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Chapter 9 Language and Literature What is style? It is


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Title: Chapter 9 Language and Literature What is style? It is

Chapter 9 Language and Literature
What is style?
  • It is notoriously difficult to give a
    satisfactory definition of style.
  • Simply put, a style is the sum of linguistic
    features associated with texts defined by a set
    of contextual parameters.

What is stylistics?
  • Stylistics is the study of style. It is a branch
    of linguistics which studies the features of
    situationally distinctive uses (varieties) of
    language, and tries to establish principles
    capable of accounting for the particular choices
    made by individual and social groups in their use
    of language.

  • Stylistics has a broad and a narrow sense.
  • In its broad sense, it studies the use of
    language in all kinds of contexts and how
    language use varies in accordance with varying
  • In its narrow sense, it studies literary
    discourse from a linguistic orientation.
  • The styl component relates stylistics to
    literary criticism, and the istics component to

Procedures for stylistic analyses
  • (accurate) description
  • (reasonable) interpretation
  • (fair) evaluation

Some Examples
  • Till a the seas gang dry, my dear,
  • And the rocks melt wi the sun
  • I will love thee still, my dear,
  • While the sands o life shall run.
  • A Red, Red Rose by Robert Burns
  • aall wiwith oof

  • My opinion of the coal trade on that river is,
    that it may require talent, but it certainly
    requires capital. Talent Mr. Micawber has,
    capital Mr. Micawber has not.
  • David Copperfield by Charles Dichens

  • The mayor again pressed to his blue eyes the tips
    of the fingers that were disposed on the edge of
    the wheeled chair with careful carelessness,
    after the Cleopatra model and Mr. Dombey bowed.
  • Dombey and Son
  • How affected the mayor was!

  • What seems to distinguish literary from
    non-literary usage may be the extent to which the
    phonological, grammatical and semantic features
    of the language are salient or foregrounded in
    some way.

What is foregrounding?
  • In a purely linguistic sense, the term
    'foregrounding' is used to refer to new
    information, in contrast to elements in the
    sentence which form the background against which
    the new elements are to be understood by the

  • In the wider sense of stylistics, text
    linguistics, and literary studies, it is a
    translation of the Czech aktualisace
    (actualization), a term common with the Prague
  • In this sense it has become a spatial metaphor
    that of a foreground and a background, which
    allows the term to be related to issues in
    perception psychology, such as figure/ground

Style as Foundgrounding Explained by Short (1984
  • A. When a writer writes he is constantly involved
    in making linguistic choices choices between one
    word and another, one structure and another, and
    so on.
  • B. Examination of the choices that he makes (as
    opposed to the ones that he rejects) can help us
    to understand more fully the meaning he is trying
    to create and the effects he is striving to

  • C. He can make choices both inside and outside
    the language system. Choices outside the language
    system are deviant and thus produce
  • D. Overregularity of a particular choice within
    the system (e.g. parallelism) also produces
  • (Short,
    1984 21)

Devices of Foregrounding
  • Generally, two categories of devices may be
    distinguished, deviation and overregularity.

  • Deviation corresponds to the traditional idea of
    poetic license the writer of literature is
    allowed in contrast to the everyday speaker
    to deviate from rules, maxims, or conventions.
    These may involve the language, as well as
    literary traditions or expectations set up by the
    text itself. The result is some degree of
    surprise in the reader, and his/her attention is
    thereby drawn to the form of the text itself
    (rather than to its content). Cases of neologism,
    live metaphor, or ungrammatical sentences, as
    well as archaisms, paradox, and oxymoron (the
    traditional tropes) are clear examples of

  • Overregularity is characterized by repetitive
    structures (part of) a verbal configuration is
    repeated (or contrasted), thereby being promoted
    into the foreground of the reader's perception.
  • Traditional handbooks of poetics and rhetoric
    have surveyed and described (under the category
    of figures of speech) a wide variety of such
    forms of parallelism, e.g., rhyme, assonance,
    alliteration, meter, and semantic symmetry.

Phonological deviation
  • Omission (1) the omission of the initial part of
    a word
  • Thou on whose stream, mid the steep skys
  • Loose clouds like earths decaying leaves are
  • Ode to the West Wind by Shelley
  • midamid

Phonological deviation
  • Omission (2) the omission of the medial part of
    a word
  • A voice so thrilling neer was heard
  • In spring-time from the cuckoo-bird,
  • Breaking the silence of the seas
  • Among the farthest Hebrides.
  • The Solitary Reaper by Wordsworth
  • neernever

Phonological deviation
  • Omission (3) the omission of the final part of a
  • Till a the seas gang dry, my dear,
  • And the rocks melt wi the sun
  • I will love thee still, my dear,
  • While the sands o life shall run.
  • A Red, Red Rose by Robert Burns
  • aall wiwith oof

Phonological deviation
  • Mispronunciation and Sub-standard Pronunciation
  • May God starve ye yet, yelled an old Irish woman
  • who now threw open a nearby window and stuck out
  • her head.
  • Yes, and you, she added, catching the eye of
  • of the policemen. You bloody murthering thafe!
  • rack my son over the head, will, you
  • muthering divil? Ah, ye
  • Sister Carrie by T. Dreiser
  • The way of speaking reveals that the speaker is a
    working-class woman.

Phonological deviation
  • Special pronunciation
  • The trumpet of a prophecy! O, Wind,
  • If winter comes, can spring be far behind?
  • Ode to the West Wind by Shelley

Graphological deviation
  • By graphology (???) is meant the encoding of
    meaning in visual symbols.
  • Graphological deviation can occur in any sub-area
    of graphology, such as shape of text, type of
    print, grammetrics, etc.

  • Shape of text
  • 40Love
  • middle aged
  • couple playing
  • ten nis
  • when the
  • game ends
  • and they
  • go home
  • the net
  • will still
  • be be
  • tween them

  • Shape of text
  • A Christmas Tree
  • Star
  • If you are
  • A love compassionate,
  • You will walk with us this year,
  • We face a glacial distance, who are here
  • Huddled
  • At your feet
  • by Burford

  • Shape of text
  • l(a
  • le
  • af
  • fa
  • ll
  • s)
  • one
  • l
  • iness
  • By E.E. Cummings

  • Shape of text
  • ?
  • ??
  • ???
  • ????
  • ?????
  • ??????
  • ???????

  • Type of print Literary writers also choose to
    express their ideas by managing the type of print
    which may include italics, bold print,
    capitalization and decapitalization, etc.

  • Me up at does
  • out of the floor
  • quietly Stare
  • a poisoned mouse
  • still who alive
  • is asking what
  • have i done that
  • You wouldnt have
  • (E. E. Cummings)
  • a poisoned mouse
  • who still alive
  • does Stare quietly
  • out of the floor
  • up at Me
  • is asking what
  • have i done that
  • You wouldnt have

  • Grammetrics refers to the ways in which
  • grammatical units are fitted into metrical units
  • such as lines and stanzas.

  • This is Just to Say
  • I have eaten
  • the plums
  • that were in
  • the ice-box
  • and which
  • you were probably
  • saving
  • for breakfast
  • Forgive me
  • they were delicious
  • so sweet
  • and so cold

Syntactic deviation
  • Syntactic deviation refers to the departures from
    normal grammar.

Syntactic deviation
  • Behold her, single in the field,
  • You solitary Highland Lass!
  • Reaping and singing by herself
  • Stop here, or gently pass!
  • Alone she cuts and binds the grain,
  • And sings a melancholy strain
  • O listen! For the vale profound
  • Is overflowing with the sound.
  • The solitary reaper by Wordsworth

Syntactic deviation
  • Out of the bosom of the Air,
  • Out of the cloud-folds of her garments shaken,
  • Over the woodlands brown and bare,
  • Over the harvest-fields forsaken,
  • Silent, and soft, and slow
  • Descends the snow.
  • Snowflakes by Longfellow

Syntactic deviation
  • Heavy is my heart,
  • Dark are thine eyes.
  • Thou and I must part
  • Ere the sun rise.
  • Slowly by Mary Coleridge

  • O what a noble mind is here oerthrown! The
  • courtiers, soldiers, scholars, eye, tongue,
  • sword.
  • Hamlet by Shakespeare
  • This is Ophelias lament over Hamlets supposed
  • Here, the sense of derangement is highlighted by
    the fact that
  • the order of the genitive nouns does not
  • semantically to the things possessed. More
    importantly, the
  • phrases are structurally deviant n that each
    possessor is
  • separated from its possessed, so that both logic
    and everyday
  • expectations of speech seem to be mixed up in the

Lexical deviation
  • In stylistics lexical deviation refers to a new
    word or expression or a new meaning for an old
    word used on only particular occasion. Sometimes
    a writer intends to reach certain kind of
    rhetorical effect, so he will invent some new
    words based on the rules of word-formation. But
    these new words are seldom or hardly used on
    other occasions. That means in literature, some
    invented new words are only used by the inventor
    himself. Surely these nonce-formations (words
    invented for special purpose) bring about certain
    stylistic effect and greatly improve the power of
    newness and expression of the language.

Lexical deviation
  • There was a balconyful of gentlemen.
  • Chesterton
  • We left the town refreshed and rehatted.
  • Fotherhill
  • They were else-minded then, altogether, the
  • men.
  • Hopkins

Lexical deviation
  • Dont be such a harsh parent, father!
  • Dont father me!
  • H. G. Wells
  • I was explaining the Golden Bull to his Royal
  • Highness, Ill Golden Bull you, you
  • rascal!roared the Majesty of Prussia.
  • Macaulay
  • ???????

Deep-structure deviation
  • The deviations discussed so far are
    surface-structure deviations, because they are
  • Deep-structure deviations refer to semantic
    deviations, which may be defined as linguistic
    effects involving something odd in the cognitive
    meaning of a certain linguistic unit, e.g., a
    word or phrase.

  • Contradiction is a type of semantic deviation
    which conveys self-conflicting information. It
    includes oxymoron and paradox.

  • Oxymoron the yoking together of two expressions
    which are incomparable, so that in combination
    they have no conceivable literal reference to
  • His honour rooted in dishonour stood And faith
    unfaithful kept him falsely true. ???????????????,
  • Alfred Tennyson

  • Paradox a statement which is absurd because it
    is self-evidently false.
  • Nurse His name is Romeo, and a Montague.
  • The only son of your great enemy.
  • Juliet My only love sprung from my only hate.
  • Too early seen unknown and known too
  • Prodigious birth of love that it is to
  • That I must love a loathed enemy.
  • Romeo and Juliet by Shakespeare

  • In literature, transference of meaning is the
    process whereby literary absurdity leads the mind
    to comprehension on a figurative plane.
    Transference in literature refers to such
    traditional figures of speech as simile,
    synecdoche, metonymy, and metaphor.

  • Simile
  • O, my luve is like a red, red rose,
  • Thats newly sprung in June
  • O, my luve is like the melodie
  • Thats sweetly playd in tune.
  • Robert Burns

  • Synecdoche a type of transference of meaning
    which involves the substitution of a part for a
  • Return to her?
  • No, rather I abjure all roofs and choose
  • To be a comrade with the wolf and owl.
  • The Taming of the Shrew by Shakespeare

  • Metonymy
  • The glories of our blood and state,
  • Are shadows, not substantial things
  • There is no armour against fate
  • Death lays his icy hand on kings
  • Sceptre and Crown
  • Must tumble down
  • And in the dust be equal made
  • With the poor crooked Scythe and Spade.
  • The glories of our blood by Shirley

  • Metaphor
  • All the worlds a stage,
  • And all the men and women merely players
  • They have their exits and their entrances.
  • And one man in his time plays many parts,
  • His acts being seven ages
  • Shakespeare

  • Deception is another type of semantic deviation
    that is frequently found in literary texts. By
    deception is not meant the use of language that
    is intended to deceive people. It simply refers
    to the deliberate use of overstatement,
    understatement and irony, each of which
    misrepresents the truth in some way.

  • Overstatement hyperbole
  • For she was beautiful her beauty made
  • The bright world dim, and everything beside
  • Seemed like the fleeting image of a shade.
  • Shelley

  • Understatement opposite of overstatement
  • Lady Macbeth Thou wouldst be great
  • Art not without ambition, but without
  • The illness should attend it.
  • Macbeth by Shakespeare
  • there was a loud cry from a number of
    voices,and the horses reared and plunged. But for
    the latter inconvenience, the carriage probably
    would not have stopped carriages were often
    known to drive on, and leave their wounded
    behind, and why not?...

  • Irony achieves emphasis by misrepresenting the
  • It takes the form of saying the opposite of what
    is meant.
  • The intended meaning of the words is the opposite
    of their original / usual sense.

  • ???????????????????,??
  • ??????????????,???????
  • ???????????????????
  • ??
  • ????????,???????????
  • ??
  • ?,????!??????,???????!

  • ???????

  • Ambiguity refers to the case of more than one
    cognitive meaning for the same piece of
  • In non-literary discourse, ambiguity is usually
    taken to be the opposite of clarity and is
    therefore normally considered as a fault. In
    literature, however, it is regarded as a virtue,
    roughly corresponding to richness or wit, for
    in literature, we are ready to read extra

  • How is bread made?
  • I know that! Alice cried eagerly. You take
  • flour
  • When do you pick the flower? the White Queen
  • asked, In a garden, or in the hedges?
  • Well, it isnt picked at all, Alice explained,
  • ground
  • How many acres of ground? said the White Queen.
  • Through the Looking Glass by Lewis Carroll

  • Ben Battle was a warrior bold,
  • And used to wars alarms
  • But a cannon-ball took off his legs,
  • So he laid down his arms.
  • Thomas Hood

  • Pun intentional ambiguity
  • The use of a word in such a way as to suggest two
    or more meanings or different association, or the
    use of two or more words of the same or nearly
    the same sound with different meanings, so as to
    produce a humorous effect.

  • ???????(??)
  • ????????????(?????)
  • ??????(???)
  • ?????????(????)
  • ???????????????
  • ??????,?????????????

Phonological Overregularity
  • Phonological overregularity is characteristic of
    literature, especially poetry. It consists of two
    aspects phonemic patterning and rhythmic

Phonemic patterning
  • Alliteration the repetition of the initial
    consonant cluster in stressed syllables.
  • CVC / CVC
  • Those ungrateful drones who would
  • Drain your sweat nay, drink you blood?
  • Song to the men of England by Shelley
  • ?????????????(drones)???(drain)????,?(drink)?????

Phonemic patterning
  • Rhyme repetition of sound between words or verse
    lines extending back from the end to the last
    fully accented vowel and not further.
  • CVC / CVC
  • In theory, a rhyme word may have one, two, three
    or more syllables, though in practice rhymes of
    more than two syllables are rare in serious
  • One-syllable rhymes masculine rhymes
  • Two-syllable rhymes feminine rhymes

Phonemic patterning
  • The fair breeze blew,
  • The white foam flew.
  • The furrow followed free
  • We were the first that ever burst into that
    silent sea.
  • ????,????,
  • ??????,
  • ???????,
  • ???????????

Phonemic patterning
  • Candy
  • Is dandy,
  • But liquor
  • Is quicker.
  • by Ogden Nash

Phonemic patterning
  • End rhyme occurring at the end of verse lines
  • Internal rhyme occurring within a verse line
  • Half-rhyme formed by repeating either the vowel
    or the finial consonant cluster
  • CVC/CVC (assonance) CVC/CVC (consonance)
  • Para-rhyme repeating the initial consonant
    cluster and the final consonant cluster
  • CVC/ CVC
  • Reverse rhyme repeating the vowel and the
    initial consonant cluster
  • CVC / CVC

Phonemic patterning
  • End rhyme
  • The fair breeze blew,
  • The white foam flew.
  • The furrow followed free
  • We were the first that ever burst into that
    silent sea.

Phonemic patterning
  • Internal rhyme
  • Come with me and be my love
  • And we will all the pleasures prove

Phonemic patterning
  • Half-rhyme
  • Come with me and be my love
  • And we will all the pleasures prove
  • consonance
  • Think from how many trees
  • Dead leaves are brought
  • To earth on seed or wing
  • The compost heap by Vernon Watkins
  • assonance

Phonemic patterning
  • Para-rhyme
  • It seemed that out of battle I escaped
  • Down some profound dull tunnel, long since
  • Through granites which titanic wars had groined
  • Yet also there encumbered sleepers groaned

Phonemic patterning
  • Reverse rhyme
  • Come with me and be my love
  • And we will all the pleasures prove

Phonemic patterning
  • Onomatopoeia
  • I chatter over stony ways,
  • In little sharps and trebles,
  • I bubble into eddying bays,
  • I babble on the pebbles.
  • The brook by Tennyson

Rhythmic patterning
  • English is a stress-timed language. Its rhythm is
    based on the contrast of the stressed and
    unstressed syllables.
  • In English, every word except monosyllabic ones
    has one syllable that carries the stress.
  • To learn the distribution of stress in utterances
    consisting of more than one word, it is important
    to know what kinds of words are stressed.
  • in English, there are two major classes of words
    open-class items and close-system items. It is
    usually words belonging to the open-class that
    bear stress.

Rhythmic patterning
  • Foot the unit of stressed and unstressed
    syllables which is repeated to form a metrical
  • Iamb 2 syllables, unstressed stressed
  • Trochee 2 syllables, stressed unstressed
  • Anapest 3 syllables, 2 unstressed stressed
  • Dactyl 3 syllables, stressed 2 unstressed
  • Spondee 2 stressed syllables
  • Pyrrhic 2 unstressed syllables

Rhythmic patterning
  • Iamb 2 syllables, unstressed stressed
  • In every cry of every man
  • In every infants cry of fear
  • London by W. Blake
  • Trochee 2 syllables, stressed unstressed
  • Never seek to tell thy love
  • Love that never told can be
  • Never seek to tell thy love by W. Blake

Rhythmic patterning
  • Anapest 3 syllables, 2 unstressed stressed
  • The Assyrian came down like the wolf on the fold.
  • Byrons The destruction of Sennacherib
  • Dactyl 3 syllables, stressed 2 unstressed
  • Take her up tenderly
  • Lift her with care
  • The bridge sighsby Thomas Hood

Rhythmic patterning
  • Spondee 2 stressed syllables
  • Sweet day, so cool, so calm, so bright
  • Virtue by G. Herbert
  • Pyrrhic 2 unstressed syllables
  • Very rare in poetry

Rhythmic patterning
  • Iambic feet are firm and flat
  • And come down heavily like THAT.
  • Trochees dancing very lightly
  • Sparkle, froth and bubble brightly.
  • Dactylic daintiness lilting so prettily
  • Moves about fluttering rather than wittily.
  • While for speed and for haste such a rhythm is
    the best
  • As we find in the race of the quick anapaests.

Rhythmic patterning
  • Poetry can exploit the way we use stress to
    create rhythms. When stress is organized to form
    regular rhythms, the term used for it is metre.

Rhythmic patterning
  • Metrical patterning
  • Monometre 1 foot
  • Dimetre 2 feet
  • Trimetre 3 feet
  • Tetrametre 4 feet
  • Pentametre 5 feet
  • Hexametre 6 feet
  • Heptametre 7 feet
  • Octametre 8 feet

Rhythmic patterning
  • Monometre 1 foot
  • Thus I
  • Pass by
  • And die
  • As one
  • Unknown
  • And gone.
  • Upon his departure hence by Robert Herrick

Rhythmic patterning
  • Dimetre 2 feet
  • One more unfortunate
  • Weary of breath
  • Rashly importunate,
  • Gone to her death!
  • The bridge of signs by Thomas Hood

Rhythmic patterning
  • Trimetre 3 feet
  • Mortal man and woman
  • Go up on your travel!
  • A drama of exile by E. B. Brownig

Rhythmic patterning
  • Tetrametre 4 feet
  • Who fought for freedom, more than life
  • Who gave up all, to die in strife?
  • Lines on shell, killed at Newport by John

Rhythmic patterning
  • Pentametre 5 feet
  • How like a winter hath my absence been
  • From thee, the pleasure of the fleeting year!
  • Sonnet XIV by Shakespeare

Rhythmic patterning
  • Hexametre 6 feet
  • Still let my tyrants know, I am not doomed to
  • Year after year in gloom, and desolate despair.
  • The prisoner by Emily Bronte
  • Heptametre 7 feet
  • Octametre 8 feet
  • Examples are rare.

Rhythmic patterning
  • It would be wrong to assume that these basic
    patterns are all we need to know about the
    rhythm. In fact, if we try to work out the rhythm
    by rigidly applying a basic metrical pattern, we
    shall soon find ourselves in difficulties.

Syntactic overregularity
  • Syntactic overregularity in literature is
    revealed mainly in the repetition of certain
    linguistic units of a text, in parallelism and in

  • Repetition
  • Gold! Gold! Gold! Gold!
  • Bright and yellow, hard and cold, molten, graven,
    hammerd and rolld,
  • Heavy to get and light to hold
  • By Thomas Hood

  • Repetition
  • The woods are lovely, dark, and deep,
  • But I have promises to keep,
  • And miles to go before I sleep,
  • And miles to go before I sleep.
  • Stopping by woods on a snowy evening by R.
  • Not many lives, but only one have we
  • One, only one.

  • Parallelism
  • If you prickle us, do we not bleed?
  • If you tickle us, do we not laugh?
  • If you poison us, do we not die?
  • And if you wrong us, shall we not revenge?
  • The Merchant of Venice by Shakespeare

  • Parallelism
  • The seed ye sow, another reaps
  • The wealth ye find, another keeps
  • The robes ye weave, another wears
  • The arms ye forge, another bears.
  • Song to the men of England by P. B. Shelley

  • Antithesis
  • To err is human, to forgive, devine.
  • ????,?????
  • Where theres marriage without love, there will
    be love without marriage.
  • ?????????,???????????
  • Ask not whao your country can do for you ask
    what you can do for you country.

  • ??????????????????????
  • ????????,?????????????
  • ????,????????,????????
  • ??, ??????,????,???????
  • ?????????????????????,
  • ??????????,???????
  • ??????????????????????
  • ???????????????,??????
  • ????????,????????????

  • ???????,??????,????,?????
  • ???????,????????
  • ??????,???????
  • ??????,???????
  • ????????,???????????????????
  • ????????????,???????????? ?

Graphological overregularity
  • Couplets 2 lines of verse, usually connected by
    a rhyme
  • Quatrains Stanzas of four lines
  • Blank verse lines in iambic pentametre which do
    not rhyme
  • Sonnet
  • Free verse
  • Limericks etc.

The poetic functions of sound and metre (P 221)
  • Aesthetic pleasure
  • Conforming to a conventional form
  • Expressing/innovating with a form
  • Demonstrating skill, intellectual pleasure
  • For emphasis or contrast
  • Onomatopoeia

The analysis of poetry
  • Information about the poem poet, period, genre,
    topic, etc.
  • Structure layout, number of lines, length of
    lines, meter, rhyme, sound effects, etc. plus
  • general comment on the poem

The language of fiction
  • From realism to modernism

It had been an easy birth, but then for Abel and
Zaphia Rosnovski nothing had ever been easy, and
in their own ways they had both become
philosophical about that. Abel had wanted a son,
an heir who would one day be chairman of the
Baron Group. By the time the boy was ready to
take over, Abel was confident that his own name
would stand alongside those of Ritz and Statler
and by then the Baron would be the largest hotel
group in the world.
Abel had paced up and down the colourless
corridor of St. Lukes Hospital waiting for the
first cry, his slight limp becoming more
pronounced as each hour passed. Occasionally he
twisted the silver band that encircled his wrist
and stared at the name so neatly engraved on it.
He turned and retraced his steps once again, to
see Doctor Dodek heading towards him.
Jeffrey Archer The Prodigal Daughter
There is the Hart of the Wud in the Eusa Story
that wer a stage every 1 knows that. There is the
hart of the wood meaning the veryes deap of it
thats a nother thing. There is the hart of the
wood where they bern the chard coal thats a
nother thing agen innit. Thats a nother thing.
Berning the chard coal in the hart of the wood.
Thats what they call the stack of wood you see.
The stack of wood in the shape they do it for
chard coal berning. Why do they call it the hart
tho? Thats what this here story tels of.
Russell Hoban Ridley Walker
Fictional prose and point of view
  • Three levels of discourse in fictional prose
  • Addresser 1------ Message ------ Addressee 1
  • (Novelist)
  • Addresser 2 ------Message ------ Addressee 2
  • (Narrator)
  • Addresser 3------ Message ------ Addressee 3
  • (Character A)
    (Character B)

  • The figure only accounts for the novel in
    general in the sense that all three levels, and
    all three pairs of participants are needed to
    explain how the novel works.
  • Any particular novel may neutralize some of the
    distinctions, multiple others, or do both at the
    same time. The six participants in the basic
    discourse structure for the novel means that
    there are more viewpoints to be taken into
    account in the novel than in other genres.
  • It is no wonder that the novel has become the
    genre where writers have explored viewpoints

  • I-narrators The person telling the story may be
    a character of the novel, relating the story
    after the event. First-person or I-person
    narrators are often limited because they may
    withhold some information, tell the untruth, or
    dont know all the facts.
  • Third-person narratorsThe narrator is not a
    character in the novel. This type of third-person
    narrator is arguably the dominant narrator type.

  • Schema-oriented language Viewpoint is
    schema-oriented. Different participants in the
    same situation may have different schemas,
    related to their different viewpoints.
  • Besides indicating viewpoints by choosing what to
    describe, novelists can also indicate it by how
    it is described, particularly through expressions
    which are evaluative in nature. (See Ex. 9-25 on

  • Given vs new information At the beginning of a
    story, we should be able to predict that
    narrative reference to everything in the fiction
    except items generally assumed by everyone in our
    culture must be new, and hence should display
    indefinite reference. (See ex 9-26 on P224)
  • Deixis egocentricity and deictic projection

Speech presentation
  • Direct speech (DS)
  • Free indirect speech (FIS)
  • Indirect speech (IS)
  • Narrators representation of speech acts (NRSA)
  • Narrators representation of speech (NRS)
  • See Ex 9-28 on P226

More information on free indirect speech
  • ?????????????,???????????Quirk???A Grammar of
    Contemporary English?????,?????????,??????????????
    ??????,???????(free indirect speech)?
  • ????????????????????????????????????????,???????

  • Did I want his horse? Oh, what a horse he had,
    the finest in Red China! He had very good photos
    and they were all mine. His diary? He would send
    instructions to his wife, who was still in the
    Red areas, to give all this to me and more.
  • ????????,??????!????????!???????????,?????????????
  • ???????????????????????Red Star Over

  • A. ??????????????,??????????,??????????????? So
    that was their plan, was it? He well knew their
    tricks, and would show them a thing or two before
    he was finished. Thank goodness he had been
    alerted, and that there were still a few honest
    people in the world! ??????????,?????????????,????
    ?????????????????????,????????????he said?he

  • B. ???????????,???????????????,???????????????????
    He asked me whether I wanted his horse. He
    remarked with admiration that he had the finest
    horse in Red China. He said that he had very good
    photos and they were all mine. He also asked me
    whether I wanted his diary. He said that he would
    send instructions to his wife, who was still in
    the Red areas, to give all this to me and more.

  • C. ?????????,??????????????????
    (?????????????????) ?????????????????????????,????
    ??????????? He said to me, Do you want my
    horse? Oh, what a horse I have, the finest in Red
    China! I have very good photos and they are all
    yours. My diary? I shall send instructions to my
    wife, who is still in the Red areas, to give all
    this to you and more.
  • ??,????????????????????,???????,???????????,??,

Thought presentation
  • The categories to represent characters thoughts
    are exactly the same as those to represent a
  • Narrators representation of thought (NRT)
  • Narrators representation of thought acts (NRTA)
  • Indirect thought (IT)
  • Free indirect thought (FIT)
  • Direct thought (DT)
  • Stream of consciousness (refer to your teacher of

  • He spent the day thinking. (NRT)
  • She considered his unpunctuality. (NRTA)
  • She thought that he would be late (IT)
  • He was bound to be late! (FIT)
  • He will be late, she thought. (DT)

Prose style
  • ? Authorial style the way of writing
    recognizably belonging to a particular writer. ?
    Text style Looking at how linguistic choices
    help to construct meaning.

Analyzing the language of fiction
  • Lexis/vocabulary
  • Grammatical organization
  • Textual organization
  • Figures of speech
  • Style variation
  • Discoursal patterning
  • Viewpoint manipulation

The language of drama
  • Drama as poetry
  • Drama as fiction
  • Drama as conversation

Analyzing dramatic language
  • Turn quantity and length
  • Exchange sequence
  • Production errors
  • The cooperative principle
  • Status marked through language
  • Register
  • Speech and silence

Analyzing dramatic texts
  • Paraphrasing
  • Commentating
  • Using theories