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Interpreting Data for Effective Instructional Grouping: Early Childhood through First Grade


Interpreting Data for Effective Instructional Grouping: Early Childhood through First Grade Kimberly Hosford, MS Ed. RTI Specialist/School Psychologist – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Interpreting Data for Effective Instructional Grouping: Early Childhood through First Grade

Interpreting Data for Effective Instructional
Grouping Early Childhood through First Grade
  • Kimberly Hosford, MS Ed.
  • RTI Specialist/School Psychologist
  • Southern Oregon ESD
  • NWPBIS Conference, Corvallis, OR March 8, 2010

EBISSEffective Behavioral and Instructional
Support Systems
Academic Systems
Behavioral Systems
  • Intensive, Individual Interventions
  • Small Group/Individual students
  • Assessment-based
  • High Intensity
  • Intensive, Individual Interventions
  • Individual students
  • Assessment-based
  • Intense, durable procedures

  • Targeted Group Interventions
  • Some students (at-risk)
  • High efficiency
  • Rapid response
  • Targeted Group Interventions
  • Some students (some risk)
  • High efficiency
  • Rapid response
  • Universal Interventions
  • All settings, all students
  • Preventive, proactive
  • Universal Interventions
  • All students
  • Preventive, proactive

Curriculum-Based Measurement (CBM) Definition and
  • CBM is a brief, standardized assessment that
    documents student achievement through a
    systematic sampling of skills that represent the
    annual curriculum (Fuchs, 2004 Shinn, 2002,
    1998, 1989 Deno, 1986)
  • Alternate passages are of equivalent difficulty,
    whereby each measure is represented by the same
    level of complexity, gaining an accurate measure
    of student growth
  • Growth is measured by Universal Screening and
    Progress Monitoring

Types of CBM
  • General Outcome Measures (GOM)
  • Application of skill to independent task
  • Leveled passages that can be used for progress
  • Skills-Based Measures (SBM)
  • Leveled measures that assess proficiency on a
    specific set of skills that students are expected
    to perform per grade-level standards
  • Most commonly seen in mathematics/mixed math
  • Mastery Measures (MM)
  • Focuses on student attainment of finite skills
  • Not appropriate for progress monitoring

Utility of CBMs
  • Screening Decisions
  • Identify which students may need instructional
  • Progress Monitoring Decisions
  • Decide when to modify instruction, teach new
    skills, and/or revise goals
  • Diagnostic Decisions
  • To target specific skill(s) for support
  • Outcome Decisions
  • To modify instruction, change intervention, or
    reintegrate back into general education support

CBM as Convergent Data
  • Technically reliable and valid GOMs and SBMs will
    be used for Universal Screening and Progress
    Monitoring of student performance
  • MM will be used to determine if a student is able
    to present skills taught in a lesson or unit
  • Student performance measures from these, and
    other relevant sources of information, will be
    used to determine student growth as aligned with

  • Big idea DIBELS measure

Initial Sound Fluency
  • Phonological Awareness
  • Alphabetic Principal
  • Fluency ( accuracy) with connected text
  • Vocabulary
  • Comprehension

Phoneme Segmentation
Nonsense Word Fluency
DIBELS Oral Reading Fluency (DORF)
DIBELS Oral Reading Fluency (DORF)
  • DIBELS Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early
    Literacy Skills
  • DIBELS is an example of a measurement system
  • AIMSweb Letter Sound Fluency (LSF Alphabetic
    Principle )
  • ________ Word Identification Fluency (WIF
    Alphabetic Principle)

Before Reading there was Oral Language
  • Phonological and phonetic development were
    preceded by prelinguistic development from birth
    to 10 months and older
  • cooing/laughter, vocal play, babbling
  • Babbling leads to speech starting with protowords
    - sounds that resemble adult words
  • Early pronunciation and development of common
    words, 19-32 months (mama, dadi, dog, cookie)
  • Skills of articulation, morpheme identification
    and the ability to orally and auditorily
    manipulate phonemes, ages 3-5

National Institute for Literacy
  • Link for the Executive Summary of the National
    Early Literacy Panels report Developing Early
    Literacy A scientific synthesis of early
    literacy development and implications for
  • http//
  • Other resources can be found at
  • including publications for parents and teachers,
    early childhood through adolescence

National Institute for Literacy Birth to Early
Childhood Predictor Skills
  • Most Important Skills for the Later Development
    of Literacy
  • Knowing the names of printed letters
  • Knowing the sounds associated with printed
  • Manipulating the sounds of spoken language
  • Rapidly naming a sequence of letters, numbers,
    objects or colors
  • Writing ones own name and isolated letters
  • Remembering the content of spoken language for a
    short time

Instructional Practices that Enhance Early
Literacy Skills
  • Code-focused interventions
  • Teach skills to crack the code, include PA
  • Shared-reading interventions
  • Reading books to children, simple or interactive
  • Parent and home programs
  • Parents taught instructional techniques to use at
  • Preschool and kindergarten programs
  • Various aspects including programs, curricula,
    policies, etc.
  • Language-enhanced interventions
  • Focus on improving language development

Effects of the Interventions
  • Code-Focused Instruction
  • Statistically significant and moderate to large
    effects in improving the precursor skills most
    related to later literacy growth
  • Book Sharing
  • Moderate effects on print knowledge and oral
  • Home/Parent Programs
  • Moderate to large effects on oral lang. and
    general cognitive abilities

Intervention Effects (continued)
  • Language-Enhancement Interventions
  • Large effects on oral language skills
  • Preschool and Kindergarten Programs
  • Moderate to large effects on spelling and reading

Additional Key Findings
  • Age appropriate interventions
  • Only language interventions showed greater
    effectiveness early on
  • Overall, large and significant effects noted
    across interventions were found in both younger
    and older children
  • More research is needed to assess outcomes of
    instruction at various ages

Key Findings (continued)
  • In general, child characteristics including
  • SES
  • Age
  • Race/ethnicity
  • Did not alter the effectiveness of the
  • More research is needed to determine if specific
    interventions would be effective with specific

Key Findings (continued)
  • Code-related interventions producing large,
    positive effects were typically conducted in
    one-on-one and small group activities
  • Activities were teacher directed with students
    learning through using the skills
  • Nearly all included some form of PA, which
    generally asked children to delete or blend
    sounds, few used rhyming as the primary approach
  • Teaching letter names and sounds, and beginning
    phonics tasks (blending sounds) enhanced effects
    of PA training

Individual Growth and Development Indicators
  • 1996 Early Childhood Research Institute on
    Measuring Growth and Development was launched by
    the Universities of MN, KS, and OR
  • The Institute developed a comprehensive,
    individualized measurement system for tracking
    the growth and development of children with and
    without disabilities from birth to age eight.
    Part of this system are assessments that allow
    families and teachers to monitor young childrens
    development and identify, as soon as possible,
    the need for more intensive intervention.

  • Design a simple set of tests to graph a childs
    progress and produce information thats
    meaningful to parents and teachers. This is the
    first application of general outcome measures to
    preschool children, said educational
    psychologist Scott McConnell, one of the
    Institutes lead researchers.
  • Early Childhood Research Institute on Measuring
    Growth and Development (1998). Research and
    development of individual growth and development
    indicators for children between birth and age
    eight (Tech. Rep. No. 4), Minneapolis, MN Center
    for Early Education and Development, University
    of Minnesota.

IGDI Measures for Ages 3-5
  • Easiest to most difficult
  • (1) Picture Naming expressive language
  • (2) Rhyming early literacy
  • (3) Alliteration early literacy
  • Load heavily onto phonemic awareness and rapid
    naming from the National Early Literacy Panels
  • Go to the web address below to access the Get
    it, Got it, Go! for free registration,
    downloads, and data management system
  • http//

  • Guidance provided for data interpretation
  • Tracking of individual student progress and
    groups of students available on-line aim line
    set based on a group of English-speaking
    preschoolers without identified disabilities
  • Guidance on creating a local standard
  • Data used as part of the research project
  • Links to intervention resources provided
    however general and somewhat limited in utility

IGDIs and Intervention
  • Picture Naming
  • Intervene with activities to develop vocabulary,
    consult with SLP
  • Rhyming
  • onset recognition (e.g. goat, boat, coat)
  • build accuracy with pictures (e.g. matching items
    with same sounds)
  • Alliteration
  • initial sound matching listening activities book
    that has many words with the same initial sounds
  • Resources from National Early Literacy Panel

Early Literacy
  • Skills of Phonemic Awareness assessed in fall,
    winter and spring of kindergarten and 1st grade
  • Ability to manipulate sounds auditorily at the
    phoneme level
  • Foundation skill set required to become a
    proficient reader
  • Phoneme segmentation as capstone skill
    representing knowledge in rhyme, on-set rime, and
  • General outcome measures include Initial Sound
    Fluency (ISF) and Phoneme Segmentation Fluency

Early Literacy
  • Letter Naming
  • Adds confidence that a student is on track to be
    a successful reader
  • Does not link to one of the five essential
    components of beginning reading
  • Phonics / Alphabetic Principle
  • The ability to link letters to their
    representative sounds in text
  • General outcome measures (GOMs) include
    letter-sound fluency (LSF) and nonsense word
    fluency (NWF)

Guidelines for the Interpretation of Multiple
  • Identify the GOMs that represent pre-requisite
    skills in order to build a foundation for the
    attainment of other skills as aligned with the
    big ideas of beginning reading
  • Review performance across all measures within the
    benchmark period
  • Identify how discrepant a student is from the
    benchmark or normative data (expected performance
    actual performance) validate concern
  • Identify widely discrepant students, those who
    jump off the page
  • Extent of discrepancy and skill deficits
    indicates level of intensity of intervention

Guidelines (continued)
  • What level of support is required for students to
    be successful?
  • Grade-Level Intervention / Walk to Read
  • Differentiate within core program
  • Consider replacement core if enough students in
    grade level require support to be successful
  • Widely Discrepant (Shinn, 1989)
  • Provide intensive support with explicit and
    systemic intervention program
  • Consider replacement core
  • Specific Skill Instruction
  • Re-teaching, practice and repetition of skills
    not mastered
  • Phonics inventory to target skill instruction

Questions to Answer
  • How effective is our Core program? 80/20?
  • For which students is the core program effective
    and not effective?
  • Benchmark
  • Strategic
  • Intensive
  • What skills need to be targeted for support?
  • Enhancement of Core program for all students
  • Small group skill instruction in core program
  • Supplemental program and Intervention
  • Intensive intervention

Questions (continued)
  • Identify specific populations of students
  • English Language Learners
  • Special Education
  • Review Instructional Program for alignment of
    support to student needs
  • Convergence of Evidence
  • Validate need for support
  • Do other measures of student performance also
    indicate skill deficit?
  • Reassess student to confirm need for support and
    to more closely review patterns in student

Kindergarten Fall
  • DIBELS Initial Sound Fluency (ISF) and Letter
    Naming Fluency (LNF)
  • AIMSweb Letter Naming Fluency (LNF )and Letter
    Sounds Correct (LSC)
  • Focus on phonemic awareness (instruction in
    rhyme, onset-rime, blending, and segmenting)
  • Low performance on both ISF and LNF indicates
    comprehensive intervention in area of phonemic
  • Low performance on LNF only suggests skill
    instruction in letter names through
    differentiation in the core program
  • Class or group performance may indicate benefit
    from instruction in oral language development

Kindergarten - Winter
  • Focus on skills of phonemic awareness
  • PSF a capstone skill representing a set of
    prerequisite skills needed to perform task
  • Low performance on ISF and PSF
  • review instructional program
  • intensify support
  • Benchmark on ISF and not PSF
  • Small group instruction
  • Preteach Lesson

Kindergarten - Winter
  • Benchmark met for skills of phonemic awareness
    (ISF and PSF), not for phonics as indicated by
  • Analyze performance on NWF probe
  • Are individual sounds read accurately?
  • Are words being recoded?
  • Are individual sounds being presented and words
    being recoded?
  • Identify patterns in performance.
  • Small group instruction on specific skills as
    indicated by error patterns
  • Preteach Lesson that targets phonics instruction
    in core program

First Grade
  • HUGE year for growth in the development of early
    literacy skills and beginning reading
  • NWF benchmark doubles between fall and winter (24
    to 50 cls) Oral Reading Fluency assessed in
    winter and doubles by spring (20 to 40 wcpm)
  • Review NWF for skill deficit patterns
  • vowel errors
  • specific sound errors across nonsense words
  • decoding accurately, not blending
  • decoding accurately, blending incorrectly
  • onset rime

First Grade - Fall
  • DIBELS measures LNF, PSF, NWF
  • Phoneme segmentation remains a building block and
    foundation in the development of skills for early
  • Ability to identify and blend letter-sounds is
  • When students are solid in their ability to
    identify and blend letter-sounds, as demonstrated
    in their performance on NWF, they may not perform
    to the benchmark in PSF
  • If students are not able to effectively segment
    sounds in words that are presented, they will
    struggle to accurately identify letter-sounds

First Grade - Fall
  • If students are below benchmark yet not widely
    discrepant, differentiate within the core program
    and provide additional support
  • This may be in more than one area, such as
    phonemic awareness and letter-sound
  • If students are widely discrepant in all
    measures, consider a replacement core program

First Grade - Winter
  • Phonemic Awareness
  • If students have not met criterion on PSF, have
    they met benchmark on NWF and ORF?
  • If so, maintain instructional program
  • If not, determine if support through small group
    instruction in core program will be sufficient,
    or if comprehensive intervention will be required
    to meet student need
  • With intervention, progress monitor with PSF, NWF
    and ORF (ORF may not be sensitive to growth yet)

First Grade - Winter
  • Phonics
  • If students have not met benchmark on ORF, have
    they met the criterion on PSF (35) and NWF (50)?
    Take a look at the passages
  • Low performance on ORF and NWF, review NWF for
    skill deficit patterns (collect more data if
    needed for accurate analysis)
  • vowel errors
  • specific sound errors across nonsense words
  • decoding accurately, not blending
  • decoding accurately, blending incorrectly
  • onset rime

First Grade - Winter
  • Low performance on ORF, criterion met on NWF and
  • Look at NWF for guidance on potential needs,
    particularly vowels and recoding
  • If errors identified in NWF, validate concern,
    and teach to remediate error pattern(s)
  • If student is not recoding at least 15 nonsense
    words, student may need instruction in blending
  • If adequately producing sounds and blending on
    NWF, look at errors in ORF passages and consider
    sound-spellings and sight words taught to date in

First Grade Winter (continued)
  • If phonics errors on ORF passages -
  • Highlight on a phonics screener the
    sound-spellings taught and assess student on
    those skills
  • If sight word errors on ORF passages
  • Use list of sight words taught and ask student to
    read the words
  • Provide remediation specific to skill deficit(s)
    through differentiation in the core if student is
    not widely discrepant pre-teach skill(s)
  • Consider replacement core if student is 2x

Winter Data - Overall
  • Summary of Effectiveness report per grade level
  • Student movement from fall to winter
  • Summary of Effectiveness report for same skill
  • Class list reports
  • Data Team meets with grade-level teams to review
    student progress
  • Progress Monitoring data for students receiving
    differentiated and targeted instruction and

Questions to Answer when Progress Monitoring
  • Is the student/instructional group demonstrating
    gains in skill with progress monitoring?
  • What is the current instructional program?
  • Is the student responding?
  • Some growth? No growth? Stable growth on aim
  • Is the program being implemented as intended?
  • Identify alterable variables of time, grouping
    and instruction to either intensify support,
    maintain support, or fade support/reintegrate
  • Review data sources for Convergence of Evidence

Evidence-Based Supplemental and Intervention
  • http//
  • http//

Outcomes Driven Model
Good, Gruba, Kaminski (2002)
Supplemental and Intervention Programs versus
Replacement Core
  • Supplemental
  • To enhance core program for all students
  • Prevent/remediate skills for students in core who
    are somewhat below grade level
  • Intervention
  • Prevent/remediate skills for students in core who
    are somewhat/significantly below grade level
  • Intervention to replace core for students who are
    substantially below grade level
  • Replacement core
  • Addresses all 5 big ideas of reading
  • More explicit instruction of finite skills, moves
    at slower pace with some exceptions

Phonemic Awareness
  • Explicit instruction of essential skills for PA
  • Blending, segmenting, rhyming
  • SRA Phonemic Awareness (PreK-1)
  • 110 lessons 15 minutes each continuum of PA
  • Kindergarten Peer Assisted Literacy Strategies
  • 3 days/week, 20 minutes, for 20 weeks
  • Direct instruction peer tutoring
  • Scott Foresman Early Reading Intervention (ERI)
  • At-risk kindergarten and 1st grade students
  • 30 minutes daily 126 lessons small group
  • Not enough growth following 6-8 weeks, switch to
    Reading Mastery

  • Peer Assisted Literacy Strategies (1st grade)
  • Strong research 30 minutes, 3 days/wk, 16-20
  • Supports PA, Phonics and Fluency
  • Phonics for Reading (grades 1-6 to ELL adults)
  • Consistent with findings of National Reading
  • Phonics supplement
  • Daily 40-50 minutes or split lessons in 1/2
  • Explode the Code
  • Independent work no research
  • See Florida Center on Reading Research and Oregon
    Reading First websites for reviews of other
    programs for phonics support

  • Peer Assisted Literacy Strategies (grade 1)
  • Strong research, easy to implement in core
  • Great Leaps (grades k-adult)
  • Fluency-only, easy to implement, 10-15 minutes
  • Six Minute Solution (grades k-9)
  • Derived from a strong research base 3 levels
  • Only 6 minutes of instructional time daily
  • Read Naturally (50 words to adult)
  • Primarily fluency-building strong research
  • 3, 30 minute lessons/week minimum

  • Embed instruction for specific words and teach
    word learning strategies in the core program,
  • Language for Learning (PreK-1 4-6 yr olds)
  • Language for Thinking (grades 1-2)
  • Training required for fidelity
  • Particularly useful for students with any
    language needs
  • Intended for small groups of 4-12 students in
    25-30 minute instructional sessions 150 lessons

Replacement Core Programs
  • Reading Mastery Classic l, ll, lll (SRA) / Fast
  • Modified orthography used in first level to
    emphasize the specific sounds of letters
  • Particularly powerful for children with
    significant language as well as literacy deficits
  • Horizons (SRA), can include Funnix
  • A, B A/B covers 2 years in 1 to catch kids up
    to peers
  • Uses traditional orthography vs. Reading
  • Read Well
  • Used fairly often as a replacement core in
  • Consider pace of instruction issues

Replacement Core Critical Points
  • Continue to teach skills of vocabulary and
    comprehension from evidence-based core program
  • Not meant to be a long-term solution for large
    groups of students
  • e.g. use Reading Mastery Fast Cycle to MOVE
    students forward and to ACCELERATE their growth
    toward criterion and benchmark standards
  • Use progress monitoring DATA to determine if
    students are gaining skills and generalizing them
  • Define a plan for REINTEGRATION back into the
    core program (e.g. semester break in January)

Instructional Grouping Take Home Points
  • Use instructional recommendations as a guide, not
    as the sole means of decision making
  • Look more closely at the data and specific skill
    areas of deficit and proficiency be discerning
  • Leave meetings with a plan for each grade level
  • Think creatively, outside of the box
  • Identify the smallest change that can be made to
    make the biggest impact in student performance

  • Thank you for supporting student literacy!