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National Information Exchange Model (NIEM) NIEM Exchanges Real-Life Examples September 7, 2006


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Title: National Information Exchange Model (NIEM) NIEM Exchanges Real-Life Examples September 7, 2006

National Information Exchange Model (NIEM)NIEM
ExchangesReal-Life Examples September 7, 2006
  • Tom OReilly
  • Department of Justice

  • State of information sharing
  • Where does NIEM fit?
  • Relating NIEM to other information sharing
    mandates and initiatives
  • Information exchange life cycle
  • Business scenario development
  • NIEM pilot panel discussion
  • Questions and discussion

State of Information Sharing
  • As systems exchange information, a
    service-oriented architecture (SOA) will emerge.
    Without a framework for reuse, XML stovepipes
    will be created
  • To effectively exchange information, there must
    be a common semantic understanding of data among
    participants, and the data must be formatted in a
    consistent manner

Where Does NIEM Fit?
  • NIEM is a set of standards for information
  • The model defines a way of describing information
    so disparate systems can exchange it effectively
    and consistently
  • It is system-agnostic, so existing IT investments
    can be leveraged
  • NIEM provides the structure and framework for
    managing and exchanging data elements in a
    multidomain environment
  • Governance processes allow communities to manage
    their data elements and leverage existing
    standards, while staying within the model
  • Communities and stakeholders can reuse data
    components from NIEM Universal, Common, and other
    domains to accelerate development

Relating NIEM to Other Information Sharing
Mandates and Initiatives
  • Homeland Security Presidential Directive (HSPD-5)
  • Homeland Security Act 2002
  • Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention
  • Executive Order 13388Guidelines and Requirements
    for the Information Sharing Environment
  • Law Enforcement Information Sharing Program

Information Exchange Life Cycle
What Are Business Scenarios?
  • Describes the business context of events,
    incidents, or circumstances in which information
    must be exchanged
  • Identifies critical operational points at which
    information must be shared
  • Depicts current information exchange practices
    among involved parties, thereby identifying gaps,
    impediments, and other flaws in business
    processes and data exchange
  • Used to characterize potential future
    environments that envision broader and more
    expansive information sharing, as well as changes
    in business practice

Scenario Description
The 911 Emergency Operations Center (EOC) of a
midsized urban jurisdiction begins receiving
telephone calls from residents regarding what is
variously described as a fire, an explosion, and
a partial building collapse of a 25-story
building in city center. The calls quickly
escalate in number and urgency and are received
from residents of the affected office building,
local residents of other nearby buildings, and
cellular telephone calls from pedestrians and
passing motorists.
The EOC dispatches police, fire units, and
emergency medical personnel. The cause of the
damage and the fire, as well as the extent of the
damage and scope of the emergency, takes time to
establish. First responders arriving on scene
begin reporting back to the EOC on the nature and
scope of the damage, which is extensive and may
well result in a catastrophic collapse of the
entire building and potentially extensive damage
to surrounding buildings. Initial on-scene units
find the aftermath of a significant explosion
with several ongoing fires and many walking
wounded wandering throughout the incident scene.
Scenario Description (continued)
Police and fire units initiate a command post
across the street from the incident location.
Police units establish a critical perimeter for
public safety entry only and begin initiation of
a secondary perimeter using Geographic
Information Systems (GIS) mapping. Emergency
Medical Services (EMS) set up an initial triage
contiguous to the police and fire command post.
Initial injured are assessed, and information is
forwarded to area hospitals via devices that are
tracking hospital capacities, services available,
and patient transports.
Real-time video feeds are transmitted from the
scene to the command post. Personnel location
technology is in use providing 2D/3D location and
biotelemetry of fire and police personnel to
their command staffs, as well as monitoring of
immediate air quality in proximity to the
explosion site. Upon completion of the first
search, the scene is declared unsafe and messages
are sent to all on-scene personnel to remain
outside of the critical perimeter until the scene
is cleared by the bomb squad. The media is kept
informed of progress, as appropriate.
Identify Information Exchanges
The scenario describes in narrative form an
operational situation, business context,
legislative, judicial or executive mandate, or
other circumstance which must be addressed. From
this scenario, individual, discrete information
exchanges are identified for subsequent analysis.
Exchange 1 The EOC dispatches police, fire
units, and emergency medical personnel
Identify Information Exchanges (continued)
Exchange 2 First responders arriving on scene
begin reporting back to the EOC on the nature and
scope of the damage
Identify Information Exchanges (continued)
Exchange 3 Initial injured are assessed, and
information is forwarded to area hospitals via
devices that are tracking hospital capacities,
services available, and patient transports
Analyze Requirements for Business Exchange
Detailed information identifying triggering
events, agencies involved, conditions surrounding
the exchange, and documenting the actual data
exchanged is captured for analysis and mapping
This detailed analysis of all dimensions of the
information exchange can then be analyzed,
graphically displayed, and mapped to NIEM to
discover and reuse IEPDs and Universal and Common
Map and Model Exchanges
  • Begin by determining whether an existing IEPD
    either fully or closely meets your information
    exchange requirements
  • Search and discover existing IEPDs by business
  • Compare information exchange requirements to
    IEPDs found

Operational Exchange
  • Conduct gap analysis on the data components you
    will need to build this exchange. Use tools
    (e.g., CMT) to document results
  • Identify each data component that maps to a NIEM
    component and each that does not
  • For those that do not exist, create new
    components using the NIEM NDR
  • For those that do no map well, document the need
    for extensions or refinements to existing NIEM
  • Decide if the new components created should be
    submitted for integration into NIEM

Operational Exchange
NIEM Components
NEIM Component
New Component
NIEM Pilots Based on Scenarios
  • Content Contributor Pilots
  • DHS Immigration and Customs Enforcement
  • ICE Enterprise Data Model mapping to NIEM
  • DHS Customs and Border Protection
  • United Nations Trade Data Elements Directory
  • DHS Emergency Management
  • Adding Disaster Management, Resource Message
  • Geospatial Community of Interest
  • Adding Geospatial contents
  • DHS Team 5 Pilot
  • People Screening data elements from five DHS
  • DHS Infrastructure Protection (NADB)
  • Adding infrastructure protection contents
  • Early Adopter Pilots
  • Intelligence Community Watchlist Message Pilot
  • Terrorist Watchlist Person Data Exchange Standard
    (TWPDES) Working group, OCIO Watchlist and NCTC
    actively participating
  • National Capital Region Data Exchange Hub Pilot
  • Virginia, DC, and Maryland representatives
    leading the pilot
  • In partnership with the Disaster Management eGov
  • Initial target First responder resource request
  • OCIO ITEP Pilots (kickoff in August 2006)
  • Data model validation using semantic web
  • JIEM Tool for business stakeholder facilitation

  • Anthony Hoang
  • Title
  • Agency

R-DExRegional Data Exchange
  • Bard Laabs
  • Technology Manager
  • Automated Regional Justice Information System

Introduction to ARJIS
  • Automated Regional Justice Information System
  • San Diegos Regional Law Enforcement Consortium
  • 70 local, state, and federal member agencies
  • 11,000 users
  • 3,000 terminals on secure intranet (ARJISNet)
  • Strong governance for data sharing
  • Cost sharing benefits entire region

Introduction to the R-DEx Project
  • Regional Data Exchange (R-DEx)
  • Federally driven
  • FBI
  • U.S. Marshals
  • U.S. Bureau of Prisons
  • ATF
  • DEA
  • Regional interagency data sharing
  • ARJIS partnership with FBI
  • Exchange and share data with non-federal agencies
  • Allows searching, analyzing, and mapping of data
    from local and remote sources
  • Integration with existing applications (LINX,

Project Drivers
  • Law Enforcement Information Sharing Program
  • This strategy is the result of a collaborative
    process involving senior leadership from DOJ
    component agencies and representatives from
    across the national law enforcement community
  • LEISP is DOJs strategy for sharing DOJ datafrom
    all its componentswith the Information Sharing
    Environment (ISE) mandated by the Intelligence
    Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act of 2004

RDEx Project Goals and Architecture
  • R-DExfederally mandated analytical data
  • 1st Generationunstructured searching
  • 2nd GenerationNIEM-based, structured searching
    (currently in development)
  • Open standards
  • Common vocabulary
  • Exchange standards
  • Flexible
  • Extensible
  • Multiagency
  • Analytical tool
  • Link analysis
  • Mapping

R-DEx Application
LEXS SRSearch and Retrieval
LEISP Exchange Specifications
  • R-DEx is based on LEISP Exchange Specifications
  • Developed with NIEM v0.3
  • Standardized entities
  • LEXS is a family of NIEM IEPDs
  • Publish and Discovery (LEXS-PD)
  • Search and Retrieval (LEXS-SR)
  • LEXS benefits for data providers
  • Reduce custom data extracts
  • Reduce development efforts
  • Cross-domain
  • LEXS benefits for data consumers
  • Standard interfaces for new sources

  • The LEXS specification crosses several domains
  • Local law enforcement
  • Federal law enforcement
  • Intelligence
  • Corrections
  • Conflicts and differences among domains
  • Activity-based vs. document-based
  • Metadata vs. actual data
  • Some consider vehicles another entity, some
  • Corrections details unlike other law enforcement
  • Explosives and drug information were different
    between the domains
  • Different usersdifferent needsone standard
  • Localstreet cops/investigators, data searching
  • Federalanalysts, analysis/mapping of data
  • Choices when mapping fields
  • Using existing NIEM fields
  • Extending NIEM with new fields
  • Placing data in generic attributes or package

The Data Model
  • There are five entities in the LEXS model
  • Person
  • Location
  • Organization
  • Telephone number
  • Property
  • NIEM association objects relate to LEXS entities
  • LEXS groups entities into logical records,
    defined by the source system
  • Incident data
  • Document data
  • Inmate record
  • Business domains are abstracted as data items
    rather than by introducing another distinct
    structure to represent them

  • LEXS development
  • LEXS leverages and reuses work from LEISP and
    NIEM. This specification defines the first use of
    NIEM as part of LEISP
  • Mapping LEXS entities and attributes to NIEM
  • Takes logical model into XML and includes
    concepts of objects, properties, roles, and
  • Within the 5 main entity groups (person,
    location, organization, telephone number, and
    property)over 280 entities and attributes were
    mapped from LEXS to NIEM

Adding NIEM to R-DEx
  • R-DEx
  • Existing project
  • Unstructured document-searching capability
  • Second phase to add structured content searching
  • LEXS standard (based on NIEM) developed by DOJ
  • Two IEPDs generated
  • LEXS-PD Publish and Discovery
  • Used to import data into R-DEx from federal
  • LEXS-SR Search and Retrieval
  • Used to allow searching by remote systems and of
    remote systems

Adding NIEM to ARJIS/CopLink
  • Original R-DEx interface internally developed,
    stand alone web application
  • Allowed searching R-DEx using the unstructured
  • Did not have any capabilities beyond a text
  • LEXS-SR enabled additional analysis and mapping
  • ARJIS was using the commercial application
    CopLink for officer analysis and mapping
  • ARJIS approached CopLink to develop R-DEx
  • Incorporate R-DEx into base product
  • CopLink wrote interface LEXS-SR-compliant
    interface to R-DEx
  • Will allow other agencies using CopLink to
    connect with R-DEx with greatly reduced effort

Different Views, Different ToolsSame Data
  • Building collapse
  • Local and federal law enforcement collaborate
    determine cause was explosive device
  • Witnesses saw two people leaving the area just
    before the explosion
  • Male, 5-10, blond hair and Female, 5-7,
    brown hair
  • R-DEx is used to search
  • Field interviews and citations in the area of the
    crime for the last two weeks
  • Local data
  • Find several candidates which match the
  • Candidates are searched for any connection to
  • ATF data
  • Find one man (John Harris) who was contacted in
    the area with a connection to explosives
  • All of the associates of John Harris are found
  • All data
  • Female matching the description is found
  • Associations between male and female are found
    with members of terrorist group

Life Cycle
  • US DOJ led the effort to develop the LEXS
  • R-DEx is currently at Step 5
  • Next revision of LEXS specification will start
    again at Step 1

The Future
  • R-DEx and ARJIS are currently in testing
  • Expected release 9/20
  • Next generation enhancements
  • Add roles to schema
  • Add attributes to represent additional details
    for entities
  • Add ability to search by date range
  • Additional applications R-DEx enabled
  • LINX
  • Other CopLink sites
  • Possible to connect CopLink to LINX directly,
    using LEXS protocol

Emergency Management
  • Tim Grapes
  • Evolution Technologies, Inc.
  • Department of Homeland Security (DHS)Science and
    Technology (ST) Directorate Office for
    Interoperability and Compatibility (OIC)

BackgroundOIC Organization Chart
  • OICs purpose is to strengthen and integrate
    interoperability and compatibility efforts to
    improve local, tribal, state, and federal
    emergency responders preparedness and response

Science Technology (ST) Directorate
Office for Interoperability and Compatibility
Testing and Evaluation
Disaster Management (DM)
Federal Interoperability Initiatives
DM works in partnership with local, state,
tribal, and federal partners to develop tools and
messaging standards that help emergency
responders seamlessly exchange information vital
to effective incident management, response, and
  • Common Alerting Protocol (CAP)OASIS standard,
    October 2005
  • Provides standard all-hazard emergency alerts,
    notifications, and public warnings which can be
    disseminated simultaneously over many different
    warning systems (e.g., computer systems,
    wireless, alarms, TV, radio)
  • Emergency Data Exchange Language (EDXL)
  • EDXL Distribution Element (DE)OASIS standard,
    April 2006
  • Provides flexible message distribution framework
    for emergency information systems data sharing.
    Messages may be distributed by specific
    recipients, by a geographic area, or by other
    codes such as agency type (police, fire, etc.)
  • EDXL Hospital AVailability Exchange (HAVE)OASIS
    public comment phase
  • Provides standard exchange of hospital status,
    capacity, and resource availability among
    medical, health, and emergency organizations
  • EDXL Resource Messaging (RM)OASIS submission,
    January 2006
  • Approximately 20 standards for exchange of
    resource information (persons and/or things)
    needed to support incident preparedness,
    response, management and recovery, and planned

Practitioner-Driven Approach
  • SAFECOM and DM both advocate a unique,
    bottom-up approach. The programs
    practitioner-driven governance structures benefit
    from the critical input of the emergency response
    community and from local, state, tribal, and
    federal policymakers and leaders
  • SAFECOMs executive committee and emergency
    response council facilitate the input of
    emergency responders, policymakers, and leaders
  • DMs practitioner steering group ensures that
    initiatives and tools effectively meet
    practitioners information-sharing priorities and

DM Standards DevelopmentKey Players
  • Internal
  • DM practitioner groups
  • Practitioner Steering Group (PSG)
  • Standards Working Group (SWG)
  • Emergency management
  • Fire
  • 9-1-1, dispatch
  • Transportation
  • Emergency medical services
  • Public health
  • Federal emergency agencies
  • Supporting vendor communities
  • External
  • Global Justice Extensible Data Model (GJXDM)
  • National Incident Management Systems (NIMS)
  • Organization for the Advancement of Structured
    Information Systems (OASIS)
  • National Information Exchange Model (NIEM)
  • Emergency Interoperability Consortium (EIC)
  • Global Justice/Bureau of Justice Assistance (BJA)
  • National Capital Region (NCR)
  • Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) Mutual

DM Standards DevelopmentProcess
  • Practitioner Steering Group (PSG)
  • Standards Working Group (SWG)iterative
    methodology consistent with Information Exchange
    Package Description (IEPD) methodology
  • Scenarios/use examples subcommittees
  • Draft specificationmessage definition consistent
    with IEPD
  • EIC/vendor community
  • Submission to NIEM and Public Standards
    Organization (OASIS)

National Capital Region (NCR) Data Exchange Hub
  • Provide a real-time interactive system designed
    to strengthen the flow of information both within
    and between Emergency Support Functions (ESFs)
    within the NCRs 19 jurisdictions
  • Provide a collaborative communications
    environment, through which member jurisdictions
    collect and disseminate information between
    themselves and with federal and state agencies
    involved in securing the NCR
  • Utilize and test open standards-based approach
  • Build a resource-typing Web service-based search
    for emergency resources in the NCR
  • Provide a reference implementation and training

NCR Data Exchange Hub DemonstrationProject Focus
  • Participantscross section of first responders
    (law enforcement officers, fire fighters, and
    emergency managers) and their technical support
  • Exchangesstandardized information exchange of
    resource and inventory information between the
    primary Emergency Operation Centers (EOCs)
    supporting the 19 jurisdictions of the NCR
  • What resources are available from other
  • Consolidated picture of NCR resources
  • Utilized draft Resource Messaging (RM) standard
    components of NIEM 0.2 and the FEMA mutual aid
    resource typing structure

NCR Exchange Development Life Cycle (EDLC)
NCR Exchange Development Life Cycle (EDLC)
NCR Data Exchange Hub Demonstration Project
NCR Data Exchange Hub Demonstration Project
  • Resource Typing IEPD
  • http//
  • NCR Development Toolkit
  • http//
  • DEMO
  • http//www.ncrnet.us8080/frri/pages/main.jsp

NIEM Benefits
  • One-stop shop and proven methodology to implement
    practitioner-driven information sharing standards
  • Standardize and strengthen the flow of
    information both within and between Emergency
    Support Functions (ESFs) within the NCR
  • Position for broader information sharing outside
    of NCR
  • Facilitates information sharing regardless of
    local system differences or Web services
    technology applied
  • Facilitates draft standard testing and feedback
    to improve final standard support for local
  • Simplification of grants compliance

Program Chip Hines chip.hines_at_dhs.govBill
Kalin DM
Messaging Standards Initiative Tim
Grapes Lee
Questions and Discussion
  • For more information, visit the NIEM Web site
  • Contact NIEM by e-mail at