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Anatomy, Physiology and Disease Chapter 3 The Cells: The Raw Materials and Building Blocks

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Title: Anatomy, Physiology and Disease Chapter 3 The Cells: The Raw Materials and Building Blocks


1
Anatomy, Physiology and Disease Chapter 3 The
Cells The Raw Materials and Building Blocks
2
Overview of Cells
  • Cells are formed from chemicals and structures
  • Cells are found in all living things
  • Some nerve cells can be 2 feet long or longer
  • Cells can be flat, round, thread like, or
    irregularly shaped
  • 7.5 trillion cells found in body work together to
    allow for proper functioning of body

3
Figure 3-1 Various types of cells within the
human body
4
Cell Structure
  • Certain common traits that almost all cells
    share
  • Nucleus
  • Organelles
  • Cytoplasm
  • Cell membrane

5
Figure 3-2 Cellular components
6
Cell Membrane
  • Defined boundary that possesses a definite shape
    and actually holds cell contents together, acting
    as protective covering
  • Allows material in and out of cell
  • Selectively permeable because they choose what
    gets in or out
  • 3/10,000,000 of an inch thick
  • Example Electrolytes
  • Na Sodium
  • K Potassium
  • Cl Chloride
  • Co2 Carbon Dioxide

Na K Pump
7
Figure 3-3 The cell membrane
Na K Pump
8
Transport Methods
  • Moving things in and out of cell can be done in
    two broad ways
  • Passive transport requires no extra form of
    energy to complete
  • Active transport requires some addition of
    energy to make it happen

9
Transport Methods (contd)
  • Passive transport can be divided into four types
  • Diffusion
  • Osmosis
  • Filtration
  • Facilitated diffusion

10
Diffusion
  • Most common form of passive transport in which
    substance of higher concentration travels to area
    of lesser concentration
  • Examples
  • Adding packet of powdered drink mix to pitcher of
    water
  • Smell of classmates perfume filling room
  • Necessary to move oxygen from lungs to blood
    stream, or carbon dioxide from blood stream to
    lungs

11
Figure 3-4 Two examples of diffusion
12
Osmosis
  • Another form of diffusion in which water travels
    through selectively permeable membrane to
    equalize concentrations of a substance
  • Dissolved substance called a solute

13
Osmosis cont
  • Water tends to travel across a membrane to
    equalize concentrations of a solute ability of
    substance to pull water toward area of higher
    concentration called osmotic pressure
  • The greater concentration of solute, the greater
    osmotic pressure, or pull, it exerts to bring in
    water

14
Filtration
  • Differs from osmosis in that pressure is applied
    to force water and its dissolved materials across
    membrane
  • Similar to rush of people pushing through
    turnstile during rush hour
  • Example pumping of heart, which forces blood
    flow into kidneys, where filtration takes place

15
Figure 3-6 The process of filtration in the
kidneys, where smaller solutes such as the
electrolytes sodium and potassium pass through
the membrane, while the larger blood protein and
cells normally do not.

16
Facilitated Diffusion
  • A variation of diffusion in which a substance is
    helped in moving across the membrane, similar to
    an usher helping you to your seat
  • Glucose is the substance that is often passed
    into our bodies
  • It can be imagined as moving into an already
    revolving door once it steps into the door it
    is pushed along by Insulin.

17
Pathology Connection Cystic Fibrosis
  • Incurable, fatal genetic disease affecting 1/3000
    Caucasian babies

18
Cystic Fibrosis (contd)
  • Etiology malformation in membrane channels for
    chloride and sodium ions
  • Sodium and chloride do not diffuse across cell
    membrane as they normally would
  • Fluid around cells becomes extremely salty due to
    excess sodium and chloride
  • Results in excessively thick mucus in
    respiratory, digestive, and reproductive systems
    mucus can cause clogging in organs

19
Cystic Fibrosis (contd)
  • S/S may include
  • Difficulty breathing (SOB)
  • Nutritional deficits due to decreased absorption
    of nutrients
  • Increased risk of respiratory infection
  • Diabetes
  • Infertility (especially in males)

20
Cystic Fibrosis (contd)
  • RX
  • No cure treatments help extend and improve
    quality of life
  • Nutritional supplements
  • Antibiotics to prevent pneumonia
  • Mucus thinning drugs (Mucomyst-Ascetlsysteine)
  • With treatment today, average life span of
    patient is 35 years

21
Cystic Fibrosis (contd)
  • Diagnosis
  • Prenatal genetic testing
  • Postnatal genetic testing
  • Testing pulmonary function
  • Testing amount of sodium in sweat

22
Pathology Connection Diabetes Mellitus
  • Lack of glucose transport into cells causes
    several problems
  • Lots of glucose hangs around in bloodstream,
    causing big osmotic problems for cells
  • Cells cant make as much energy as they need when
    glucose cant be transported

23
Types of DM
  • Type I results from the body's failure to produce
    insulin. 5-10 of diabetics have type I diabetes.
    Must take insulin to survive.
  • Type II results from Insulin resistance, a
    condition in which cells fail to use insulin
    properly. Most Americans who are diagnosed with
    diabetes have type 2 diabetes
  • Gestational Pregnant women who have never had
    diabetes before but who have high blood sugar
    (glucose) levels during pregnancy. Affects about
    4 of all pregnant women

24
Endocytosis
  • Used by cells for intake of liquid and food when
    substance too large to diffuse across membrane
  • Examples
  • Phagocytosis name for process if solid particle
    being transported
  • Pinocytosis name for process if water being
    transported

25
Exocytosis
  • Transport of things out of cell
  • Some cells produce substance needed outside cell
  • Once substance is made, it is surrounded by
    membrane, forming a vesicle, and moves to cell
    membrane
  • Vesicle becomes part of cell membrane and expels
    its load out of cell

26
Pathology Connection Familial
Hypercholesterolemia
  • Blood cholesterol too high caused by poor diet
    and exercise or inherited
  • Normally low density lipoprotein (LDL or bad
    cholesterol) binds to cholesterol, and allows it
    to be carried into cells via endocytosis once
    inside, cholesterol used to make other lipids

27
Familial Hypercholesterolemia contd
  • LDL doesnt move into cells, and stays in blood
    causes 2 problems
  • Too little cholesterol gets into cells, and cells
    must make more cholesterol
  • LDL that cannot get into cells hangs around in
    blood causes plaques in blood vessels which can
    lead to blood clots, strokes, and heart attacks
  • RX with diet modifications and cholesterol
    lowering drugs
  • 1/500 Americans have moderate form

28
Phagocytosis, Pinocytosis Exocytosis
29
Cytoplasm
  • Gel-like substance composed of water, nutrients,
    and electrolytes, which looks a lot like white of
    raw egg
  • Required by cells for their internal environment
    to thrive and function

30
Nucleus
  • Brains of cell
  • Dictates activities of other organelles in cell
  • Has double walled nuclear membrane preventing
    materials from entering

31
Nucleus (contd)
  • Chromatin
  • Contains deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) DNA
    contains blueprints, or specifications, for
    creation of new cells
  • Will eventually form chromosomes, which contain
    genes
  • Genes determine our inherited characteristics

32
Nucleus (contd)
  • Nucleolus
  • Spherical body made up of dense fibers found
    within cell nucleus
  • Major function is to synthesize ribonucleic acid
    (RNA) that forms ribosomes

33
Ribosomes
  • Organelles found on endoplasmic reticulum or
    found floating around in cytoplasm
  • Made of ribonucleic acid (RNA) and assist in
    production of enzymes and other protein
    substances needed for cell repair and
    reproduction
  • Can be considered remodeler of cell, taking
    existing structure and maintaining and repairing
    it

34
Centrosomes
  • Act as building contractor, building new
    structures as need arises
  • Contain centrioles that are involved in division
    of cell
  • Centrioles are tubular shaped and usually found
    in pairs

35
Mitochondria
  • Tiny bean-shaped organelles, act as power plant
    to provide up to 95 of bodies energy needs for
    cellular repair, movement, and reproduction
  • If cell needs more power, it increases number of
    mitochondria in cell
  • Liver cells, which are quite active, have up to
    2,000 mitochondria in each cell

36
Mitocondria contd
  • Contain special enzymes that help to take in
    oxygen for use in producing energy
  • Energy produced is in form of ATP (adenosine
    triphosphate) created by mitochondria

37
Endoplasmic Reticulum
  • Series of channels set up in cytoplasm that are
    formed from folded membranes
  • Has two distinct forms
  • One has sandpaper-like surface, with ribosomes on
    it, called rough endoplasmic reticulum
    responsible for synthesis of protein
  • Second form has no ribosomes and appears smooth,
    called smooth endoplasmic reticulum synthesizes
    lipids and steroids

38
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39
Golgi Apparatus
  • Looks like a bunch of flattened membranous sacs
  • Once protein from the endoplasmic reticulum is
    received, it further processes and stores it
  • Takes processed protein to cell membrane where it
    is released
  • Salivary glands and pancreatic glands have higher
    numbers of Golgi apparati because they have
    higher level of secretion or storage

40
Lysosomes
  • Organelles containing powerful enzymes that take
    care of cleaning up intercellular debris and
    other waste
  • Lysosomes help keep us healthy they destroy
    unwanted bacteria by participating in process of
    phagocytosis

41
Other Interesting Parts
  • Vesicles vans which take stuff travel to other
    sites within cell
  • Cytoskeleton provides shape to cell and allow
    cell and its contents to be mobile
  • Flagella whip-shaped tails that move some cells,
    like sperm, to other locations
  • Cilia hair-like projections located on outer
    surface of some cells move particles using
    wavelike motion

42
Pathology Connection Organelle Disorders
  • Lysosomal storage disorder
  • Occur when lysosomes missing one of their enzymes
  • Results in some molecules not breaking down and
    accumulating in cells
  • Many kinds of lysosomal storage disorders
  • All are genetic
  • Most lack effective therapies

43
Pathology Connection Tay Sachs Disease
  • Enzyme missing in lysosomes of nervous system
    cells
  • As result, glycoproteins accumulate in cells in
    nervous system
  • Build up causes inflammation and eventual
    cellular destruction
  • Symptoms include mental regression, dementia and
    paralysis appearing within first year of
    patients life
  • Found mostly in Ashkenazi Jews German Jews

44
Tay Sachs cont
  • Diagnosis appearance of cherry red spot on back
    of patients eyes abnormalities in startle
    reflex
  • No treatment disease generally fatal within two
    or three years of onset
  • Availability of genetic test has decreased
    incidence in recent years

45
Pathology Connection Cigarettes and paralyzed
cilia
  • Smoking causes cilia in respiratory tract to
    become paralyzed
  • As a result, cannot keep lungs clean
  • Over time, can lead to chronic obstructive
    pulmonary disease (COPD) and other
    smoking-related lung problems
  • Passive smoking (second hand smoke exposure) also
    increases risk of lung problems

46
Enzymes
  • Facilitate important chemical reactions in body
  • One way is by speeding up reactions
  • Not used up by reactions that they facilitate
    instead, act like carrier molecules
  • Very specific each only facilitates (catalyzes)
    certain reactions

47
Pathology Connection Phenylketonuria (PKU)
  • Genetic condition enzyme disorder
  • Most common in Caucasians of Irish, Scottish, or
    Scandinavian descent
  • Patients missing enzyme phenylalanine
    hydroxylase
  • Without enzyme, amino acid phenylalanine builds
    up in cells
  • Build up affects nervous system causes
    progressive mental retardation if not treated

48
Phenylketonuria (PKU) cont
  • Other signs include
  • Light pigmentation of skin, hair and eyes
  • Abnormalities of posture and gait
  • Epilepsy
  • Diagnosis
  • Blood tests genetic tests
  • Every newborn in US routinely screened

49
Phenylketonuria (PKU) cont
  • Treatment low phenylalanine diet includes
    avoidance of high protein foods and products
    sweetened with aspartame (NutraSweet)
  • Consequences of going off diet
  • Children cognitive defects
  • Adults depression, anxiety, or other
    neurological changes

50
Pathology Connection Cancer
  • When body is healthy, cells grow in orderly
    fashion control system prevents cells from
    reproducing too fast
  • Sometimes conditions are altered that trigger
    changes in way cells reproduce this wild,
    uncontrolled reproduction can lead to too many
    cells being produced, creating a lump, or tumor
  • Tumors can generally be either benign or
    malignant !!!

51
Cancer cont
  • Benign tumors
  • Slow growth
  • Tend to push healthy cells out of the way
  • Generally nonlife threatening
  • Malignant tumors
  • Rapid growth
  • Tend to invade healthy tissues
  • Can enter blood or lymphatic system and start new
    tumors in other parts of body this kind of
    spread called metastasis

52
Malignant Tumors
53
Staging Tumors
  • Prognosis often determined by stage at diagnosis
    two basic strategies for staging cancers
  • Staging based on amount of metastasis
  • Stage I no cancer spread
  • Stage II spread to nearby tissues
  • Stage III spread to the lymphatic system
  • Stage IV spread to distant organs

54
  • Diagnosis of cancer
  • Imaging techniques (MRI, CAT, X-ray, etc.)
  • Blood tests
  • Biopsy (surgical examination of abnormal tissue)

55
Treatment of cancer
  • Four main types typically 2 types of RX
  • Chemotherapy uses chemicals to kill rapidly
    dividing cells
  • Radiation therapy uses energy to target cancer
    cells
  • Surgery removes cancer cells from body
  • Biological or immunotherapy trains bodys
    natural defenses to fight cancer cells

56
Microorganisms
  • Four primary microorganisms
  • Bacteria
  • Viruses
  • Fungi
  • Protozoa

57
Bacteria
  • Bacteria can be harmful, as in case of pathogens,
    or can be harmless and essential for life
  • Harmless bacteria sometimes called normal flora
  • Certain bacteria in intestines help to digest
    food
  • Some help to synthesize vitamin K, needed for
    blood clotting

58
3 Types of Cocci Bacteria
59
Viruses
  • Infectious particles that have core containing
    genetic material surrounded by protective protein
    coat called a capsid
  • Cannot grow, eat, or reproduce by themselves
    must enter another cell and use that cell for
    energy to grow and reproduce
  • Do not respond to antibiotics can stay dormant
    in body and become active later in life

60
Virus
61
Fungi
  • Plural form of fungus can be one-celled or
    multi-celled organism plant-like organisms with
    tiny filaments, called mycelia, that travel out
    from cell to find and then absorb nutrients
  • Good fungi, like edible mushrooms, are harmless
    others can cause disease or death
  • Fungi spread through release of spores
  • Examples of fungal infections include athletes
    foot, thrush, or candidiasis

62
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63
Protozoa
  • One-celled, animal-like organisms that can be
    found in water and soil
  • Diseases caused by swallowing them or from being
    bitten by insects that carry them in their bodies
    Ex Malaria

64
Types of Protozoa
65
Pathology Connection How Microorganisms Cause
Disease
  • Bacteria
  • Destroy body tissues
  • Destroy blood cells
  • Inhibit ribosomes
  • Cause fluid loss
  • Cause high fever
  • Cause decreased blood pressure
  • Increase blood clotting
  • Cause fluid in the lungs
  • Cause paralysis

66
  • Signs and symptoms of bacterial infection
  • High fever
  • Rapid pulse
  • Rapid breathing
  • Abnormal, often foul-smelling discharge from
    infected area
  • Pain at infection site
  • Swelling at infection site

67
Antibiotics
  • Antibiotics used to treat bacterial infections
  • Chemicals kill prokaryotic bacteria without
    harming eukaryotic cells
  • Most antibiotics produced naturally by other
    microorganisms

68
Fungal (Non-bacterial infections)
  • Fungal infections
  • Spores are inhaled
  • Spores enter body through open wounds
  • Spores tiny bodies resistant to environmental
    changes (able to stay dormant until conditions
    are just right)
  • Most fungal spores do not cause disease in
    otherwise healthy individuals exception is
    fungal infections of skin (such as athletes foot
    and jock itch)

69
Fungal infections Cont
  • Many fungal infections opportunistic (only infect
    people with compromised immune systems or other
    underlying disease)
  • Symptoms of fungal infection vary depending on
    location of infection
  • Treatment is difficult
  • Most anti-fungal drugs are highly toxic
  • Many fungal infections are resistant to treatment

70
Protozoan Infections
  • Most protozoan infections caused by
  • Ingestion of contaminated water
  • Insect bites
  • Many protozoans are parasites

71
Protozoan Infections Cont
  • Symptoms vary depending on type of protozoan
  • Many are serious disease causing long term
    debilitating illness example malaria, which is
    transmitted by mosquitoes
  • Some are relatively mild illnesses example
  • beaver fever caused by Giardia, a
    protozoan that lives in streams and water
    supplies contaminated by fecal matter

72
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