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WORLD HISTORY II SOL REVIEW World Religions Judaism Concentrated in Europe and Middle East in 1500 Now concentrated in US and Israel Monotheistic- one God 10 ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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World Religions
  • Judaism
  • Concentrated in Europe and Middle East in 1500
  • Now concentrated in US and Israel
  • Monotheistic- one God
  • 10 Commandment- rules of moral conduct
  • Torah Holy writings
  • Holy city-Jerusalem
  • Christianity
  • Concentrated in Europe and Middle East in 1500
  • Now North and South America and Europe
  • Monotheistic
  • Jesus is Son of God
  • Life after death
  • New Testament- Life and teachings of Jesus
  • Christian doctrine established by early church
  • Holy city Jerusalem and Bethlehem

World Religions
  • Islam
  • Concentrated in Western Asia, Africa and Southern
    Europe in 1500
  • Now in Middle East, Africa and Asia
  • Monotheistic
  • Muhammed is the prophet
  • Koran is holy book
  • Five Pillars of Islam
  • Mecca, Medina and Jerusalem are holy cities
  • Buddhism
  • Concentrated in East and Southeast Asia in 1500
  • Now East and Southeast Asia
  • Siddhartha Gautama (Buddha) founder
  • Four Noble Truths
  • Eightfold path to enlightenment
  • Spread from India to China and other parts of
    Asia Asokas missionaries and their writings

World Religions
  • Hinduism
  • Concentrated in India in 1500 and now
  • Many forms of one deity (god)
  • Caste system
  • Reincarnation
  • Karma- Future reincarnation based on present

  • Rebirth of Classical Knowledge (ancient Greece
    and Rome)
  • Birth of the Modern World
  • Humanism- belief in the abilities of people
  • Secularism- concern for nonreligious subjects
  • Began in Italy and spread to Northern Europe
  • Contributions
  • Art- Michelangelo and Leonardo da Vinci
  • Literature- Shakepeare
  • Intellectual ideas- Erasmus

Regional Trade in 1500
  • Traditional patterns of trade in 1500
  • Silk roads across Asia (China)to the
    Mediterranean (Italian city states)
  • Maritime routes across the Indian Ocean
  • Trans-Saharan routes across North Africa
  • Northern European links with the Black Sea
  • Western European sea and river trade
  • South China Sea and lands of Southeast Asia

Why was trade important?
  • Exchange of products and ideas
  • China- Paper, compass, silk, porcelain
  • India and Middle East- Textiles, numeral system
  • Exchange in science from contact with the Muslims
    in the Middle East
  • Medicine
  • Astronomy
  • Mathematics

Now Lets take a break and see how much you
The Reformation
  • What problems and issues caused the Reformation?
  • Merchant wealth challenged the Churchs view of
    usury (charging interest for loaning money)
  • German and English kings disliked Italian control
    of the Church
  • The Church had a great deal of political power
    and wealth- Popes interfered in the politics of
    other countries
  • Corruption in the church
  • Sale of indulgences (certificate purchased for
    the forgiveness of sins

The First Protestant Reformer
  • Martin Luther
  • Was angered by sale of indulgences
  • Wrote the 95 Theses which outlined his
    disagreements with the Church
  • When he refused to take them back he was
    excommunicated and he formed his own church, the
    Lutheran Church, the first protestant church.
  • Views
  • Salvation by faith alone
  • Bible was the ultimate authority
  • All humans equal before God

Other Protestant Reformers
  • John Calvin (Calvinist Tradition)
  • Predestination- those who were saved was chosen
    by God at birth
  • Faith revealed by living a righteous life
  • Working and being successful showed you were
    chosen by God

  • King Henry VIII (the Anglican Tradition)
  • Wanted a divorce but Pope refused to give him one
  • Established himself as the head of the national
    church in England
  • Appropriated (took) the land and wealth of the
    Church in England
  • Dismissed the authority of the Pope in Rome

Reformation in Germany
  • Princes in Northern Germany converted to
  • The Hapsburg family and princes in the South
    continued to support the Pope and Church
  • Thirty Years War- conflict between the
    Protestants of the North and the Catholics of the

Reformation In England
  • Anglican Church became the national church
    throughout the British Isles under Elizabeth I
  • The Reformation contributed to the rise of
    capitalism (private ownership of business with
    the goal of making a profit)

Reformation in France
  • Catholic monarchy granted French Protestants,
    Hugenots, freedom of worship by the Edict of
    Nantes (later revoked)
  • Cardinal Richelieu changed the focus of the
    Thirty Years War from religious to political in
    an attempt to increase the power of France.

Catholic Counter Reformation
  • Series of reforms by the Church designed to stop
    the spread of Protestantism and reassert the
    Churchs authority
  • Society of Jesus (Jesuits) founded to act as
    missionaries and teachers
  • Inquisition established as a church court to try
    and punish heretics (those who went against the

Role of the Printing Press
  • Gutenberg invented a printing press with
    moveable type
  • Books became more available and less expensive
  • Growth of literacy
  • Bible of printed in English, French, and German
  • Important in spreading the ideas of the
    Reformation and Renaissance

Results of the Reformation
  • Growth of secularism
  • Growth of individualism
  • Growth of religious toleration

Factors contributing to the Age of Discovery
  • Gold
  • Demand for gold, spices and natural resources in
  • Glory
  • -Political and economic competition between
    European empires
  • God
  • -Desire to spread Christianity

  • Improvements in navigation
  • Caravel new type of ship
  • Compass
  • Astrolabe
  • Contribution of Prince Henry the Navigator of
  • Established a school for navigators, sailors and
  • Financed early voyages of exploration

Major explorers
  • Portugal- Vasco da Gama
  • Spain
  • Christopher Columbus (discovered the New World)
  • Hernando Cortez (defeated the Aztecs)
  • Franciso Pizarro (defeated the Incas)
  • Ferdinand Magellan (1st to circumnavigate the
    globe-sail around the world)

More explorers
  • England
  • Sir Francis Drake
  • France
  • -Jacques Cartier

Results of the Age of Exploration
  • Diffusion of Christianity
  • Migration of colonists to new lands
  • Conversion of indigenous (native) people
  • Expansion of overseas territorial claims and
    European emigration to North and South America
  • Indigenous people were killed and enslaved
  • Rigid class system and dictatorial rule in Latin
  • Forced migration of some Africans into slavery
  • Colonies imitated the culture and society of
    mother countries

Columbian Exchange
  • Western Hemisphere agricultural products such as
    corn, potatoes, and tobacco changed European
  • European horses and cattle changed the lifestyles
    of American Indians
  • European diseases like smallpox killed many
    American Indians

Results of trade
  • Africa
  • European trading posts along the coast
  • Trade in slaves, gold and other products
  • Asia
  • -Colonization by small groups of Merchants
  • -India, the Indies and China
  • -Portugese, Dutch and British set up trading

Impact of the Columbian Exchange
  • Shortage of labor to grow cash crops led to the
    use of African slaves
  • Slavery was based on race
  • European plantation system in the Caribbean and
    the Americas destroyed indigenous economics and
    damaged the environment

  • Triangular Trade
  • Linked Europe, Africa and the Americas.
  • Slaves, sugar and rum were traded
  • Most slaves came from coast of West Africa
  • Middle Passage was the voyage of slaves across
    the Atlantic Ocean
  • Export of precious metals
  • Gold and silver were exported to Europe and Asia
  • Incas and Aztecs and other natives were used as
    slave labor in mines
  • Increase in supplies of gold and silver led to
    inflation in Spain

Ottoman Empire
  • Located in Asia Minor
  • Expanded
  • Southwest Asia, Southeastern Europe, Balkan
    Peninsula, North Africa
  • Capital at Constantinople renamed Istanbul
  • Islamic religion as a unifying force that
    accepted other religions
  • Trade in coffee and ceramics

Mughal Empire
  • Located in North India
  • Spread Islam into India
  • Building of the Taj Mahal
  • Influence of the Indian textiles on the British
    textile industry
  • Europeans established coastal ports in India to
    compete for trade

  • China
  • Creation of foreign enclaves to control
    trade-foreigners were restricted to certain
  • Emperor controlled foreign influence and trade
  • Increase in European demand for Chinese goods
    such as tea and porcelain
  • Japan
  • Characterized by powerless emporor ruled by
    shogun (military leader)
  • Adopted policy of isolation to limit foreign

Commercial Revolution
  • Mercantilism
  • Economic practice adopted by European colonial
    powers in an effort to became self-sufficient
  • Based on the theory that colonies existed for the
    benefit of the mother country
  • Competition for overseas markets, colonies and

Commercial Revolution
  • New economic system emerged
  • New money and banking system were created
  • Economic practices such as mercantilism evolved
  • Colonial economies were limited by the economic
    needs of the mother country

Stand Up and Stretch! Lets see how much you
The Scientific Revolution
  • Pioneers
  • Copernicus-developed heliocentric theory
  • Kepler- discovered planetary motion
  • Galileo- used telescope to support heliocentric
  • Newton-discovered laws of gravity
  • Harvey-discovered circulation of the blood

Scientific Revolution
  • Importance
  • emphasis on reason and systematic observation of
  • Formulation of the scientific method
  • Expansion of scientific knowledge

Absolute Monarchies
  • Characteristics of absolute monarchies
  • centralization of power
  • concept of rule by divine right

  • Absolute monarchs
  • Louis XIV-France
  • Frederick the Great-emphasized army in Prussia
  • Peter the Great-wanted to westernize Russia

Development of the rights of Englishmen as a
result of the English Civil War
  • Struggle between Roundheads (Puritans) and
    Cavaliers (supporters of the king)
  • Oliver Cromwell became Lord Protector and King
    Charles I was executed.
  • The monarch was restored by Charles II.

  • Glorious Revolution
  • William and Mary took over the throne to prevent
    a Catholic from becoming King

These events increased the power of the
parliament over the King. Englishmens rights
were protected by the English bill of Rights of
The Enlightenment
  • Applied reason to the human world, not just the
    natural world
  • stimulated religious toleration
  • Fueled democratic revolution around the world

Enlightenment Thinkers
  • Thomas Hobbes
  • Leviathan
  • The state must have central authority to manage
  • John Locke
  • Two Treatises on Government
  • People are sovereign monarchs are not Chosen by
  • People have Natural rights

  • Montesquieu
  • Spirit of the Laws
  • The Best form of government includes a separation
    of powers- Judicial, legislative and executive
  • Jean Jacque Rousseau
  • The Social Contract
  • Government is a contract between rulers and the
  • Voltaire
  • Religious toleration and separation of Church and

Enlightenment Artists, philosophers and writers
  • Bach, Mozart- composers
  • Eugene Delacroix-painter
  • Voltaire-philosopher
  • Cervantes- Novelist, DonQuixote
  • Paintings depicted classical subjects, public
    events, natural scenes, and living people
  • New forms of Literature-novel

Improvement of Technology
  • All weather roads improved year round
    transportation and trade
  • New designs in farm tools increased productivity
    (agricultural revolution)
  • Improvement in ship design lowered cost of

Influence of the Enlightenment
  • Political philosophies of the Enlightenment
    fueled revolution in the Americas and France
  • Thomas Jeffersons Declaration of Independence
    incorporated Lockes ideas
  • The Constitution of the US incorporated ideas of
    separation of powers.

French Revolution
  • Causes
  • Influence of Enlightenment Ideas
  • Influence of the American Revolution
  • Events of the French Revolution
  • Storming of the Bastille -seen as the beginning
    of the Revolution
  • Reign of Terror

French Revolution
  • Results
  • End of absolute monarchy
  • Rise of Napoleon
  • unsuccessful attempt to unify Europe under French
  • awakened feelings of national pride and growth of

Influence of American and French Revolution
  • Independence movements came to French, Spanish
    and Portuguese colonies
  • Toussaint LOuverture-Haiti
  • Simon Bolivar- South America

Congress of Vienna
  • Restored Monarchies after the defeat of Napoleon.
  • Wanted to maintain a balance of Power
  • stimulated the growth of nationalism
  • new political philosophies
  • liberalism- government should change
  • conservativism- no change

Unification of Italy
  • Count Cavour unified Northern Italy
  • Garibaldi joined Southern Italy to northern Italy
  • The Papal States (including Rome) were last to
    join Italy

Unification of Germany
  • Bismarck-Leader of Prussia
  • Philosophy was Realpolitik-do what ever is
    necessary to achieve and hold power.
  • Franco-Prussian War lead to creation of Germany

Now lets review very quickly
  • Answer these questions using your flip cards

Industrial Revolution
  • Began in England (resources available)
  • invention and improvement of the steam engine
    (James Watt)
  • Spread to Europe and US
  • Important to Textile, steel and iron industries
  • Enclosure movement provided labor supply

  • Factory system
  • Technological advancements
  • Eli Whitney-cotton gin
  • Bessemer- process to make steel
  • Jenner -small pox vaccine
  • Pasteur-discovered bacteria

Impacts of the Industrial Revolution
  • Population increase
  • increased standard of living for many
  • improved transportation
  • urbanization
  • environmental pollution
  • increased education
  • dissatisfaction of the working class with working
  • Growth of middle class

Political philosophies
  • Capitalism
  • Adam Smiths Wealth of Nations
  • Market competition
  • no government interference in economy
  • Laissez-faire
  • Socialism and communism
  • Karl Marx s Communist Manifesto and Das Kapital
  • Response of injustices of capitalism
  • redistribution of wealth

  • Industrial revolution motivated Europeans to
    compete for colonies to provide raw materials and
    markets for manufactured goods.
  • Invention of the cotton gin led to an increased
    demand for African Slaves in the southern US
  • Colonized people responded with armed conflicts
    (Boxer Rebellion in China) and independence

Forms of imperialism
  • Colonies- South Africa, Congo
  • Protectorates-Egypt (Suez Canal)
  • spheres of influence- China

World War I
  • Causes
  • M ilitarism
  • A lliances
  • I mperialism
  • N ationalism
  • Important people
  • Woodrow Wilson-president of the US
  • Kaiser Wilhelm II-ruler of Germany
  • Nicholas II- Russian Tsar overthrown
  • Lenin- leader of the Bolshevik Revolution in

Major events of World War II
  • Assassination of Austrias Archduke Ferdinand
  • United States enters the war
  • Russia leaves the war after the Bolsheviks take
  • Treaty of Versailles ended the war
  • Germany blamed and made to pay reparations

Outcomes of World War I
  • Colonies demanded independence
  • End of Russian, Ottoman, German and
    Austro-Hungarian Empire
  • Enormous cost of lives, property and social
  • League of Nations established but US did not
    join- was not effective
  • Great Britain and France given mandates in Middle

Great Depression-1930s
  • Causes
  • German reparations
  • Dominance of US in global economy
  • High protective tariffs
  • expansion of credit
  • Stock Market Crash
  • Impact
  • High unemployment
  • Bank failures and collapse of credit
  • Collapse of prices in world trade
  • Growth of Fascist parties in Germany and Italy

Totalitarian Governments of the 1930s
  • Soviet Union-USSR
  • Joseph Stalin
  • 5 year plans to speed industrialization
  • Collectivization of farms
  • Great Purge
  • Italy
  • Benito Mussolini
  • Fascist party
  • Restore the glory of Rome
  • invasion of Ethiopia

Totalitarian Governments
  • Japan
  • Hirohito- emperor
  • Hideki Tojo- military leader
  • military took control of the government
  • wanted to industrialize
  • desire for raw materials caused invasion of China
    and Korea
  • Germany
  • Adolf Hitler( Mein Kempf) and the Nazi (National
    Socialist ) party
  • Inflation and depression
  • Anti Semitism
  • Extreme nationalism
  • targeted communist and Jews- blamed for loss of

World War II (1939-1946)
  • Aggression by totalitarian powers
  • Nationalism
  • Failure of Treaty of Versailles
  • Weakness of League of Nations
  • Appeasement
  • Europe and US were isolationist and pacifist-
    wanted to prevent war

World War II
  • Major events of War
  • German invasion of Poland
  • Fall of France
  • Battle of Britain
  • German invasion of Soviet Union
  • Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor
  • D-Day
  • Atomic bomb dropped on Japan
  • Major leaders
  • Franklin Roosevelt-US President
  • Harry Truman- President after death of FDR
  • Eisenhower, MacArthur and Marshall- US Generals
  • Winston Churchill- British Prime Minister

  • Genocide
  • Hitlers attempt to eliminate the Jews based on
    his ideas of the Germans as a master race.
  • Final Solution-concentration camps, extermination
    camps, gas chambers
  • 6 million Jews killed
  • other targets-Poles, Slavic people, Jehovah
    witnesses, Homosexuals, disabled

Other examples of genocide
  • Armenian genocide by Turks of the Ottoman Empire
    after WWI
  • Peasants, political opponents in the Soviet Union
    under Stalin
  • The educated, artists, monks and minorities by
    Pol Pot in Cambodia
  • Tutsi minority by Hutu in Rwanda
  • Muslims and Croats by Bosnian Serbs in Yugoslavia

Outcomes of WWII
  • European powers loss of empires
  • 2 major powers- US and USSR
  • War crimes trials in Nuremburg and Japan
  • Division of Europe- Iron Curtain- allies of US
    and allies of USSr
  • United Nations established
  • Marshall plan to rebuild Europe
  • Formation of NATO and Warsaw Pact

Reconstruction of Germany
  • Democratic government installed in West Germany
  • Germany and Berlin divided by Allies
  • Reconstruction of Japan
  • US Occupation under MacArthur
  • Democracy and economic development
  • elimination of Offensive capabilities
  • dominant economic in Asia

Cold War (1945-48)
  • Yalta Conference
  • Soviet control of Eastern Europe
  • Rivalry between US and USSR
  • Democracy and Free enterprise vs. dictatorship
    and communism
  • President Truman and the policy of containment
    (prevent the expansion of communism)

Cold War (1948 -1989)
  • NATO vs. Warsaw Pact
  • Korean War
  • Vietnam War
  • Berlin and the Berlin Wall
  • Cuban Missile Crisis
  • Nuclear weapons and the theory of deterrence

Important people
  • Chiang kai-Shek (Jiang Jieshi) leader of
    nationalist China
  • Mao Tse-tung (Mao Zedong) leader of communist
  • Ho Chi Minh- Leader of communists in Vietnam

Independence movements
  • India
  • elimination of British rule
  • led by Gandhi- civil disobedience and passive
  • country divided along religious lines- Pakistan
    (Muslim) and India (Hindu)
  • India, Pakistan, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka became

African Independence
  • Right to self determination given by UN charter
  • Peaceful and violent revolutions
  • pride in African culture and heritage
  • resentment of imperialist rule
  • Great Britain, France, Belgium and Portugal lost

African Independence
  • West Africa- peaceful transition
  • Algeria- War for independence from France
  • Kenya (British)- Violent struggle under
    leadership of Kenyatta
  • South Africa- Black South Africans struggle
    against Apartheid

Middle East
  • French Mandates given independence
  • Syria
  • Lebanon
  • British mandates given independence
  • Jordan
  • Palestine (part became Israel- homeland for Jews

Resulted in Middle East conflicts created by
religious difference
Other ethnic religious conflicts
  • Northern Ireland
  • Balkans (former Yugoslavia)

Collapse of Communism
  • Soviet economic collapse
  • Nationalism in Warsaw Pact countries
  • Tearing down Berlin Wall
  • Breakup of USSR
  • Expansion of NATO

One last review!!!!