berry
  • Harvesting
  • The earliness of bearing in coffee depends on
    variety, suitability of the environment and
    adequate management.
  • Generally coffee plants come into bearing 3 years
    after transplanting into the field.
  • The immature berries are green while the mature
    ones are either yellow, purple or red depending
    on variety.
  • Harvesting must be carried out when berries are
    ripe.
  • Harvesting is carried out by hand because berries
    occur in clusters and do not ripen at once.
  • Harvesting is therefore an activity for the women
    and children.

24
Processing / Post-harvest Handling Of Coffee
Berries.
  • Wet method
  • Pick berries when ripe and depulp immediately in
    order to allow for heating through fermentation
    which spoils the bean flavour.
  • Soak in tanks full of water to eliminate infested
    berries and foreign matter
  • The good and fully mature berries are then fed
    into a pulping machine.
  • Pulp being removed, coffee beans coated with
    mucilaginous covering are transferred into a
    fermentation chamber for fermentation to proceed
    for few hours.
  • Alternatively, the mucilaginous beans are washed
    with water, under pressure, to remove the
    mucilage, thus rendering fermentation
    unnecessary.
  • Coffee beans are then dried and are thus ready
    for market.
  • Beans are of very high cup quality, but expensive
    and need skilled staff.

25
Processing / Post-harvest Handling Of Coffee
Berries contd.
  • Dry method
  • Coffee berries are spread out inside sun until
    they are completely dried.
  • The beans are then hulled (removal of pericarp)
    either with machine or with a pestle and mortar.
  • The pericarp chaff is removed by winnowing
    followed by picking.
  • Proper drying eases hulling and winnowing.
  • Dry method is simple with low capital cost per
    unit and does not require skilled personnel.
  • However, the long period needed for proper drying
    depends on weather condition. Besides, the bean
    is of low quality and there is wide fluctuations
    in bean quality among growers

26
Processing / Post-harvest Handling Of Coffee
Berries contd.
  • Grading
  • Re-drying for uniform moisture content.
  • Cleaning removal of foreign matter and unhulled
    beans.
  • Hulling and polishing removal of testa.
  • Size grading a set of cylindrical sieve used to
    separate smaller and broken beans.
  • Density separation removal of light black and
    defective beans.
  • Hand-sorting removal of defective beans which
    machine could not remove.
  • Mixing proportional mixing of clean size-graded
    beans.
  • Bagging sewing up of mixed lots of specific
    weights for roasting.

27
Processing / Post-harvest Handling Of Coffee
Berries contd.
  • Roasting
  • Roasting brings out the proper flavour of coffee.
  • Roasting is normally carried out for 20 30
    minutes.
  • Grinding
  • Roasted coffee is ground into small particles
    before it can be used.
  • Soluble coffees like Nescafe, are made from
    infusion of coffee from roasted and ground beans
    which is drastically dried in very hot air.

28
Major Diseases Of Coffee
  • Hemileia leaf rust (the leaf)
  • Causal organisms Hemileia vastatrix, H.
    coffeicola.
  • Control use of resistant varieties, copper
    fungicides and farm hygiene / sanitation.
  • American leaf spot (foliage and berry)
  • Causal organisms Stilbellum flavidum, Agaricus
    citricolor
  • Control farm hygiene / sanitation, copper
    fungicides.
  • Black rot (foliage and berry)
  • Causal organism Pellicularia koleroga
  • Control farm sanitation, copper fungicides.

29
Major Insect Pest Of Coffee
  • Defoliator (Epicampoptera glauca).
  • Effect coffee plant with lace-like leaves
  • Control spray plant with endosulfan directing
    jet upwards from underneath.
  • Berry borers (Stephanoderes hampei).
  • Effect Beetles bore small holes in ends of
    berries. Larvae feed, develop and destroy
    berries.
  • Control Regular harvesting, hygienic measures,
    spray with insecticides.
  • Termites.
  • Effect roots eaten up .Coffee plant falls off
    without any symptom.
  • Control Destroy termitarium in and around coffee
    plots.
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