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McREL’s Balanced Leadership Framework: School Leadership That Works by Brian A. McNulty Ph.D. Mid-continent Research for Education and Learning

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Title: McREL’s Balanced Leadership Framework: School Leadership That Works by Brian A. McNulty Ph.D. Mid-continent Research for Education and Learning


1
McRELsBalanced Leadership Framework School
Leadership That WorksbyBrian A. McNulty
Ph.D.Mid-continent Research for Education and
Learning

2
Activity 1
  • Thinking about change. . .
  • and leadership

3
Lets think for a minute about thetraits and
qualitieswe associate with leadership
Activity 1
4
What pictures do you have in your mind that
correspond to these traits?Can you think ofany
movie imagesfor leaders?
5
Think about a great boss you have had who dealt
successfully with major organizational change
  • What one word best describes a great bosss
    action?

6
Changing environments . . .
  • lack of clarity
  • increased stress
  • ambiguity
  • heightened need for trust

require new expectations for leaders.
7
Operational Definitions
  • Effective leaders influence individuals and
    organizations. At the individual level, leaders
    support learning that leads to individual and
    organizational goals. At the organizational
    level, leaders develop a shared vision and broad
    goals. Leaders accept responsibility for
    achieving results
  • and create the necessary environments that
    contribute to individual and organizational
    success.

8
Operational Definitions
  • Leadership is a shared responsibility for
    achieving collective/organizational goals
    regardless of positional or organizational
    authority acknowledging that increasing levels
    of positional authority yield greater impact in
    an organization. Leadership is accomplishing
    together what individuals cannot accomplish
    alone.

9
Operational Definitions
  • Distributed leadership implies shared
    responsibility and mutual accountability toward a
    common goal or goals for the good of an
    organization. Distributed leadership is not a
    program or a model. It is a condition that
    can be enabled and sustained through
    organizational authority.

10
Rationale Why Distributed Leadership is Important
  • Depending on the complexity of an organization,
    and the implications of the changes it is
    attempting to implement, leadership demands more
    than what one person can provide. Distributed
    leadership is important because it creates
    conditions for maximizing the collective
    strengths of all individuals within a coherent,
    adaptive, and sustainable organization as they
    strive to adapt, learn, and grow. It requires
    each person to assume responsibility and take
    action for the good of the whole.

11
Elements of Balanced Leadership
  • Our framework for connecting a vision of
    leadership with a plan of action includes four
    key components
  • purposeful community
  • leadership
  • research-based improvement focus and
  • magnitude of change.

12
Background
  • Theory based meta-analysis of research
  • Classroom Instruction that Works
  • A New Era of School Reform (What Works in
    Schools)
  • Classroom Strategies for At-Risk Students
  • Out of School Time Strategies
  • Leadership

13
Methodology
  • Meta-analysis of the quantitative research on
    leadership practices associated with student
    achievement
  • Review synthesis of theoretical research
  • Professional wisdom based on more than 100 years
    of experience

14
Theoretical Research Base
  • Change (Bridges, Rogers, Fullan, Wagner)
  • Institutional (Hanson)
  • Organizational Learning (Senge, Argyris, Schoen)
  • Leadership (Collins, Murphy, Heifetz, Spillane,
    Elmore, Benis, Gardner, Kotter)
  • Distributed Leadership (Elmore, Spillane, Block)
  • Systems (Wheatley, Rogers, Senge)
  • Supervision (Coffman, Buckingham, Clifton)

15
Background on McRELs Leadership Study
  • 3,000 dissertation citations
  • 2,000 other study citations
  • 70 studies met our criteria for inclusion
  • quantitative data
  • achievement as the dependent variable
  • standardized scores
  • teacher perceptions

16
Types of Effect Sizes
Treatment vs. Control Standardized Mean
Difference
As one goes up, the other goes up (or
down). Correlation
17
Power and Sample Size
18
Power and Sample Size
19
Benefit of Meta-Analysis
  • The 70 studies included
  • 2,894 schools,
  • 1.1 million students, and
  • 14,000 teachers.
  • Initially 80 of these 70 studies found no
    significant relationship to student achievement

20
6 Big Findings
  • The effect size of general leadership
  • Specific leadership responsibilities and
    practices with statistically significant effects
    on achievement
  • Strong leaders do not always have a positive
    effect on achievement
  • Two major factors general leadership and change
    leadership
  • Responsibilities with positive correlations to
    leadership of 2nd order change
  • Responsibilities with negative correlations to
    leadership of 2nd order change

21
Finding 1The average correlation (r) between
principal leadership behavior school
achievement is .25.
  • This means
  • a one standard deviation increase in principal
    leadership is associated with a 10 percentile
    point gain in school achievement.

22
Difference in Leadership Ability
23
Difference in Student Achievement
24
Finding 2
  • Through the research we identified
  • 21 leadership responsibilities and
  • 66 leadership practices . . .
  • each of which has a statistically significant
    relationship to student achievement.

25
Getting to Know the Leadership Practices
  • Activity 2
  • In triads, consider the overarching leadership
    responsibilities (yellow cards) and match them to
    the corresponding practices (blue cards).
  • When you think you are done, compare your answers
    to the handout.
  • Take note of the differences in effect sizes.

26
Reflection and Debrief
  • What surprises? What similarities/ differences do
    you notice between what you thought a leadership
    responsibility referred to and what the practices
    indicate? What effect sizes surprised you?
  • New actions? What implications do the leadership
    responsibilities and practices have for your
    practice?
  • What questions/concerns? What questions do the
    responsibilities and practices raise for you?

27
Responsibilities Avg. r 95 Confidence
Intervals
28
Responsibilities Avg. r 95 Confidence
Intervals
29
Responsibilities Avg. r 95 Confidence
Intervals
30
Responsibilities Avg. r 95 Confidence
Intervals
31
Responsibilities Avg. r 95 Confidence
Intervals
32
Responsibilities Avg. r 95 Confidence
Intervals
33
Responsibilities Avg. r 95 Confidence
Intervals
34
Responsibilities Avg. r 95 Confidence
Intervals
35
Responsibilities Avg. r 95 Confidence
Intervals
36
Getting to Know How Responsibilities Work Together
  • Activity 3
  • Locate the leadership responsibilities/practices
    (Green cards) and handout entitled Interactivity
    Diagram.
  • Find the following cards visibility, monitor
    and evaluate, and knowledge of CIA, and place
    these three cards on the corners of the triangle.
  • In teams, discuss how and why these
    responsibilities interact.
  • In teams, find other groupings that may interact
    together and discuss how and why these
    responsibilities interact.

37
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38
Getting to Know How Responsibilities Work
Together
  • To guide your teams conversation, consider the
    following sentence stems
  • I think these responsibilities interact because.
  • Ive seen these responsibilities interact in my
    school/district. Together, they can relate in
    this way
  • I wonder

39
Finding 3
  • The Differential
  • Impact of Leadership
  • Leadership can have a positive or a negative
    effect.

40
Finding 3The differential impact of leadership
41
How do We Explain This Differential Impact of
Leadership?
  • Or, what factors mediate leadership behavior?
  • Focus of the change
  • and
  • Magnitude of the change

42
The Focus of Change
43
Factors Influencing Achievement
School
  • Guaranteed and viable curriculum
  • Alignment and coherence (OTL)
  • Time
  • Challenging goals and effective feedback
  • Monitoring
  • Pressure to achieve
  • Parent involvement
  • School climate
  • Collegiality and professionalism
  • Communication and decision making
  • Cooperation

Teacher
Instruction Classroom management Curriculum design
Student
Home atmosphere Background knowledge Learned
Intelligence Motivation
44
I. School Practices
45
Nine Categories ofInstructional Strategies
46
2. STUDENT FACTORS
  • Home atmosphere
  • Prior knowledge
  • Learned intelligence
  • Motivation

47
Factors Associated with SES
48
Factors Associated with SES
49
Factors Associated with SES
50
Factors Associated with SES
51
The Focus of the Work
  • What is the right work?
  • Lets look at how the practices play out in
    schools in terms of student achievement.

52
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53
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54
Questions?
55
The Magnitude of Change
56
Common labels describing types of change
Fundamental
Incremental
Technical
Adaptive
Continuous
Discontinuous
First-order
Second-order
McREL uses labels based on the implications of
change.
57
Understanding the Magnitude of Change
1st order change
  • 2nd order change

58
McRELs view of change
  • A change is defined by the implications it has
    for the people expected to implement it or those
    who will be impacted by it.

The same change can be perceived differently by
different stakeholders.
59
Characteristics of First Order Change
  • Consistent with current values, beliefs,
  • and practices
  • Can be carried out with existing
  • knowledge and skills
  • Can be implemented by others,
  • including outside experts

60
Characteristics of Second Order Change
  • A break with the past
  • Conflicts with prevailing norms, beliefs, and
    behaviors
  • Implemented by stakeholders
  • Complex
  • Requires new knowledge
  • and skills

61
First- or second-order?
Do stakeholders perceive the change as
an extension of the past?
a break from the past?
consistent with prevailing organizational norms?
inconsistent with prevailing organizational
norms?
congruent with personal values?
incongruent with personal values?
easily learned using existing knowledge
skills?
requiring new knowledge skills?
First-order Implications
Second-order Implications
62
Estimating the implications of a change
  • Measuring the implications of a change for
    stakeholders requires thoughtful consideration of
    how different individuals and groups will
    perceive and respond to the change.

Picture retrieved October 28, 2004 from,
http//inventors.about.com/library/inventors/blsei
smograph.htm
63
The magnitude of change
C H A N G E
64
The magnitude of change
65
Retrieved November 11, 2004 From,
http//www.afn.org/gestalt/fignd.htm
66
Retrieved November 11, 2004 From,
http//www.afn.org/gestalt/fignd.htm
67
Retrieved November 10, 2004 From,
http//www.nwlink.com/donclark/hrd/history/gestal
t.gif
68
Understanding Magnitude of Change
  • To understand the magnitude of a change,
  • leaders must be able to compare/contrast the

69
Understanding Magnitude of Change
  • Key Criteria Key Questions

70
ASSESSING ORGANIZATIONAL CONDITIONS
  • ESTIMATING THE MAGNITUDE OF CHANGE

CORE CONTEXT RECEPTIVITY TO CHANGE READINESS
FOR IMPLEMENTATION
71
CORE CONTEXT
72
RECEPTIVITY TO CHANGE
73
READINESS FOR IMPLEMENTATION
74
ASSESSING THE MAGNITUDE OF NCLB
  • A RETROSPECTIVE EXAMINATION OF THE CORE CONTEXT

75
CRITICAL AREAS OF THE CORE CONTEXT
Problem Definition Problem Solution Personal
Values Organizational Norms
76
PERSONAL VALUES
In small groups, complete the following steps
  • Individually, quick write a list of your personal
    values related to education.
  • As a group, brainstorm a list of values inherent
    in the NCLBA.
  • Do a whip around and discuss the ways in which
    your values are consistent or inconsistent with
    the NCLBA.

77
PERSONAL VALUES
What is a value?
  • 1 relative worth, utility, or importance²

Example of a personal value about education
Every child can learn.
²Merriam Webster Online. Retrieved October 20,
2004 from, http//www.m-w.com/cgi-bin/dictionary
78
PERSONAL VALUES
  • In the whole group,
  • share responses to the following
  • What are the values inherent in the NCLBA?
  • What are your values?
  • In what ways are your values and the values
    inherent in the NCLBA consistent or inconsistent?

79
CORE CONTEXT CONDITIONS FOR NCLBPERSONAL VALUES
Is NCLB consistent with the values of individual
stakeholders?
Personal Values
80
ORGANIZATIONAL NORMS
In small groups, complete the following steps
  • Brainstorm a list of organizational norms or
    existing patterns and rules that are prevalent in
    public schools.
  • Brainstorm a list of organizational norms on
    which the NCLBA is based.
  • In what ways does the NCLBA build on existing
    rules and patterns in public schools?

81
ORGANIZATIONAL NORMS
What is a norm?
  • 1 a principle of right action binding upon the
    members of a group and serving to guide, control,
    or regulate proper and acceptable behavior¹

Example of an organizational norm prevalent in
education Teaching is an isolated and
autonomous act.
¹Merriam Webster Online. Retrieved October 20,
2004 from, http//www.m-w.com/cgi-bin/dictionary
82
ORGANIZATIONAL NORMS
  • In the whole group,
  • share responses to the following
  • What are the prevalent organizational norms in
    public schools?
  • On what organizational norms is the NCLBA based?
  • In what ways does the NCLBA build on existing
    rules and patterns in public schools?

83
CORE CONTEXT CONDITIONS FOR NCLBPERSONAL VALUES
Is NCLB based on the current organizational norms
of operation?
Organizational Norms
84
Understanding Magnitude of Change
  • Activity 4
  • Locate the handout entitled, Understanding the
    Magnitude of Change Worksheet
  • Individually, think about a change your school
    will be facing or one in which your school is
    currently engaged.
  • Using the worksheet, write the answers to the
    questions, and determine whether the change has
    1st or 2nd order implications for most
    stakeholders.
  • In triads, share your findings and discuss why
    the change has 1st or 2nd order implications for
    most stakeholders.

85
SCHOOL LEADERSHIP THAT WORKS UNDERSTANDING
MAGNITUDE OF CHANGE WORKSHEET
86
Finding 4results of a factor analysis
  • Two major factors
  • General leadership
  • Positive and negative correlations with 2nd order
    change
  • There were insufficient factor loadings to
    collapse any of the 21 leadership responsibilities

87
Leadership for first order change
  • All 21 responsibilities are necessary and should
    be considered SOP in a school.
  • First order change is a by product of the
    day-to-day operations of the school
  • Review of rank order of leadership
    responsibilities and practices

88
Leadership for first order ChangeRank ordered
89
Leadership for Second Order Change
  • Factor analysis
  • Positive and negative correlations

90
Finding 5Positive Correlations with 2nd Order
Change (rank ordered)
  • Knowledge of curriculum, instruction, and
    assessment
  • Optimizer
  • Intellectual stimulation
  • Change agent
  • Monitor and evaluate
  • Flexibility
  • Ideals and beliefs

91
Leadership Responsibilities Positively Associated
with Changes with Second Order Implications
92
Leadership Responsibilities Positively Associated
with Changes with Second Order Implications
93
Leadership Responsibilities Positively Associated
with Changes with Second Order Implications
94
Responsibilities Positively Associated with 2nd
Order Change
  • Locate the 7 (pink) leadership responsibility
    cards that are positively associated with 2nd
    order change.
  • Use the change initiative you identified in the
    Understanding Magnitude of Change activity to
    discuss how the responsibilities help to lead
    change with 2nd order implications.
  • Refer to the sentence stems to guide your
    conversation.

95
Responsibilities Positively Associated with 2nd
Order Change
  • To guide your teams conversation, consider the
    following sentence stems
  • I think the 7 responsibilities help to lead
    change with 2nd order implications because . . .
  • In my situation, this leadership responsibility
    pick one would help initiate change because . .
    .
  • In my leadership practice, I havent considered
    this responsibility pick one because . . .

96
Leadership for first order Change(rank ordered)
97
Finding 6Negative Correlations with 2nd Order
Change (rank ordered)
  • Culture
  • Communication
  • Order
  • Input

98
Leadership Responsibilities/Practices Negatively
Impacted by Changes with Second Order
Implications
99
Leadership Responsibilities/Practices Negatively
Impacted by Changes with Second Order
Implications
100
Responsibilities Negatively Impacted by 2nd
Order Change
  • Locate the 4 (pink) leadership responsibility
    cards that negatively impact 2nd order change.
  • Use the change initiative you identified in the
    Understanding Magnitude of Change activity to
    discuss how the responsibilities can be
    negatively impacted by changes with 2nd order
    implications.
  • Refer to the sentence stems to guide your
    conversation.

101
Responsibilities Negatively Impacted by 2nd
Order Change
  • To guide your teams conversation, consider the
    following sentence stems
  • I think the 4 responsibilities can be negatively
    impacted by changes with 2nd order implications
    because . . .
  • In my situation, these 4 leadership
    responsibilities look like . . .
  • In my leadership practice . . .

102
Leadership for First Order Change(rank ordered)
103
The magnitude of change Four stages of the
change process
104
The Art and Science of Leadership The art of
progress is to preserve order amid change and
preserve change amid order.
Alfred North-Whitehead
105
  • The Personal Impact of 2nd Order Change
  • Its not so much that were afraid of change or
    so in love with the old ways, but its that place
    in between that we fear . . . Its like being
    between trapezes. Its Linus when his blanket is
    in the dryer. Theres nothing to hold on to.

Marilyn Ferguson The Aquarian Conspiracy
106
Leadership Responsibilities Associated with
Purposeful Community
  • Culture
  • Ideals and Beliefs
  • Communication
  • Visibility
  • Input
  • Relationships
  • Situational Awareness
  • Affirmation

107
Leadership Responsibilities Associated with Focus
on Research-based Practices
  • Resources
  • Curriculum, Instruction, and Assessment
  • Focus
  • Outreach
  • Order
  • Discipline
  • Contingent Rewards

108
Leadership Responsibilities Associated with
Leading change
  • Ideals and Beliefs
  • Optimizer
  • Flexibility
  • Knowledge of Curriculum, Instruction, and
    Assessment
  • Intellectual Stimulation
  • Change Agent
  • Monitor and Evaluate

109

Develop a Purposeful Community
110
Definition Purposeful Community
111
Develop a Purposeful Community
112
  • Strategies and Tactics
  • for Leading Change

113
Distribute Leadership Responsibilities
  • Culture
  • Order
  • Communication
  • Input

114
Operational Definitions
  • Distributed leadership implies shared
    responsibility and mutual accountability toward a
    common goal or goals for the good of an
    organization. Distributed leadership is not a
    program or a model. It is a condition that
    can be enabled and sustained through
    organizational authority.

115
Rationale Why Distributed Leadership is Important
  • Depending on the complexity of an organization,
    and the implications of the changes it is
    attempting to implement, leadership demands more
    than what one person can provide. Distributed
    leadership is important because it creates a
    condition for maximizing the collective strengths
    of all individuals within a coherent, adaptive,
    and sustainable organization as they strive to
    adapt, learn, and grow. It requires each person
    to assume responsibility and take action for the
    good of the whole.

116
Distributed Leadership
  • True forms of distributed leadership require
    that
  • multiple people work together to complete the
    right work regardless of positional authority,
    and,
  • the group is grounded in responsibilities and
    tasks rather than position.

117
Distributed Leadership
  • The group capitalizes on individual strengths to
    create a common approach to improvement
  • They create an intentional shared responsibility
    towards accomplishing the right work, which in
    turn creates internal accountability
  • Over time, they increase their capacity to do the
    right work

118
The Importance and Use of a Balanced Approach
to Leading Change With 1st and 2nd Order
Implications
  • Balancing
  • Directing and Supporting
  • Answers and Questions
  • Stability and Instability
  • Stepping up and Stepping back
  • Within and Between

119
Insanity is doing the same thing you have always
done and expecting different results.
Albert Einstein
120
  • Be the change
  • you want to see
  • in the world

Mahatma Gandhi
121
  • Everyone has a dream he can follow or squander.
  • It is no failure to fall short of realizing all
    that we might dream.
  • The failure is to fall short of dreaming all that
    we might realize.

122
Balanced Leadership
  • Development
  • Work

123
Other Development
  • Online Questionnaire
  • Distributed Leadership
  • Superintendents
  • Teachers
  • Leadership Consortia
  • Fieldbook
  • Administrator standards
  • HPHN Study (5th year)

124
McRELs research and ISLLC standards
  • The ISLLC standards include
  • 44 knowledge statements
  • 43 dispositions
  • 97 performances
  • which can be found in 184 indices
  • However, 17 of the practices identified in
    McRELs analysis are not included in the ISLLC
    standards.

125
17 balanced leadership practices not found in
the ISLLC standards
126
17 balanced leadership practices not found in
the ISLLC standards continued
127
17 balanced leadership practices not found in
the ISLLC standards continued
128
Principal leadership in schools is based on a
balance of emphasis. It is supportive and
facilitative of expertise and initiative
distributed widely across the school. At the
same time it is assertive of the schools
collective vision and goals. It is helpful but
not threatening, directive but not overbearing,
facilitative but not laissez-faire
(p.430) Smylie, M.A. Hart, A. W. School
Leadership for Teacher Learning and Change A
Human and Social Capital Development
Perspective(1999)
129
Leadership
  • we should be calling for leadership that will
    challenge us to face problems for which there are
    no painless solutions . . . problems that require
    us to learn in new ways.
  • Ronald A. Heifetz

130
For more information
  • Visit the McREL Web site
  • www.mcrel.org
  • Access Balanced Leadership under Whats New
  • Visit McRELs online newsroom
  • www.mcrel.org/newsroom
  • Click on education topics
  • Click on leadership

131
At-risk synthesis www.mcrel.org/atrisksynthesis
  A Theory-based Meta-Analysis of Research on
Instruction www.mcrel.org/instructionmetaanalys
is   Classroom Instruction that Works video
www.mcrel.org/video   Out-of-school time
synthesis www.mcrel.org/oststudy   A New Era
of School Reform www.mcrel.org/newera   McREL
Fellows Program www.mcrel.org/fellows
132
Other web resources
Colorado critical friends network
protocols http//www.coloradocfg.org/Summer04/coac
hes_handbook.htm ISLLC Standards and Balanced
Leadership www.mcrel.org/leadershipweneed
133
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