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Frank lloyd wright

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The Latter years (1932-1959) After the Prairie House Timeline 1909 Due to the scandal of leaving his wife and children for the wife of one of his clients ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Frank lloyd wright


1
Frank lloyd wright
  • The Latter years (1932-1959)

2
After the Prairie House
  • Timeline
  • 1909 Due to the scandal of leaving his wife and
    children for
  • the wife of one of his clients,
    Frank Lloyd Wright has
  • Difficulties in securing new
    clients and closes his
  • Firm in Oak Park.
  • 1910 - 1912 Wright travels Europe with Mrs.
    Cheney while
  • working on having his portfolio
    and writings published.
  • 1916 - 1921 After the murder of Mrs. Cheney
    and her
  • children by a Farmhand at his
    house, Taliesin, in Spring
  • Green, Wisconsin, Frank Lloyd
    Wright moves to Japan.
  • while there he has several
    commissions. The most
  • notable is The Imperial Hotel in
    Tokyo.
  • 1922 Returns to the USA. Designs four houses
    in California,
  • and several apartment complexes
    and resorts. The
  • latter are never built because of
    the 1929 Crash.

3
Taliesin School of Architecture
  • In 1932, Frank Lloyd Wright and his wife started
    the Taliesin Fellowship, which then became the
    Frank Lloyd Wright School of Architecture.
    Twenty-three apprentices came to live and work on
    wrights farm in Spring Green.
  • The farm was a self-sustaining entity, with the
    apprentices growing and harvesting their own
    food, building their own living quarters and
    other buildings needed on the farm. They also
    learned drafting, construction methods, and other
    crafts, as well as overseeing the construction of
    Wrights projects.
  • "The fine arts, so called," they asserted,
    "should stand at the center as inspiration
    grouped about architecture . . . . (of which
    landscape and the decorative arts would be a
    division)." Education at Taliesin would emphasize
    painting, sculpture, music, drama, and dance "in
    their places as divisions of architecture."
    Frank Lloyd Wright (1931).
  • Each Fall after harvest ,the apprentices would
    then load up trucks and station wagons with food,
    drawings, and other necessities and caravan
    across the plains to scottsdale arizona, the site
    of Taliesin West. The school continued
    Throughout his life, having upward to 100
    students at a time. Apprentices worked on their
    own designs as well as projects assigned to them
    by Frank lloyd Wright.

TALIESIN, FARM AND OUTBUILDINGS RENDERED BY FRANK
LLOYD WRIGHT (1933)
TALIESIN WEST - LIVING ROOM SCOTTSDALE ARIZONA
4
Organic Architecture
  • After his return from Japan, Frank lloyd Wright
    gave many lectures and interviews on
    architecture. In these discussion he began
    describing what he called, Organic
    Architecture. This became the theme for the
    rest of his career. How he defined Organic
    Architecture changed often, as he refined it, and
    also as the situation demanded.
  • one that is integral to site
    integral to environment
  • integral to the life of the
    inhabitants. A house integral
  • with the nature of materials
    --- wherein glass is used as
  • glass, stone as stone, wood as
    wood --- and all the
  • elements of environment go into
    and throughout the house.
  • Into this new integrity, once
    there, those who live in it
  • will take root and grow. And
    most of all belonging to the
  • nature of its being. Frank
    Lloyd Wright
  • Integral to Site - houses designed to rise up out
    of the site as it belonging.
  • Integral to environment - built appropriately to
    climate.
  • Integral to Individual - Each building built to
    accommodate the lifestyle
  • of the inhabitants way of life and
    needs.
  • Integral to Materials - details of the building
    were the materials
  • themselves

HOUSE RISING OUT OF THE HILL NATURALLY OLFELFT
HOUSE (1958)
HOUSE SITS ON ROCK CLIFF RISING FROM THE SEA
AND COVERED WITH GREEN CANOPY ROOF WALKER HOUSE
(1948)
ROUGH ROCK AND CONCRETE BLEND WITH HARSH DESERT
ENVIRONMENTS, SLATTED WINDOWS PROTECT FROM HARSH
SUN. TALIESIN WEST
TALIESIN, FARM AND OUTBUILDINGS RENDERED BY FRANK
LLOYD WRIGHT (1933)
TALIESIN, FARM AND OUTBUILDINGS RENDERED BY FRANK
LLOYD WRIGHT (1933)
5
Usonian houses
  • With the stock-market crash of 1929, Frank Lloyd
    Wright turned his interest to low cost housing
    for the masses. He called these houses, Usonian,
    being of the USA. The first of these was the
    Jacobs house (1936).
  • The entire project cost 5,500, this included
    Wrights fee of 450. In the next 30 years over
    50 houses were built, and a hundred more
    designed, on the precepts of the Jacobs home.
    These homes were innovated and ahead of their
    time, as Wright created homes to fulfill the
    needs of a changing American society. Following
    the demands of Organic Architecture, each of the
    houses were individual and unique. However, they
    did have common elements that united them.
  • Designed on a Module system - Originally a 2 x
    4 grid and a vertical grid of 1-1. these were
    the size of 1/2 sheet plywood, and the dimintions
    of the slat and battens that made up the wall.
    Later other modules would be used based on the
    site and the materials used.
  • Deep Eaves - Cantilevered roofs that overhung
    and sheltered the walls, shading the house and
    Clearstory windows from the afternoon sun
  • Open Plan - Pioneered the connecting of the
    kitchen, dining room, and Living room. This
    Reflected the need for the Lady of the house to
    be connected to the activity of the house, not
    hidden away.
  • Connection to Nature - Shielded house from
    Public, but opened up the private side to the
    gardens and Light, blending indoors and outdoors,
    continuing the design of the house to the
    exterior.
  • Efficient design of Bedrooms and Bathrooms -
    Bedrooms were modest in size, but contained
    spacious closets. Bathroom plumbing was stacked
    and located adjacent to kitchen to economize on
    material cost.
  • Passive Heating - Use of concrete floors as
    thermal mass and large windows help regulate
    heating and cooling. In-bedded Plumbing pipes
    under foundations to provide radiant heating.
  • Economical Materials - Used materials that were
    inexpensive. Early models with concrete, brick,
    and plywood, later with local stones and CMU
    blocks. Avoided ornamentation, instead let the
    natural properties of the materials provide the
    details of the house

STANDARD USONIAN WALL SECTION
BATTEN BOARD WALLS, CLEARSTORY WINDOWS AND
OVERHANGING, FLAT EAVES DEFINED THE USONIAN
HOUSES SCHWARTZ HOUSE (1939)
6
Usonian Housing Plans
  • As time passed, Frank Lloyd Wright adapted the
    usonian concepts from the original 2x4 design
    to six general styles.

DIAGONAL DESIGN SIMILAR TO POLLIWOG LAYOUT BUT
BASED ON A PARALLELOGRAM AND WALLS ANGLES RATHER
THAN 90 DEGREES. Right Snowflake House (1941)
POLLIWOG DESIGN 2X 4 LAYOUT WITH 90 DEGREE
TAIL EXTENDING INTO GARDEN SEPARATING PUBLIC
AND PRIVATE AREAS OF THE HOUSE ABOVE AND TOP
JACOBS HOUSE (1936)
In-Line Design house designed for narrower lots,
square layout without tail. ABOVE
GOETSCH-WINKLER HOUSE (1939)
7
Usonian Housing Plans
SOLAR HEMI-CIRCLE DESIGN FIRST BUILT FOR JACOBS
FAMILY WHEN THEY OUTGREW THE ORIGINAL USONIAN
DESIGN, BUILT AROUND A CIRCLE COURTYARD. Above
right Jacobs House II (1940) Lower Right David
Wright House (1950)
RAISED DESIGN TWO-STORY DESIGN MADE TO
ACCOMMODATE SLOPED PROPERTY LOTS Above Lloyd
Lewis house (1940)
HEXAGONAL DESIGN Above Hanna house (1936)
8
Broadacre City
  • In 1935, Frank Lloyd Wright took his concepts of
    organic design and Usonian Architecture and
    applied them to the design of the new american
    city, one that abandoned the crowded, unhealthy
    conditions of the metropolitan life. The plan
    centralized itself on the idea of habitants
    living with nature. each residence was located
    on a one acre lot, giving them lots of space to
    have a personal garden and privacy. The lots
    were accessed by arterial roads that connected to
    a main highway, which had a monorail for public
    transportation and freight traffic. Public
    venues such as government, entertainment, and
    recreation were located in one central location.
    Wright imagined these cities expanding across the
    whole nation and, as current cities were
    abandoned for this preferred lifestyle, replacing
    existing cities. Though these designs never came
    to complete fruition, however, various townships
    were designed and built based on his ideas.

Above Broadacre City Plot Design (1935) Frank
LLoyd Wright ONE-ACRE PLOT PER HOUSE
Above Broadacre City Rendering(1935) Frank
LLoyd Wright
9
Popular Successes
  • During these latter years of Frank Lloyd Wright
    life he had become a household name. His plans
    were published in home and garden magazines, he
    was interviewed on radio and television, gave
    lectures, built hundreds of homes and buildings,
    and preached constantly the values of Usonian
    design and Organic Architecture. Two buildings
    however Stood above the rest in the minds of the
    general public that made him the great American
    architect.
  • Falling Waters (1935) - Designed and under
    construction the same time the Jacob's house was
    built there is a remarkable contrast and
    similarities to Wrights Usonian Plan. It was
    ornate, opulent and costly rather than simple and
    inexpensive. Both did have open plans and
    Falling Water was integral to its site as a
    building could be, truly organic. (Seen on Left)
  • The Guggenheim Museum of Modern Arts - At first
    glance appears very different in style, but
    examination shows a very Organic Architecture and
    commonalities to Usonian houses. It was based on
    the Module of the circle similar the the
    Hemi-circle House. This can be seen in plan,
    fencing, dome ceiling, flooring pattern, and with
    curving ramps for circulation around
    Central,rather than exterior courtyard exterior.
  • (seen on right)

10
Bibliography
  • Alan and Alan Hess. Frank Lloyd Wright - Mid-
  • Century Modern. New York
    Rizzoli International
  • Publications, 2007.
  • Drexler, Arthur. The Drawings of Frank Lloyd
    Wright. New
  • York Horizon Press for the
    Museum of Modern Art,
  • 1962.
  • Meehan, Patrick J. The Master Architect
    Conversations
  • With Frank Lloyd Wright. New
    York John Wiley
  • Sons, 1984.
  • Pfeiffer, Bruce Brooks. Frank Lloyd Wright
    Selected
  • houses, vol. 6. Tokyo A.D.A.
    edita, 1991.
  • Weintraub,Sergeant, John. Frank Lloyd Wrights
    Usonian
  • Houses. New York
    Watson-Guptill Publications,
  • 1976.

Above Tracy House (1954)
Above Pearce House (1950)
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