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Chapter 22 The Spread of Islam Words, Terms and People to Know

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Title: Chapter 22 The Spread of Islam Words, Terms and People to Know


1
Chapter 22 The Spread of IslamWords, Terms and
People to Know
  • Abbasids
  • Alchemists
  • Abu Bakr
  • Muhammad
  • Quran
  • Mosque
  • Islam
  • Allah
  • Avicenna
  • Baghdad
  • Bedouins
  • Damascus
  • Hajaz
  • Makkah
  • Anno Hijrah
  • Pillars of Faith
  • Omar Khayyam
  • Rubaiyat

2
Mahmoud Ahmadinejad
The president then said "And God willing, with
the force of God behind it, we shall soon
experience a world without the United States and
Zionism," according to a quote published by
IRNA. http//articles.cnn.com/2005-10-26/world/ahm
adinejad_1_israel-jerusalem-day-islamic-world?_sP
MWORLD
  • The Arabian Peninsula is a crossroads of three
    continents. Africa, Europe and Asia. Only a tiny
    strip of fertile land in the south and Oman can
    support agriculture. The rest of the land is
    desert inhabited by nomadic Arab herders. Towns
    were located near the coast or near oasis.

3
Bedouins Arab-speaking desert herders and
warriors. Nomadic Arabs, recognized by their
nomadic lifestyles, specific dialects, social
structures and culture.
  • (Ahl Bedu, " dwellers in the open land," or Ahl
    el beit, " people of the tent," as they call
    themselves),
  • "I and my brothers against my cousins, I and my
    brothers and my cousins against the world."
  • Needed to defend themselves against constant
    raids by other clans seeking their water, grazing
    territory and food supplies. The traditional
    Bedouin "dress" is a thobe (also spelled thawb
    which is the standard Arabic word for a
    "garment").

Janbiya, is the Arabic word for dagger, Usually
worn on a belt.
4
Persian battling Ancient Arabian Tribesmen
5
  • The Arabian WorldCradle of Islam
  • Arabia, birthplace of the 3rd of the Worlds 3
    great monotheistic religions
  • The Nature of Bedouin Society
  • Clans-Tribes
  • Status of Women in Pagan Arabia
  • Women enjoyed greater status in pagan Arab
    society than in either Byzantine or Persian
    society
  • Bedouin Religion Prior to Islam
  • Animism and Polytheism but did recognize a
    supreme God called Allah.

6
The Spread of Islam 500A.D.
1300A.D.
  • Feudalism and
  • Transitions
  • 3. Describe the conditions that gave rise to
    feudalism, as well as political, economic and
    social characteristics of feudalism, in Asia and
    Europe.
  • 4. Explain the lasting effects of military
    conquests during the
  • Middle Ages including
  • a. Muslim conquests
  • b. The Crusades
  • c. The Mongol invasions.

7
God is beautiful and loves beauty. (Inn Allaha
jameel wa-yuhibbu l-jamaal) (A hadith of the
Prophet Muhammad (s)in Sahih Muslim 1.9391.
Muslim contributions to art come from decorative
designsnot painting pictures of people and the
world
Each Mosque has this niche used to indicate the
direction to Mecca
8
Section One describes the rise of Islam.
  • I. Islam means the act of submitting to
    the will of God.
  • A. AllahThe God
  • B. Makkah (Mecca)
  • 1. Three major cities in the Hejaz (Mountainous
    area in the western part of Area) Yathrib
    becomes Medina,"the city of the prophet" , Taif
    and Makkah. Even before Islam, the holiest city
    in Araba was Makkah
  • (a.) Mecca largest and richest
  • (b.) Supported by trade and religion

Defined primarily by its western border on the
Red Sea, it extends from Haql on the Gulf of
Aqaba to Jizan. Its main city is Jeddah, but it
is probably better-known for the Islamic holy
cities of Mecca and Medina. As the site of
Islam's holy places the Hejaz has significance in
the Arab and Islamic historical and political
landscape. Geographically, the region is located
along the Great Rift Valley. The region is also
known for its darker, more volcanic sand.
Depending on the previous definition, Hejaz
includes the high mountains of Sarawat which
topographically separate Najd from Tehamah.
9
  • (c.) Arab pilgrims visited he Kabah
  • (1.) low, cube-shaped building surrounded by
    idols and containing a black stone (meteorite?)
  • (d.) Kabah build by Adam and later rebuilt by
    Abraham and Ishmael http//www.learn360.com/ShowV
    ideo.aspx?ID139171 Mecca, the Ka'ba, and Hajj
    629 min.

10
  • Black Stone on the south-east corner.
  • Entry door, on the East wall 2.13 metres above
    ground level. It is accessed using a set of
    portable steps.
  • Rainwater spout made of gold. This was added in
    the rebuilding of 1627 after the previous year's
    rain caused three of the four walls to collapse.
  • Gutter, also added in 1627 to protect the
    foundation from groundwater.
  • Hatim, a low wall originally part of the Kaaba.
    Pilgrims do not walk in the area between this
    wall and the Kaaba. Some believe this area
    contains the graves of Hajar and Ismail.
  • Al-Multazam, the part of the wall between the
    Black Stone and the entry door.
  • Station of Abraham, a glass and metal enclosure
    with what is said to be an imprint of Abraham's
    foot.Abraham is said to have stood on this stone
    during the construction of the upper parts of the
    Kaaba, raising Ismail on his shoulders for the
    uppermost parts.
  • 8 Corner of the Black Stone (South-East).
  • Corner of Yemen (South-West). Pilgrims
    traditionally acknowledge a large vertical stone
    that forms this corner.
  • 0 Corner of Syria (North-West).
  • 1 Corner of Iraq (North-East).
  • 2 Kiswa, the embroidered covering, replaced
    annually.
  • 3 Marble stripe marking the beginning and end of
    each circumperambulation.
  • 4 Post of Mohammed Azzaam Ekkeri.14

11
  • Islam never had to go through a prolonged period
    of critically examining the validity of its
    spiritual vision, as the West did during the 18th
    century," writes Yale historian Louis Dupre.
    "Islamic culture has, of course, known its own
    crisis... yet it was never forced to question its
    traditional worldview." http//vimeo.com/21282690

12
I. cont.
  • C. Muhammad (WSJ on images)
  • Christian Church splits 1054Martin Luther 95
    Theses 1517Protestant Reformation/Counter
    ReformationEnlightenment 1700sDemocratic
    Governments, Separation of Church and State,
    Freedom of Speech etc.

PHILADELPHIA Colleen LaRose, accused of
conspiring with fighters overseas and pledging to
commit murder in the name of a Muslim holy war,
or jihad is accused of trolling the Internet as
Jihad Jane and agreeing to marry a suspected
terrorist and kill a Swedish artist targeted by
radical Muslims cooperated with (arrested 2010)
The controversial cartoons of Muhammad, as they
were first published in Jyllands-Posten in
September 2005. The headline, "Muhammeds ansigt",
means "The face of Muhammad".
Sir Ahmed Salman Rushdie, KBE born 19 June
1947) is a British-Indian novelist and essayist.
In February 1989, the Ayatollah Ruholla Khomeini,
Supreme Leader of Iran issued a fatwa calling on
all good Muslims to kill or help kill Rushdie and
his publishers. Following the fatwa, Rushdie was
put under police protection by the British
government. As of early 2010 Rushdie has not been
physically harmed, but 38 others have been killed
in violence against those connected with the
book. Riots in 2005
13
(No Transcript)
14
I. more
  • http//edition.cnn.com/2005/WORLD/asiapcf/05/15/ne
    wsweek.quran/
  • http//www.ctv.ca/CTVNews/TopStories/20110402/afgh
    an-protests-quran-burning-110402/ Death toll in
    Afghan Qur'an burning riots hits 20
  • 3. http//www.reuters.com/article/2012/02/22/us-a
    fghanistan-korans- Karzai urges calm as six die
    in Afghan Koran protests
  • idUSTRE81K09T20120222?feedTypeRSSfeedNameworld
    Newsutm_sourcefeedburnerutm_mediumfeedutm_cam
    paignFeed3Areuters2FworldNews28News2FUS
    2FInternational29
  • 4. http//www.nytimes.com/2011/04/02/world/asia/0
    2afghanistan.html?pagewantedall Afghans Avenge
    Florida Koran Burning, Killing 12
  • 5. http//muslimvillage.com/forums/topic/66284-qu
    ran-desecrated-flushed-down-toilet-in-melbourne-mo
    sque-attack/ Qur'an Desecrated, Flushed Down
    Toilet In Melbourne Mosque Attack
  • How to dispose of the Koran?
  • 6. http//www.inter-islam.org/Quran/disposingscrip
    ture.htm
  • 7. https//www.youtube.com/watch?v_X8dhrzQCHY
    Why it is so difficult to interpret the Koran for
    Westerners.

The Opening ?????? ??????? ????????????
?????????? (1) In the name of Allah, Most
Gracious, Most Merciful. ????????? ???????
????? ????????????? (2) Praise be to Allah, the
Cherisher and Sustainer of the
worlds ???????????? ?????????? (3) Most
Gracious, Most Merciful ??????? ??????
???????? (4) Master of the Day of
Judgment. ???????? ???????? ??????????
??????????? (5) Thee do we worship, and Thine aid
we seek. ???????? ??????????
?????????????? (6) Show us the straight way,
The word "madrassa" is Arabic for school, and is
commonly used throughout the Arab and Islamic
world to refer to any place of learning in the
same sense that, in the United States, the word
"school" refers to a primary school, a high
school or a university. It can be a secular
school, a vocational school, a religious school
or a technical school. The negative connotation
of the word "madrassa" as it's come to be
understood in the English-speaking world--as
referring to a place where fundamentalist,
Islamic instruction is combined with anti-western
vocations, or in the extreme, as a place where
terrorists are formed ideologically--is largely
an American and British conceit. It is for the
most part, but not entirely, inaccurate.
  • D. The Quran (Muslim scriptures)
  • 1. Muslims believe the Quran is the direct word
    of God as revealed to Muhammad. Begun in 610.
  • 2. Written in Arabic
  • All the writings were collected in the caliphate
    of 'Uthman and the canonical text was established
    around 650 A.D. The writings were collected into
    a group of surah's and ordered according to
    length (each surah--there are114-- is meant to
    be a single recitation), though all Muslims also
    know the chronological order of the recitations.
  • 3. Pillars of Faith (next slide)

15
Islamic World in Turmoil Tightly controlled
dictatorial govts. No free speech or press few
right for women or minorities State control of
education
What Obama Should Do About Syria?
What should the US do next?
16
  • 1. born 570 A.D., orphaned at 6
  • 2. in teens worked as a business person
  • 3. at 25 years of age married a 40 year old
    widow
  • 4. 610, Muhammad had a revelation that in time
    will make him the founder of the Islamic religion
    and its Allahs prophet.
  • (a.) angel appeared and ordered him to read some
    writing
  • (b.) Angel Gabriel told him to preach about God
  • (c.) Holy man tells Khadjuh Muhammad was to be
    a prophet of his people and Arabs should worship
    only Allah.
  • (d.) 613 Muhammad begins preaching to people of
    Makkah.
  • (e.) Share with the poor, life preparation for
    the Day of Judgment
  • 5. leaders of Makkah were threatened and were
    afraid visitors would stop coming to Makah

17
I. cont.
View of the Mosque of the Prophet in Medina
  • 6. 620 Muhammad pilgrims from Yathrib ask him to
    be their leader
  • 7. 622, Anno Hijrah, year of migration, becomes
    first year of Muslim calendar
  • 8. City of Yathrib renamed Madina, City of the
    Prophet.
  • 9. People of Makkah invade Madina unsuccessfully
    several times
  • 10. 628 Muhammad signs peace treaty with Makkah
  • 11. By 630 all the people of Arabia declared
    faith in Islam
  • 12. 632 Muhammad dies.
  • Terms to Learn Pillars of Faith
  • Terms to Learn Mosque
  • Terms to Learn Imam
  • Terms to Learn Hajj

18
2007 OAT QUESTION 10. Which is the sacred book
of the Islamic religion? A. Bible B. Torah C.
Koran D. Vedas
19
As part of their Islam religion Muslims have 5
duties they must perform, called the Five Pillars
of Faith Shahada (affirmation) The duty to recite
the creed"There is nothing worthy of worship
save Allah, and Muhammad is the Messenger of God"
Salat (prayer) The duty to worship the One God
in prayer five times each day (Friday noon prayer
is usually recited in a mosque, led by an
imam) Zakat (almsgiving) The duty to distribute
alms and to help the needy Siyam (fasting) The
duty to keep the Fast of Ramadan Hajj
(pilgrimage) The duty to make the pilgrimage to
Mecca at least once in a lifetime (all believers
who fulfill these duties will go to Paradise)
http//www.learn360.com/ShowVideo.aspx?ID693356
based on five pillars of faith including daily
confessions of faith in Allah, prayer, giving of
alms to the poor, fasting during Ramadan, and a
Haj or pilgrimage to Mecca at least once in a
lifetime. 145 min
20
2. The Salat
  • The call to prayer by the muezzin in the
    minaret.
  • https//www.youtube.com/watch?vQsGEWn21mL8
  • https//www.youtube.com/watch?vEAvlimEYEpQfeatur
    erelated
  • Pray in the mosque on Friday.

2
21
Zakat (almsgiving) The duty to distribute alms
and to help the needy
  • There are eight categories of people (asnaf) who
    qualify to receive zakat funds, according to the
    Qu'ran
  • 1. Those living in absolute poverty (Al-Fuqara')
  • Those who cannot meet their basic needs
    (Al-Masakin)
  • The zakat collectors themselves (Al-Amilina
    'Alaiha)
  • Non-Muslims who are sympathetic to Islam or wish
    to convert to Islam.(Al-Mu'allafatu Qulubuhum)
  • People whom one is attempting to free from
    slavery or bondage. Also includes paying ransom
    or blood money (Diyya). (Fir-Riqab)
  • Those who have incurred overwhelming debts while
    attempting to satisfy their basic needs
    (Al-Gharimin)
  • Those working for an Islamic cause (Fi
    Sabilillah)
  • Travelers in need (Ibnus-Sabil)
  • Zakat may not be given to descendents of the
    prophet Muhammed, nor may it be given to parents,
    grandparents, children, grandchildren, or
    spouses. It is also forbidden to disburse zakat
    funds to organizations that pay salaries to their
    employees, or use the money for investments.
  • Muslim scholars disagree whether the poor that
    qualify should include non-Muslims. Some state
    that Zakat may be paid to non-Muslims, but only
    after the needs of Muslims have been met.

ZAKAT (Alms) The Zakat is a form of giving to
those who are less fortunate. It is obligatory
upon all Muslims to give 2.5 of wealth and
assets each year (in excess of what is required)
to the poor. This is done before the beginning of
the month of Muharram, the first of new year.
Giving the Zakat is considered an act of worship
because it is a form of offering thanks to God
for the means of material well-being one has
acquired. --An introduction to Islam
  • "Take from their wealth a portion for charity, in
    order to clean them thereby, and sanctify them."
  • Literal Meaning Zakat means grow (in goodness)
    or 'increase', 'purifying' or 'making pure'. So
    the act of giving zakat means purifying one's
    wealth to gain Allah's blessing to make it grow
    in goodness. --Source Definition from the Zakat
    Collection Center in Kuala Lumpur.

22
Siyam (fasting) The duty to keep the Fast of
Ramadan
  • Siyam (Fasting) 9th month of Islamic calendar
  • Siyam is one of the main pillars of Islam. It is
    mentioned in the Holy Qur'an, "O ye who believe!
    Fasting is prescribed to you, as it was
    prescribed to those before you, that you may
    (learn) self-restraint." (Quran 2183)
  • A quote from another Hadith states "The month
    of Ramadan is the month of endurance and the
    reward for endurance is paradise. It is a month
    whose beginning is mercy, whose middle is
    forgiveness and whose end is freedom from hell."
  • Significance of Ramadan
  • Like any other injunctions of Islam, the
    benefits of the Ramadan are not limited purely to
    either "spiritual" or "temporal" elements of
    life. In Islam, the spiritual, social, economic,
    political, and psychological all intermingle in a
    consistent and cohesive whole. For convenience of
    presentation, however, the significance of Siyam
    (fasting) is discussed under four sub-headings
    social, physical, spiritual and psychological.

23
Section Two describes the formation of the Arab
Empire and the spread of Islam
  • II. The Arab Empire
  • Places to Locate Damascus
  • Places to Locate Baghdad
  • A. in 632 Muslim leaders choose a caliph
    (successor)
  • B. The Rightly Guided Caliphs
  • 1. 1st Abu Bakr, Muhammads father-in-law
    elected for life, as were his two successors
  • 2. ruled from Madina and kept in touch with the
    people and trusted advisors
  • 3. sent warriors into Palestine, Syria, Iraq,
    Persia, Egypt and North Africa

24
  • Muhammads death 632 The Rashidun Rightly
    Guided Caliphs (632-661 A.D.) Overthrow of
    4th and last Caliph Ali, in 661 by Othman ( 3rd
    Caliphate) Umayyads cousin, general of the
    armies in Syria, Muawiya who est. new Caliphate
    The Umayyad Dynasty by passing the Caliphate to
    his son--- Then, in 750 AD., Abu Muslim
    starts revolt in NW Iran, brings together the
    Mawali and the Persians to overthrow the Umayyads
    in the name of a man named Abbas. Place
    Abbas on the Caliphal throne and start the
    Abbasid Dynasty. 945 Persians take control see
    pg 345

25
II. continued
Saudi beheads Sudanese for murder Saudi Arabia
beheaded a Sudanese man convicted of murdering a
compatriot in the capital Riyadh. AFP - Saudi
Arabia on Friday beheaded a Sudanese man
convicted of murdering a compatriot in the
capital Riyadh, the interior ministry
announced. Sadiq Abdel Mullah was sentenced to
death for the fatal stabbing of Ahmed Mohammed,
it said, quoted by the state-run news agency
SPA. His beheading raised to 22 the number of
people executed in Saudi Arabia this year,
according to an AFP count. In 2010, 27 executions
were reported in the oil-rich kingdom, down from
67 in 2009 and 102 in 2008. Rape, murder,
apostasy, armed robbery and drug trafficking are
all punishable by death under the conservative
Muslim kingdom's strict interpretation of Islamic
sharia law. https//www.youtube.com/watch?vWd9T3V
_IXRw http//www.france24.com/en/20110527-saudi-
beheads-sudanese-murder
The term "Jihad" used without any qualifiers is
generally understood in the West to be referring
to holy war on behalf of Islam. In broader usage
and interpretation, the term has accrued both
violent and non-violent meanings. It can simply
mean striving to live a moral and virtuous life,
spreading and defending Islam as well as fighting
injustice and oppression, among other things. The
relative importance of these two forms of jihad
is a matter of controversy.
  • 4. Success came for many reasons
  • (a.) Islam held them together
  • (b.) Arab warriors believed that struggling on
    behalf of Islam earned them an eternal place in
    paradise if they died in battle. (Jihad)
  • (c.) Lenient treatment of conquered people
  • (1.) must pay a tax
  • (2.) could keep their land
  • (3.) those who fought paid tax and lost their
    lands
  • (4.) Muslims refer to Jews and Christians
    (sometimes Zoroastrians and even Mandeans) as
    "People of the Book". When these people reside in
    states that practice Sharia law, they are called
    dhimmi ("protected person"). As dhimmi, they are
    subject to various protections and disabilities,
    which are called dhimma. People of other
    religions do not have this protected status.

26
C. The Umayyads
  • 1. Ali, Muhammads son-in-law was killed in 661
  • 2. Muawiya, MUAWIYA B. ABI SUFYAN (c.602-680)
    new Caliph moved the capital to Damascus and
    founded the Umayyad Dynasty.
  • 3. Title of Caliph becomes hereditary at this
    time
  • 4. Rule as political leaders rather than
    religious leaders.
  • 5. minted first Arab money, created postal
    routes, built mosques (Muslim house of worship)
    and encouraged arts.
  • 6. Conquered people were not treated the same,
    received less money for serving in army and paid
    higher taxes. Treated as 2nd class citizens
    Mawali by Muslim Arabs. This new dynasty was
    an Arabic empire, run by Arabs, for Arabs, with
    Arabic as its official language, and with Arab
    traditions as its traditions.
  • 7. Muslims divided into 2 groups
  • (a.) Shiahbelieved the office of caliph should
    be held only by descendants of Ali- venerate
    imams
  • (b.) Sunnifollowed the Rightly Guided Caliphs
    and all caliphs after them (minor groups-esp.
    sufi)
  • (c.) War breaks out between Abbasids and
    Umayyads in 750 led by Abu Abbas Mussin, included
    the Mawali with cooperation by the Persians who
    were disgraced by their 2nd class citizenship.
    Revolt starts in NW Iran.

27
Chapter 22 ReadingWhats the Difference Between
Shia and Sunni Muslims?
Iran is a Shia country, the largest one, with
about 60 million population. Pakistan is the
second-largest Shia country in the world, with
about 30 million population. And, potentially,
there are as many Shias in India as there are in
Iraq.
Sunni comprise about 85 percent of all Muslims.
Nations with Sunni majority include Egypt, Saudi
Arabia and most other Arab nations, as well as
non-Arab Turkey and Afghanistan. Most Palestinian
Muslims are Sunni.
  • 1. Answer Both Sunni and Shia Muslims share the
    most fundamental Islamic beliefs and articles of
    faith. The differences between these two main
    sub-groups within Islam initially stemmed not
    from spiritual differences, but political ones.
    Over the centuries, however, these political
    differences have spawned a number of varying
    practices and positions which have come to carry
    a spiritual significance.

28
  • 2. The division between Shia and Sunni dates back
    to the death of the Prophet Muhammad, and the
    question of who was to take over the leadership
    of the Muslim nation. Sunni Muslims agree with
    the position taken by many of the Prophet's
    companions, that the new leader should be elected
    from among those capable of the job. This is what
    was done, and the Prophet Muhammad's close friend
    and advisor, Abu Bakr, became the first Caliph of
    the Islamic nation. The word "Sunni" in Arabic
    comes from a word meaning "one who follows the
    traditions of the Prophet."

29
  • 3. On the other hand, some Muslims share the
    belief that leadership should have stayed within
    the Prophet's own family, among those
    specifically appointed by him, or among Imams
    appointed by God Himself.

30
  • 4. The Shia Muslims believe that following the
    Prophet Muhammad's death, leadership should have
    passed directly to his cousin/son-in-law, Ali.
    Throughout history, Shia Muslims have not
    recognized the authority of elected Muslim
    leaders, choosing instead to follow a line of
    Imams which they believe have been appointed by
    the Prophet Muhammad or God Himself.

31
  • 5. The word "Shia" in Arabic means a group or
    supportive party of people. The commonly-known
    term is shortened from the historical
    "Shia-t-Ali," or "the Party of Ali." They are
    also known as followers of "Ahl-al-Bayt" or
    "People of the Household" (of the Prophet).

32
  • 6. From this initial question of political
    leadership, some aspects of spiritual life have
    been affected and now differ between the two
    groups of Muslims.

33
In Islamic eschatology, the Mahdi / English
Guided One) is the prophesied redeemer of Islam
who will rule for seven, nine or nineteen years-
(according to various interpretations) before the
Day of Judgment and will rid the world of
wrongdoing, injustice and tyranny. The concept of
Mahdi is not mentioned in the Qur'an nor in the
Sunni hadith collection called Sahih al-Bukhari.
Hadith about the Mahdi are present in other Sunni
hadith collections, although some orthodox Sunni
theologians question do Mahdist beliefs. Such
beliefs do form a necessary part of Shia
doctrine. In Shia Islam, the belief in the Mahdi
is a "central religious idea" and closely related
as the Twelfth Imam, Muhammad al-Mahdi, whose
return from occultation is deemed analogous with
the coming of the Mahdi.
  • 7. Shia Muslims believe that the Imam is sinless
    by nature, and that his authority is infallible
    as it comes directly from God. Therefore, Shia
    Muslims often venerate the Imams as saints and
    perform pilgrimages to their tombs and shrines in
    the hopes of divine intercession.
  • http//www.arewelivinginthelastdays.com/com/iran.h
    tml



Muhammad Ahmad ,(1844 June 22, 1885)
34
  • 8. Sunni Muslims counter that there is no basis
    in Islam for a hereditary privileged class of
    spiritual leaders, and certainly no basis for the
    veneration or intercession of saints. Sunni
    Muslims contend that leadership of the community
    is not a birthright, but a trust that is earned
    and which may be given or taken away by the
    people themselves.

35
  • 9. Shia Muslims also feel animosity towards some
    of the companions of the Prophet Muhammad, based
    on their positions and actions during the early
    years of discord about leadership in the
    community. Many of these companions (Abu Bakr,
    Umar, Aisha, etc.) have narrated traditions about
    the Prophet's life and spiritual practice.

36
  • 10. Shia Muslims reject these traditions (hadith)
    and do not base any of their religious practices
    on the testimony of these individuals. This
    naturally gives rise to some differences in
    religious practice between the two groups. These
    differences touch all detailed aspects of
    religious life prayer, fasting, pilgrimage, etc.

37
  • 11. Sunni Muslims make up the majority (85) of
    Muslims all over the world. Significant
    populations of Shia Muslims can be found in Iran
    and Iraq, and large minority communities in
    Yemen, Bahrain, Syria, and Lebanon.

38
  • 12. It is important to remember that despite all
    of these differences in opinion and practice,
    Shia and Sunni Muslims share the main articles of
    Islamic belief and are considered by most to be
    brethren in faith. In fact, most Muslims do not
    distinguish themselves by claiming membership in
    any particular group, but prefer to call
    themselves simply, "Muslims."
  • http//islam.about.com/cs/divisions/f/shia_sunni.h
    tm

39
Abbasid Caliphate (green) at its greatest extent,
c. 850.
40
D. The Abbasids
Around about 762 A.D., the Abbasid dynasty took
over rule of the vast Muslim world and moved the
capital to the newly-founded city of Baghdad.
The origin of the name "Baghdad" is under some
dispute.  Some say it comes from an
Aramaic phrase that means "sheep enclosure" (not
very poetic...).  Others contend that the
word comes from ancient Persian  "bagh" meaning
God, and "dad" meaning gift.  "The gift of
God...."  During at least one point in history,
it certainly seemed so. The city of Baghdad was
finally trashed by the Mongols in 1258 A.D.,
effectively ending the era of the Abbasids. 
In 762 the caliph Al Mansur commissioned the
construction of the city and it was built under
the supervision of the Barmakids. Mansur believed
that Baghdad was the perfect city to be the
capital of the Islamic empire under the Abbasids.
Mansur loved the site so much he is quoted
saying, "This is indeed the city that I am to
found, where I am to live, and where my
descendants will reign afterward".
  • 1. Ruled Arab Empire from 750-1258
  • 2. first 100 years known as Golden Age of Islam
  • 3. built new capital called Baghdad designed by
    Jewish astronomer named Mashalla and a Persian
    engineer named Naubakht.
  • 4. meaning of Arab changes from person from
    Arabia to any subject of the empire who spoke
    Arabic
  • 5. VizierChief Adviserintermediary between
    people and throne http//www.learn360.com/ShowVid
    eo.aspx?ID140514 Baghdad start at 4 min in
  • 6. did not conquer new landsBaghdad becomes
    intellectual center-emphasized missionary
    conversion.
  • 7. Caliph instructs Syrian Christians and Jews
    to translate Greek writings into Arabic
  • 8. Mathematical and scientific achievements
    recorded
  • 9. Mathematicians adapted a numeric system
    developed by the Guptas of India
  • 10. Empire becomes too large for one caliph
    and breaks into independent kingdoms.
  • 11. 836 caliph moves capital city to
    Samarrathen tries to return to Baghdad in 892it
    was too late.
  • 12. 945 Persians take control of Baghdad

In the center of Baghdad a palace, called the
"Golden Gate Palace
41
E. The Golden Age of Muslim Spain
  • 1. Muslim Arabs who conquered North Africa
    intermarried with Berbers and became knows as
    Moors.
  • 2. 710 Moors invade Spain and defeat the West
    Goths
  • 3. set up kingdom that allows religious freedom
    and tended to favor not-Arab peoples
  • 4. rule for 400 years and develop a rich culture
    http//www.learn360.com/ShowVideo.aspx?ID72496
    7 Spain (Andalusia) 2329 min
  • 5. Schools were built in which Muslims, Jews and
    Christians studied medicine and philosophy
  • 6. Jewish traders travel widely and bring back
    spices and silks to Spain from India and China
  • F. Islamic Life
  • 1. initially, men could have an unlimited number
    of wives
  • 2. prior to Islam, killing of female children
    was common

province of al-Andalus circa 720
A room of the palace and a view of the Court of
the Lions. Granada Spain
42
  • 3. Islam attempted to correct societal evils
    Sharia Law '????? is the body of Islamic
    religious law.
  • 4 Muhammad taught female child guaranteed a
    reward in paradise
  • 5. Islam improves womens rights
  • 6. only four wives in most situations
  • 7. At time of birth of a baby the call to
    prayers is recited into the babys ears
  • 8. memorizing the Quran important requirement in
    education
  • 9. tremendous interest in travel and exploration
  • Terms to Learn Alchemist
  • People to Know al-Idrisi
  • People to Know ar-Razi
  • People to Know Omar Khyyam
  • People to Know Ibn Khaldum

43
Section Three describes the Arab contributions
to world civilization
(born 980, Bukhara, Iran-died 1037, Hamadan)
Islamic philosopher and scientist. He became
physician to several sultans and also twice
served as vizier. His Canon of Medicine was long
a standard work in the field. He is known for his
great encyclopaedia of philosophy, The Book of
Healing. His other writings include The Book of
Salvation and The Book of Directives and Remarks.
His interpretations of Aristotle influenced
European Scholasticism. His system rests on a
conception of God as the necessary existent only
in God do essence (what God is) and existence
(that God is) coincide.
  • III. Arab Contributions
  • A. Between 770 and 1300s Arab scholars help
    preserve ancient learning
  • B. Single language contributes to sharing
    knowledge.
  • C. Arab alchemists attempt to turn base metals
    into gold
  • D. Arab astronomers describe eclipses of sun,
    prove moon affects tides, determine size of Earth
    and the fact it is round
  • E. Arab mathematicians invent algebra
  • 1. pass numerals 0-9 from Gupta mathematicians
    to Europeans
  • F. Arab doctors discover that blood circulates,
    first to understand that tuberculosis is
    contagious
  • 1. Avicennas Canon of Medicine used in European
    medical schools for 500 years
  • G. The Arabian Nightscollection of tales put
    together http//www.learn360.com/ShowVideo.aspx?ID
    129285 Aladdins Lamp 940 min.

"Ali Baba" by Maxfield Parrish.
44
III. Cont.
The Rubaiyat By Omar Khayyam Written 1120
A.C.E. I Wake! For the Sun, who scatter'd into
flight The Stars before him from the Field of
Night, Drives Night along with them from Heav'n,
and strikes The Sultan's Turret with a Shaft of
Light. II Before the phantom of False morning
died, Methought a Voice within the Tavern cried,
"When all the Temple is prepared within, Why
nods the drowsy Worshipper outside?" III And,
as the Cock crew, those who stood before The
Tavern shouted--"Open then the Door! You know
how little while we have to stay, And, once
departed, may return no more." IV Now the New
Year reviving old Desires, The thoughtful Soul
to Solitude retires, Where the White Hand Of
Moses on the Bough Puts out, and Jesus from the
Ground suspires. V Iram indeed is gone with
all his Rose, And Jamshyd's Sev'n-ring'd Cup
where no one knows But still a Ruby kindles in
the Vine, And many a Garden by the Water blows,
Ibn Khaldun 10 Tunisian dinar bill
  • H. Persian poet Omar Khayyams Rubaiyat
    translated into many languages
  • I. Islamic art does not depict living creatures,
    believing to do so is a sin
  • J. Art is made up of geometric designs entwined
    with flowers, leaves and stars
  • K. Historian Ibn Khaldun first to take into
    account the influence of geography and climate on
    people

45
  • Ibn Khaldun's chief contribution lies in
    philosophy of history and sociology. He sought to
    write a world history preambled by a first volume
    aimed at an analysis of historical events. This
    volume, commonly known as Muqaddimah or
    'Prolegomena', was based on Ibn Khaldun's unique
    approach and original contribution and became a
    masterpiece in literature on philosophy of
    history and sociology. The chief concern of this
    monumental work was to identify psychological,
    economic, environmental and social facts that
    contribute to the advancement of human
    civilization and the currents of history. In this
    context, he analysed the dynamics of group
    relationships and showed how group-feelings,
    al-'Asabiyya, give rise to the ascent of a new
    civilization and political power and how, later
    on, its diffusion into a more general
    civilization invites the advent of a still new
    'Asabiyya in its pristine form. He identified an
    almost rhythmic repetition of rise and fall in
    human civilization, and analyzed factors
    contributing to it. His contribution to history
    is marked by the fact that, unlike most earlier
    writers interpreting history largely in a
    political context, he emphasized environmental,
    sociological, psychological and economic factors
    governing the apparent events. This
    revolutionized the science of history.
    http//www.ummah.org.uk/history/scholars/KHALDUN.h
    tml

46
Pick one of the following
  • 1. List at least three ways in which the
    development of Islam was similar to that of
    Christianity and one major difference.
  • 2. Explain in an essay how Abbasid rule of the
    Arab Empire was different from that of the
    Umayyads.
  • 3. Explain the importance of each of the
    following for the devote Muslim the five pillars
    of faith, the Kabba, the black stone and the
    Quran.
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